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1.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 64(3): 484-489, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341258

RESUMO

Background and Aims: An early correct diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) is fundamental to reversal of symptoms and prevention of complications in pediatric patients. Our aim was to evaluate the role of duodenal bulb biopsy by studying the degree of mucosal damage in the duodenal bulb (D1) and second part of the duodenum (D2) and correlating the findings with serum IgA anti-tTG levels. Settings and Design: Pediatric patients (age <18 years) with clinical suspicion of CD and positive IgA anti-tTG titers were consecutively enrolled over a period of one year. Demographic variables, anthropometry, clinical history, laboratory values and endoscopic findings were studied. Endoscopic biopsies obtained from D1 and D2 were evaluated and assigned histopathologic grades that were correlated with serology. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were employed. Results: A total of 37 clinically suspected cases of pediatric CD were studied. The mean age was 6.7 years and the M:F ratio was 1:1.3. Thirty-two (32) children had varying degrees of growth impairment. Eight (8) children had only extra-intestinal symptoms. Thirty (30) children were anemic, hypoalbuminemia was seen in five (5) children while transaminitis was seen in two (2) children. IgA anti-tTG >300 U/ml was associated with Marsh-Oberhuber Grade 3 morphology at atleast one site. Conclusions: Low positive serology values should be confirmed by histopathology. Biopsies should be taken even in the absence of endoscopic abnormality. Additional D1 biopsies placed in a separate container can increase the diagnostic yield.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/complicações , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Duodeno/patologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Abdome/patologia , Adolescente , Biópsia , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino
3.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(8): 1373-1384, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The concept of mesopancreas has been brought into focus nowadays. Studies on membrane morphology of pancreas are clinically significant in determining an ideal surgical route for a "holy plane". In this paper, we aimed to observe the structure of the peripancreatic membranes and its interactions with adjacent tissues; tentatively put forward the proposition of mesohepatopancreaticoduodenum (MHPD) and explore in depth in surgical local resection. METHODS: 33 cadavers were examined in the experiment, including 30 for gross anatomy and 3 for histological observation after transection. The histological characteristics of the membrane covering the pancreas were proved by Masson and Bielschowsky silver staining and further explored in clinical application and testified in a surgical scenario. All above were carried out through traditional procedures. RESULTS: The anterior surface membrane of the pancreas was intact and the posterior portion expanding to the pancreaticoduodenum enclosed the surface of the duodenum and the pancreatic head, which could be easily isolated from the posterior abdominal wall. The posterior surface membrane around the body and tail wrapped the pancreatic parenchyma, which created a soft-tissue window for the posterior abdominal wall. Then, dense connective tissue adhesions were detected between the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric artery. CONCLUSIONS: The embryonic origin of the mesopancreas and the surgical procedures were reviewed and inspected based on the proposition of MHPD and above results. We hope that this study could stir up our interest in the advancement of imaging diagnoses and minimally invasive surgical treatment of pancreas.


Assuntos
Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Mesentério/anatomia & histologia , Pâncreas/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Artéria Celíaca/anatomia & histologia , Duodeno/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Artéria Mesentérica Superior/anatomia & histologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/métodos
4.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 216(4): 927-934, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The objective of this article is to discuss the anatomy, embryonic origin, normal variants, and various attachments of the ligament of Treitz. We also describe the pathologic processes that develop along the ligament of Treitz and the role of cross-sectional imaging in identifying these conditions. CONCLUSION. The ligament of Treitz, also known as the suspensory ligament of the duodenum, is an important anatomic landmark in the abdomen. It is essential that radiologists understand the anatomic attachments, normal variants, and various pathologic conditions involving the ligament of Treitz as well as the role of cross-sectional imaging in the assessment of these conditions.


Assuntos
Duodeno/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Duodeno/patologia , Humanos , Jejuno/anatomia & histologia , Jejuno/diagnóstico por imagem , Jejuno/patologia , Ligamentos/anatomia & histologia , Ligamentos/patologia , Espaço Retroperitoneal/anatomia & histologia , Espaço Retroperitoneal/diagnóstico por imagem , Espaço Retroperitoneal/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245615, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449938

RESUMO

This study aimed to provide the performance, localization and expression of the epithelial calcium transporter channels Calbindin-D28k (Calb) and TRPV6, and of the morphology of the digestive and reproductive system of laying quail under heat stress (HS), and with methionine supplementation (MS). This study characterized the positivity (immunohistochemistry) and expression (real-time PCR) of calcium channels in the kidneys, intestine and uterus of 504 laying quails under different MS (100, 110 and 120%) and temperatures (20, 24, 28 and 32°C). The animals under HS (32°C) had lower villus height, villus:crypt ratio, and goblet cell index in the duodenum and jejunum, fewer secondary and tertiary uterine folds, smaller hepatic steatosis, and increased number of distal convoluted renal tubules (CT) positive to Calb, and increased positivity in proximal CTs. Deleterious effects of HS were minimized with MS for: duodenal crypts, number of goblet cells of the jejunum, number of uterine folds, decreased Calb positivity in intestines and kidney, increased positivity of Calb in the uterus and increased TRPV6 gene expression in the kidney (P≤0.05). Epithelial calcium transporters were altered due to less need for calcium absorption and reabsorption due to more calcium available with the MS, increasing egg production in HS and quality in termoneutrality (P≤0.05). MS further increased intestinal villus absorption area and height, increased steatosis, decreased Calb positivity in the intestine and kidney, increased uterine positivity of Calb, and increase Calb and TRPV6 expression in the kidney (P≤0.001) under thermoneutrality. It was concluded that the use of MS (120%) is justifiable in order to partially reverse the deleterious effects of HS on the production, in the epithelial calcium carriers, and in the digestory and reproductive morphology of laying quail.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/biossíntese , Calbindinas/biossíntese , Duodeno , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado , Metionina/farmacologia , Codorniz , Canais de Cátion TRPV/biossíntese , Útero , Animais , Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Duodeno/metabolismo , Feminino , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Codorniz/anatomia & histologia , Codorniz/metabolismo , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Útero/metabolismo
6.
Emerg Top Life Sci ; 4(2): 191-206, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539112

RESUMO

The mesentery is the organ in which all abdominal digestive organs develop, and which maintains these in systemic continuity in adulthood. Interest in the mesentery was rekindled by advancements of Heald and Hohenberger in colorectal surgery. Conventional descriptions hold there are multiple mesenteries centrally connected to the posterior midline. Recent advances first demonstrated that, distal to the duodenojejunal flexure, the mesentery is a continuous collection of tissues. This observation explained how the small and large intestines are centrally connected, and the anatomy of the associated peritoneal landscape. In turn it prompted recategorisation of the mesentery as an organ. Subsequent work demonstrated the mesentery remains continuous throughout development, and that abdominal digestive organs (i.e. liver, spleen, intestine and pancreas) develop either on, or in it. This relationship is retained into adulthood when abdominal digestive organs are directly connected to the mesentery (i.e. they are 'mesenteric' in embryological origin and anatomical position). Recognition of mesenteric continuity identified the mesenteric model of abdominal anatomy according to which all abdominal abdomino-pelvic organs are organised into either a mesenteric or a non-mesenteric domain. This model explains the positional anatomy of all abdominal digestive organs, and associated vasculature. Moreover, it explains the peritoneal landscape and enables differentiation of peritoneum from the mesentery. Increased scientific focus on the mesentery has identified multiple vital or specialised functions. These vary across time and in anatomical location. The following review demonstrates how recent advances related to the mesentery are re-orientating the study of human biology in general and, by extension, clinical practice.


Assuntos
Mesentério/anatomia & histologia , Mesentério/metabolismo , Animais , Sistema Digestório , Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Humanos , Peritônio/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(3): 169-178, mayo 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-191466

RESUMO

The length of the small intestine of the Westerner is about 5-9 m long, whereas data on the intestinal length of Vietnamese patients is lacking in the liter-ature. This study aims to determine the size of in-testines in Vietnamese and the difference between fixed cadavers, autopsies and in operative patients. There were 130 subjects examined in this study: intestine from 40 formalin fixed cadavers, 30 autopsies and 60 living patients. The cohort includ-ed 91 males and 39 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 75 years-old and origin from various social levels. Subjects were excluded from this study if there was current or prior GI disease, GI surgery, or any other abdominal surgery. The length of the duodenum was 24.3 ± 1.2 cm in for-malin fixed cadavers and 25.60 ± 1.4 cm in autop-sies. The length of the small intestine was 382.5 ± 45.5 cm in preserved cadavers, 442.3 ± 62.5 cm in autopsies and 556.2 ± 74.4 cm in operative pa-tients. The length of the large intestine was meas-ured to be 132.5 ± 17.6 cm in preserved subjects, 149.3 ± 12.1 cm in autopsies and 156.3 ± 14.5 cm in operative patients. The greatest diameter was the jejunum in autopsies, or 4.1 ± 0.37 cm, and the smallest diameter was the ileum in autopsies, or 2.5 ± 0.30 cm. In Vietnamese, the length of the intestine in surgical patients was the longest; in theformalin-preserved group was the shortest, and in autopsies group was in the average range. The length of the Vietnamese small intestine was short-er than that of the European and American sub-jects. Surgeons need to be aware of variations in intestine length so that resection resulting in small bowel syndrome can be anticipated or avoided


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Jejuno/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Íleo/anatomia & histologia , Colo/anatomia & histologia , Vietnã , Divertículo Ileal
8.
Clin Anat ; 33(5): 630-636, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573097

RESUMO

The poor prognosis after surgery for pancreatic cancer or extrahepatic bile duct cancer has mainly been attributed to early lymph node metastasis, as well as a high frequency of perineural invasion along the peripancreatic neural plexuses or extrahepatic bile duct plexus. However, there has been no detailed morphological description of the anterior and posterior hepatic plexuses (AHP and PHP). In addition, the concepts of the pancreatic plexus and PHP are confused by surgeons. To assess the relations of the pancreatic plexus and hepatic plexuses from the morphological, developmental, and clinical perspectives, these plexuses were dissected in 24 cadavers. The PHP was found to be completely independent of the AHP. The PHP ran behind the portal vein, with most nerve fibers ascending along the bile duct to the gallbladder and the liver or descending to the distal common bile duct and duodenal papilla. Some branches of the PHP contributed to the pancreatic plexus, corresponding to pancreatic head plexus I as defined by the Japan Pancreas Society. The differences between the PHP and pancreatic head plexus I should be understood, even though liver function is not obviously affected after PHP excision for pancreatic head cancer. Further study is needed to determine whether there are functional differences between the AHP and PHP. Clin. Anat., 33:630-636, 2020. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Vesícula Biliar/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Pâncreas/anatomia & histologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(9)2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537592

RESUMO

We present the case of a 22-year-old man transferred to the regional major trauma centre following a fall of ~15 m. He remained consistently haemodynamically stable for over 10 hours of observation until he deteriorated suddenly with major haemorrhagic shock requiring immediate trauma laparotomy. At laparotomy, 2 L of blood was drained from the abdomen but no source of active bleeding identified. 30 minutes after closure of the abdomen, 500 mL of fresh blood was noted in the drain so he was returned to the theatre where the bleeding source was found to be-after manual compression of a mildly bruised hepatoduodenal ligament-the proper hepatic artery (PHA). This case describes an unusual finding at relaparotomy and shows that even when there is no active bleeding from abdominal organs or classified vessels, it is possible to have isolated injury to PHA.


Assuntos
Duodeno/lesões , Artéria Hepática/lesões , Fígado/lesões , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Contusões , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Laparotomia/métodos , Ligamentos/lesões , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Reoperação , Choque Hemorrágico/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutr Res ; 66: 48-60, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051321

RESUMO

Offspring nutrition depends on the mother during gestation and lactation; thus, maternal nutrition and metabolism can affect their development. We hypothesized that maternal exposure to high-fat (HF) diet affects neonate's gastrointestinal tract development. Our objective was to determine the effect of maternal HF diet during gestation and lactation on neonate's duodenum histomorphology and proteome. Female mice were fed either a control (C, 10% kcal fat) or an HF (60% kcal fat) diet for 4 weeks and bred. On postnatal day 2, half the pups were cross-fostered to dams fed on different diet, creating 4 treatments: C-C, C-HF, HF-C, and HF-HF, indicating maternal diet during gestation-lactation, respectively. On postnatal day 12, pups' duodenum was excised and prepared for histology and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of proteome. Villi were significantly longer in HF-HF pups, and crypt cell proliferation rate was not different among treatments. Between C-C and HF-HF, HF-C, or C-HF, 812, 601, or 894 proteins were differentially expressed (Tukey adjusted P < .05), respectively. Functional analysis clustered proteins upregulated in HF-HF vs C-C in fat digestion and absorption, extracellular matrix, cell adhesion, immune response, oxidation-reduction processes, phagocytosis, and transport categories. Proteins downregulated were classified as RNA splicing, translation, protein folding, endocytosis, and transport. There was evidence for a carryover effect of exposure to HF diet during gestation to the postnatal period. Alterations in proteome relative to HF exposure potentially reflect long-term changes in the functioning of the duodenum.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/anatomia & histologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Idade Gestacional , Lactação , Proteoma/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Duodeno/química , Feminino , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Troca Materno-Fetal , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
11.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4942-4953, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134274

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of rapeseed expeller cake (REC) derived from Brassica napus rapeseed with different concentrations of glucosinolate (Gls) and erucic acid (EA) on the egg-production performance, egg quality, apparent nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology in laying hens. At 33 wk of age, a total of 1,080 laying hens were randomly divided into 9 treatment groups in a completely randomized design involving a control treatment without REC (a corn-soybean diet) and a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 2 concentrations of REC (at 7 and 14%) from 4varieties of rapeseed varying in Gls and EA concentrations [DY6 REC: 22.67 µmol/g (Gls, relative to rapeseed meal), 0.7% (EA, relative to total fatty acids); MB1 REC: 43.23 µmol/g, 3.5%; DY5 REC: 74.66 µmol/g, 16.20%; XH3 REC: 132.83 µmol/g, 44.60%]. The trial lasted for 8 wk. Compared with the control group, REC addition decreased the ADFI, egg production, egg weight, and egg mass of laying hens during wk1 to wk4, wk5 to wk8, and wk1 to wk8 (P < 0.05), and REC did not affect FCR, mortality during wk1 to wk4, wk5 to wk8, and wk1 to wk8 (P > 0.05). The XH3 REC group had a trend to lower egg weight when compared with the DY6 REC group during wk1 to wk8 (P = 0.07).REC decreased AME and DM digestibility at wk8 (P < 0.01), and REC addition in diet did not affect apparent nitrogen digestibility (P = 0.6). REC decreased villi height (P < 0.01) and increased crypt depth (P < 0.01). The XH3 REC group had a lower crude fat digestibility than the DY6 REC group, and the crude fat digestibility of the DY5 and MB1 REC groups was lower than the XH3 REC group (P < 0.01). The DY6 REC group had a higher villi height than the DY5, MB1, and XH3 REC groups (P < 0.01). The XH3 REC group had a higher crypt depth than the DY6, DY5, and MB1 REC groups (P < 0.01). The DY6 REC group had a higher value of the ratio of villi height to crypt depth than the DY5 and MB1 REC groups, and the DY5 and MB1 REC groups had a higher value of the ratio of villi height to crypt depth than the XH3 REC group (P < 0.01).REC decreased albumen height and Haugh unit during wk1 to wk8 (P < 0.01 and P = 0.004), and increased yolk color during wk1 to wk8 (P < 0.01).The XH3, MB1, and DY5 REC groups had a lower albumen height than the DY6 REC group during wk1 to wk8 (P < 0.01), and the XH3 and DY5 REC groups had a lower Haugh unit than the DY6 REC group during wk1 to wk8 (P < 0.01). The DY6 REC group had the highest value of yolk color than other three varieties of REC (DY5, MB1, XH3) at wk6 and wk8 (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01). It can be concluded that the exposure of laying hens to REC with higher Gls and EA (DY5, MB1, XH3) led to a lower egg weight, nutrient digestibility, intestinal absorptive area, and egg internal quality than those with lower Gls and EA (DY6).


Assuntos
Brassica napus/química , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Duodeno/fisiologia , Feminino , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(2): 141-144, mar. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182425

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tract is more susceptible to the development of diverticula. Duodenum, next to colon is the common site for diverticula. This case reports the presence of a single extramural diverticulum at the junction of a horizontal and the ascending part of the duodenum in an adult female cadaver during a routine dissection procedure. Suspensory ligament of duodenum containing suspensory muscle of duodenum was found attached to the basal aspect of the diverticulum. Though most of the duodenal diverticula are asymptomatic, awareness of its presence play a major role in treating the complications


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Divertículo , Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Ligamentos/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Pâncreas/anatomia & histologia , Doenças Raras , Duodeno/patologia , Músculos/anatomia & histologia , Dissecação/educação , Dissecação/métodos , Abdome/anatomia & histologia
14.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 44(4): 1269-1294, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448917

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The hepatoduodenal ligament is frequently involved by conditions affecting the portal triad and surrounding structures, including a vast array of non-neoplastic conditions. Due its unique location between the retroperitoneum and the peritoneal space, the hepatoduodenal ligament is also targeted by inflammatory conditions involving the retroperitoneum and the liver. Finally, the presence of lymphatics and of the biliary tracts makes the hepatoduodenal ligament a route of spread for a variety of infections. The purpose of this pictorial essay is twofold: to review the cross-sectional radiological anatomy and variants of the structures within the hepatoduodenal ligament, and to illustrate the non-neoplastic conditions that may arise within the hepatoduodenal ligament. CONCLUSION: Familiarity with these specific entities and their cross-sectional imaging findings is fundamental for a more accurate diagnosis.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamentos/anatomia & histologia , Ligamentos/patologia , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/patologia , Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Duodeno/diagnóstico por imagem , Duodeno/patologia , Humanos , Ligamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Linfadenopatia/patologia
15.
Anim Sci J ; 89(11): 1572-1580, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151990

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of bamboo vinegar (BV) supplementation on performance, eggshell quality, ileal microflora, and villus morphology in aged laying hens. A total of 320 hens (70 weeks old) were divided into 4 dietary treatments with 10 replicates of 8 hens each. They were fed a basal diet supplemented with BV at 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, or 0.8% level until 86 weeks of age. The level of BV in the diet had no effect on egg performance, feed intake, or feed efficiency (p > 0.10). Damaged egg rate decreased in the hens fed the 0.4% and 0.8% BV diets during 79-86 weeks of age (p < 0.05). Eggshell thickness and eggshell strength were higher in the hens fed the 0.4% and 0.8% BV diets at weeks 82 and 86 compared to the controls. In the ileal content, population of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. decreased with 0.4% and 0.8% BV (p < 0.05). Villus height and areas of duodenum were higher in the hens fed the 0.4% and 0.8% BV diets (p < 0.05). The results indicate that a level of 0.4% BV in a layer's diet is sufficient for reducing pathogenic bacteria, stimulating intestinal functions and improving eggshell quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Casca de Ovo , Ovos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Íleo/microbiologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Sasa , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino
18.
Br Poult Sci ; 59(3): 340-348, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433333

RESUMO

1. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of feeding glycine (Gly)-fortified low protein (LP) diets on the growth performance, duodenal morphology and caecal microbial populations of broiler chickens raised under unheated, cyclic or constant heat stress environmental conditions. 2. From d 1 to 21 (starter phase), an equivalent number of birds were fed either a normal protein (NP) diet or a LP diet fortified with Gly. From d 22 to 42 (grower phase), an equivalent number of birds from each starter diet were distributed to one of the following dietary groups: (i) an NP diet during the starter and grower phases (NPNP), (ii) an NP diet during the starter phase and a LP diet during the grower phase (NPLP), (iii) an LP diet during the starter phase and an NP diet during the grower phase (LPNP) or (iv) LP diets during both phases (LPLP). 3. Commencing from d 22, an equivalent number of birds from each dietary group were exposed to (i) 23 ± 1°C throughout (unheated), (ii) 34 ± 1°C for 7 h each day from 10:00 to 17:00 (cyclic heat) or (iii) 34 ± 1°C throughout (constant heat). 4. Feeding the LP diet during the starter phase resulted in feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratios (FCR) and energy efficiency ratios (EER) similar to those for the NP diet. The birds fed the LP diet had a significantly higher protein efficiency ratio (PER) compared with the birds fed the NP diet. 5. During the grower phase, there were significant diet × temperature interactions for F, WG, FCR, PER, EER, villus height, crypt depth and caecal Clostridia. The birds fed the NPLP and LPLP diets had lower FI, WG and EER, higher FCR, shorter villus height and crypt depth and higher caecal Clostridia compared with the birds fed LPNP and NPNP diets under constant heat stress. However, feeding birds the NPLP and LPLP diets resulted in FI, WG, EER, FCR, morphology parameters and caecal Clostridia equivalent to the birds fed LPNP and NPNP diets, as well as improved PER, under unheated and cyclic heat stress conditions. 6. In conclusion, our results indicate that Gly-fortified LP diets can be fed to broilers under normal and acute heat stress environmental conditions without any adverse effects on performance. However, the use of such LP diets can be detrimental to broilers under chronic heat stress conditions.


Assuntos
Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glicina/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 77(2): 286-292, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29064554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anatomical knowledge of the duodenojejunal flexure is necessary for abdominal surgeries, and also important for physiologic studies about the duodenum. But little is known about the anatomy of this region in mammals. Here, we examined comparative anatomy to understand the anatomical formation of the duodenojejunal flexure in mammals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The areas around the duonenojejunal flexure were ob-served in mouse, rat, dog, pig, and human, and the anatomical structures around the duodenojejunal junction in the animals were compared with those in human. RESULTS: The superior and inferior duodenal folds, and the superior and inferior duodenal fossae were identified in all examined humans. In pig, the structures were not clearly identified because the duodenum strongly adhered to the retroperitoneum and to the mesocolon. In mouse, rat, and dog, only the plica duodenocolica, which is regarded as the animal counterpart of the superior duo-denal fold in human, was identified, and other folds or fossae were not observed, probably because the duodenum was not fixed to the parietal peritoneum in those animals. Transection of the plica duodenocolica could return the normally rotated intestine back to the state of non-rotation in rat. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the anatomical similarities and dissimilarities of the duodenojejunal flexure among the mammals. Anatomical knowledge of the area is useful for duodenal and pancreatic surgeries, and for animal studies about the duodenum. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 2: 286-292).


Assuntos
Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Jejuno/anatomia & histologia , Anatomia Comparada , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos
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