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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(10): 989-992, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the nature and origin of chromosomal copy number variants (CNVs) in a pedigree affected with mental retardation. METHODS: Genomic CNVs of the proband were analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS). Chromosomal karyotypes of the proband and his relatives were analyzed with high-resolution karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). RESULTS: Clinical phenotypes of the proband and other patients from the pedigree included mental retardation and mild dysmorphism. The results of NGS revealed that the proband carried a 16.24 Mb microduplication at 4p16.3-15.32 and a 2.2 Mb microdeletion at 8p23.3-23.2. Other patients of the pedigree harbored the same variants, while those without the phenotypes did not harbor the variants. The results of high-resolution karyotyping and FISH revealed that the mother of the proband carried a reciprocal translocation between 4p and 8p, and her karyotype was 46,XX,t(4;8)(p16;p23). No karyotypic abnormality was detected in his father. CONCLUSION: The abnormal phenotypes of this pedigree may be attributed to 4p microduplication in conjunct with 8p microdeletion derived from a maternal balanced translocation between 4p and 8p.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Duplicação Cromossômica , Testes Genéticos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Linhagem , Fenótipo
2.
Yi Chuan ; 41(8): 716-724, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447422

RESUMO

In order to investigate the genetic variations and the clinical manifestations of a range of congenital ectrodactyly family and to summarize the split hand/foot malformation (SHFM) types and their related pathogenic genes, we conducted phenotypic analyses of patient's limbs by physical and X-ray examination. The haplotypes were analyzed by using the extracted genes from peripheral blood on D10S1709, D10S192, D10S597, D10S1693 and D10S587 loci, and the mutation duplication loci were confirmed by Array-CGH detection. The pathogenic factors and inheritance pattern of SHFM were analyzed based on family investigation and gene analysis. Results demonstrate the proband's phenotype is typically of a congenital SHFM which is manifested by missing bilateral index and middle fingers, short bilateral thumbs, deformed left ring finger with webbing of the skin missing at the middle finger; bilateral big toe with the second and the third toe missing, fourth and fifth toe fusion leading to a deformed toe separated from the first toe by the middle of the foot. The haplotype analyses show that there is a repeat of at least 610 kb in chromosome 10q24.31-10q24.32 region. Array-CGH analysis shows 10q24.31 (102 832 650-103 511 083) ×3. Our results demonstrate that the pathogenic gene variation of ectrodactyly in this family is due to duplication of 10q24.31 (102 832 650~103 511 083). The haplotype 165-251-289-219-102 can be used as a disease marker for detecting 10q24.31~10q24.32 allele for SHFM.


Assuntos
Duplicação Cromossômica , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/genética , Humanos , Linhagem
3.
Anim Genet ; 50(5): 423-429, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294880

RESUMO

A specific white spotting phenotype, termed finching or line-backed spotting, is known for all Pinzgauer cattle and occurs occasionally in Tux-Zillertaler cattle, two Austrian breeds. The so-called Pinzgauer spotting is inherited as an autosomal incompletely dominant trait. A genome-wide association study using 27 white spotted and 16 solid-coloured Tux-Zillertaler cattle, based on 777k SNP data, revealed a strong signal on chromosome 6 at the KIT locus. Haplotype analyses defined a critical interval of 122 kb downstream of the KIT coding region. Whole-genome sequencing of a Pinzgauer cattle and comparison to 338 control genomes revealed a complex structural variant consisting of a 9.4-kb deletion and an inversely inserted duplication of 1.5 kb fused to a 310-kb duplicated segment from chromosome 4. A diagnostic PCR was developed for straightforward genotyping of carriers for this structural variant (KITPINZ ) and confirmed that the variant allele was present in all Pinzgauer and most of the white spotted Tux-Zillertaler cattle. In addition, we detected the variant in all Slovenian Cika, British Gloucester and Spanish Berrenda en negro cattle with similar spotting patterns. Interestingly, the KITPINZ variant occurs in some white spotted animals of the Swiss breeds Evolèner and Eringer. The introgression of the KITPINZ variant confirms admixture and the reported historical relationship of these short-headed breeds with Austrian Tux-Zillertaler and suggests a mutation event, occurring before breed formation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Cromossomos de Mamíferos , Pigmentação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Animais , Bovinos/classificação , Duplicação Cromossômica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(4): 199-204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315112

RESUMO

Here, we report a molecular characterization of a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from the most proximal region of 13q present in a fetus with coarctation of the aorta at ultrasound examination during prenatal diagnosis. Cultured umbilical cord blood cells showed a de novo extra ring-shaped sSMC in 76% of the cells using a standard banding technique. SNP array revealed a tetrasomy of about 28.4 Mb in the long arm of chromosome 13 from band 13q11 to 13q14.11 in the fetus's cells. Metaphase/interphase FISH using specific probes located at 13q11, 13q12.11, and 13q14.11, respectively, demonstrated that the supernumerary ring chromosome was derived from an inverted duplication of the region 13q11q14.11 with a conventional centromere. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an inverted duplication of the most proximal region 13q11q14.11 in a ring chromosome is characterized. The findings we presented here deepen our understanding of the clinical consequences of tetrasomy in this region and may be of help for further studies of critical regions in chromosome 13.


Assuntos
Coartação Aórtica/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13/genética , Doenças Fetais/genética , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Cromossomos em Anel , Tetrassomia/genética , Adulto , Centrômero/genética , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico , Feto/metabolismo , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez
5.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(7): 724-726, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the molecular mechanism of a girl with developmental delay and intellectual disability. METHODS: Chromosomal karotypes of the child and her parents were analyzed with routine G-banding method. Their genomic DNA was also analyzed with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) for chromosomal duplications/deletions. RESULTS: No karyotypic abnormality was detected in the child and her parents, while aCGH has identified a de novo 3.37 Mb deletion at 17p11.2 in the child. CONCLUSION: The child was diagnosed with Smith-Magenis syndrome, for which RAI1 may be the causative gene.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Humanos , Cariotipagem
6.
Croat Med J ; 60(3): 273-283, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187956

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the association between azoospermia factor c microrearrangements and semen quality, and between Y-chromosome background with distinct azoospermia factor c microrearrangements and semen quality impairment. METHODS: This retrospective study, carried out in the Research Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology "Georgi D. Efremov," involved 486 men from different ethnic backgrounds referred for couple infertility from 2002-2017: 338 were azoospermic/oligozoospermic and 148 were normozoospermic. The azoospermia factor c microrearrangements were analyzed with sequence tagged site and sequence family variant markers, quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction, and multiplex ligation probe amplification analysis. The Y-haplogroups of all participants were determined with direct single nucleotide polymorphism typing and indirect prediction with short tandem repeat markers. RESULTS: Our participants had two types of microdeletions: gr/gr and b2/b3; three microduplications: b2/b4, gr/gr, and b2/b3; and one complex rearrangement gr/gr deletion + b2/b4 duplication. Impaired semen quality was not associated with microrearrangements, but b2/b4 and gr/gr duplications were significantly associated with haplogroup R1a (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively) and b2/b3 deletions with haplogroup E (P=0.005). There were significantly more b2/b4 duplication carriers in Albanians than in Macedonians with haplogroup R1a (P=0.031). CONCLUSION: Even though azoospermia factor c partial deletions/duplications and Y-haplogroups were not associated with impaired semen quality, specific deletions/duplications were significantly associated with distinct haplogroups, implying that the Y chromosome background may confer susceptibility to azoospermia factor c microrearrangements.


Assuntos
Azoospermia/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y , Oligospermia/genética , Análise do Sêmen , Albânia/etnologia , Deleção Cromossômica , Duplicação Cromossômica , Rearranjo Gênico , Grécia/etnologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 108, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Split hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a group of congenital skeletal disorders which may occur either as an isolated abnormality or in syndromic forms with extra-limb manifestations. Chromosomal micro-duplication or micro-triplication involving 17p13.3 region has been described as the most common cause of split hand/foot malformation with long bone deficiency (SHFLD) in several different Caucasian and Asian populations. Gene dosage effect of the extra copies of BHLHA9 gene at this locus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of SHFLD. CASE PRESENTATION: The proband was a female child born to non-consanguineous parents. She was referred for genetic evaluation of bilateral asymmetric ectrodactyly involving both hands and right foot along with right tibial hemimelia. The right foot had fixed clubfoot deformity with only 2 toes. The mother had bilateral ectrodactyly involving both hands, but the rest of the upper limbs and both lower limbs were normal. Neither of them had any other congenital malformations or neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Genetic testing for rearrangement of BHLHA9 gene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed the duplication of the BHLHA9 gene in both the proband and the mother. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first Sri Lankan family with genetic diagnosis of BHLHA9 duplication causing SHFLD. This report along with the previously reported cases corroborate the possible etiopathogenic role of BHLHA9 gene dosage imbalances in SHFM and SHFLD across different populations.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Tíbia/anormalidades , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Ectromelia , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/diagnóstico por imagem , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/fisiopatologia , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/fisiopatologia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(15): e15146, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985688

RESUMO

To characterize the etiology underlying a novel case of global developmental delay syndrome (GDDS) identified in a female child, aged 3 years old. This syndrome is a common pediatric presentation estimated to affect 3.65% of children aged 3 to 17 years.The proband's detailed family history was used to infer a likely mode of inheritance for the GDDS. Genomic DNA samples collected from the proband and her parents were evaluated using conventional karyotyping, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), comparative genomic hybridization microarray (aCGH), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis techniques.An analysis of the proband's family history suggested that she inherited the GDDS from her father. The conducted conventional karyotyping and MLPA methods failed to identify a causative defect for the GDDS; however, the aCGH analysis revealed both a 6.6-Mb deletion at p14-p15.3 of chromosome 10 (arr[hg19]; 100,026-6,710,183), and a 6.3-Mb duplication at p11.31-p11.32 of chromosome 18 (arr[hg19]; 136,226-6,406,733) in the proband. The conducted FISH analysis subsequently determined that these mutations resulted from a balanced translocation t(10;18)(p15.3; p11.32) carried by the proband's father. Finally, a bioinformatic analysis of the proband's mutations revealed ZMYND11 as a promising candidate causative gene for this case of GDDS.The present study demonstrates that the aCGH method can be used to effectively identify the location and approximate size of microdeletions and/or microduplications, but not balanced reciprocal translocations. The nonconventional analysis methods used in the present study may be applicable to other GDDS cases with elusive etiology, and likewise, ZMYND11 should be considered as a potential causative gene during the investigation of future GDDS cases.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Duplicação Cromossômica , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos
9.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 157(3): 141-147, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947196

RESUMO

Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is currently considered as a first-tier test in the genetic assessment of patients presenting with intellectual disability and/or multiple congenital abnormalities. The distinction between pathogenic CNVs, polymorphisms, and variants of unknown significance can be a diagnostic dilemma for cytogeneticists. The size of the CNV has been proposed as a useful criterion. We herein report the characterization of a 13.6-Mb interstitial duplication 20p11.1p12.1, found in a child presenting with mild global developmental delay, by standard karyotype and CMA. Unexpectedly, the same CNV was detected in the patient's mother and pregnant sister, who were healthy. On the basis of these results, an implication of this CNV in the neurological problems observed in the proband was considered to be unlikely. This report underlines the complexity of genetic counseling concerning rare chromosomal abnormalities, when little information is available either in the literature or in international cytogenetic databases.


Assuntos
Duplicação Cromossômica , Coloração Cromossômica/métodos , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Criança , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Linhagem , Irmãos
10.
Gynecol Obstet Invest ; 84(4): 412-416, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965333

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: X-linked recessive mutations predominantly affect male fetuses with milder or no abnormalities in female siblings. Most reports show only one affected member in the family. We are reporting a family affected with hydrocephalus, stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, and Xp22.33 microduplication. CASE PRESENTATION: Eighteen-year-old patient was evaluated for her 2 pregnancies; the first was a male fetus with severe hydrocephalus and the second a female fetus with mild hydrocephalus. Postnatal MRI evaluation of the male neonate revealed stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, and severe hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Postnatal MRI evaluation of the female neonate revealed mild hydrocephalus, stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius, and mild dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. The female baby did not require surgical intervention. Genetic testing of the mother and the 2 children revealed a 439 Kb duplication of Xp22.33. DISCUSSION: This family demonstrates typical X-linked recessive heritability. X-inactivation is a compensatory mechanism that explains the mild symptoms of the female child and the severe symptoms of the male child. This familial case shows the importance of prenatal testing and genetic counseling and testing, including karyotype and chromosomal microarray.


Assuntos
Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Hidrocefalia/genética , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Adolescente , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/patologia , Aqueduto do Mesencéfalo/patologia , Constrição Patológica/genética , Feminino , Genes Recessivos/genética , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/patologia , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação , Gravidez
11.
J Genet ; 982019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945684

RESUMO

Microduplications of the X chromosome are a rare cause of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous spectrum of disorders. In the present study, a 950-kb Xp22.12 microduplication including the RPS6KA3 gene was detected in affected members of a family, including the proband (male), his mother and one maternal uncle. Four female carriers had major depression and one of them also had mild intellectual disability. The present and previous cases with overlapping microduplications suggest that Xp22.12 microduplications can be included in the neuropsychiatric copy number variations.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Duplicação Cromossômica , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
12.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 120, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genes involved in production of secondary metabolites (SMs) in fungi are exceptionally diverse. Even strains of the same species may exhibit differences in metabolite production, a finding that has important implications for drug discovery. Unlike in other eukaryotes, genes producing SMs are often clustered and co-expressed in fungal genomes, but the genetic mechanisms involved in the creation and maintenance of these secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (SMBGCs) remains poorly understood. RESULTS: In order to address the role of genome architecture and chromosome scale structural variation in generating diversity of SMBGCs, we generated chromosome scale assemblies of six geographically diverse isolates of the insect pathogenic fungus Tolypocladium inflatum, producer of the multi-billion dollar lifesaving immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin, and utilized a Hi-C chromosome conformation capture approach to address the role of genome architecture and structural variation in generating intraspecific diversity in SMBGCs. Our results demonstrate that the exchange of DNA between heterologous chromosomes plays an important role in generating novelty in SMBGCs in fungi. In particular, we demonstrate movement of a polyketide synthase (PKS) and several adjacent genes by translocation to a new chromosome and genomic context, potentially generating a novel PKS cluster. We also provide evidence for inter-chromosomal recombination between nonribosomal peptide synthetases located within subtelomeres and uncover a polymorphic cluster present in only two strains that is closely related to the cluster responsible for biosynthesis of the mycotoxin aflatoxin (AF), a highly carcinogenic compound that is a major public health concern worldwide. In contrast, the cyclosporin cluster, located internally on chromosomes, was conserved across strains, suggesting selective maintenance of this important virulence factor for infection of insects. CONCLUSIONS: This research places the evolution of SMBGCs within the context of whole genome evolution and suggests a role for recombination between chromosomes in generating novel SMBGCs in the medicinal fungus Tolypocladium inflatum.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Fúngicos/genética , Ciclosporina/metabolismo , Rearranjo Gênico , Variação Genética , Hypocreales/genética , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Fúngico/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Recombinação Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54(4): 712-718, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714252

RESUMO

Ionizing radiation (IR) is applied to inactivate nuclear genome in the salmonid eggs to induce androgenetic development. However, it has been considered that doses of IR used to damage maternal chromosomes may also affect morphology of the eggs and decrease their developmental potential. Thus, the main goal of the present research was to assess alterations in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs caused by the high dose of IR administered during androgenesis. In the present research, rainbow trout eggs were irradiated with 350 Gy of X-rays, inseminated and exposed to the high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) shock to develop as androgenetic doubled haploids (DHs). The distribution of lipid droplets in the irradiated and non-irradiated rainbow trout eggs, survival rates and morphology of larvae from androgenetic and control groups were compared. It has been observed that non-irradiated and irradiated eggs exhibited altered distribution of lipid droplets. Most of the eggs before IR treatment displayed rather equal distribution of the oil droplets. In turn, majority of eggs studied after irradiation had coalesced lipid droplets, a pattern found in eggs with reduced quality. Incidences of abnormally developed larvae were more frequently observed among fish that hatched from the irradiated eggs. Observed changes suggest X-rays applied for the genetic inactivation of rainbow trout eggs may lead to decrease of their developmental competence.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss/fisiologia , Óvulo/efeitos da radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Animais , Duplicação Cromossômica , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Haplótipos , Larva/efeitos da radiação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Lipídeos , Masculino , Oncorhynchus mykiss/anormalidades
14.
PLoS Genet ; 15(1): e1007879, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653500

RESUMO

Variably expressive copy-number variants (CNVs) are characterized by extensive phenotypic heterogeneity of neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Approaches to identify single causative genes for these phenotypes within each CNV have not been successful. Here, we posit using multiple lines of evidence, including pathogenicity metrics, functional assays of model organisms, and gene expression data, that multiple genes within each CNV region are likely responsible for the observed phenotypes. We propose that candidate genes within each region likely interact with each other through shared pathways to modulate the individual gene phenotypes, emphasizing the genetic complexity of CNV-associated neuropsychiatric features.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/fisiopatologia , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Sotos/genética , Síndrome de Sotos/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Williams/genética , Síndrome de Williams/fisiopatologia
15.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 58(1): 36-39, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We describe a rare case of "pure" 8q duplication diagnosed prenatally by conventional karyotyping, that was further characterized by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old, primigravida woman underwent amniocentesis at 23 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal second trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome. Conventional cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a karyotype of 46,XX,der(8) (q24.12q24.3) and aCGH identified a duplication of approximately 27 Mb, affecting the distal region of chromosome 8q24.12-q24.3. Parenteral karyotype of both parents was normal and excluded familial translocation or other rearrangements. Although prenatal ultrasound examination showed multiple anomalies the parents decided to keep the pregnancy. The baby was born at 38 weeks of gestation, with an Apgar score of 2. The evolution was unfavorable, and he died within the first 24 h of birth. CONCLUSION: Molecular investigations contribute to a more accurate characterization of the patients with these rare duplication, but also for estimating their prognosis.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica , Trissomia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Amniocentese , Cesárea , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
16.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(2): e00507, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 is susceptible to genomic rearrangements and the most frequently reported involve deletions and duplications between low copy repeats LCR22A to LCR22D. Atypical nested deletions and duplications are rarer and can provide a valuable opportunity to investigate the dosage effects of a smaller subset of genes within the 22q11.2 genomic disorder region. METHODS: We describe thirteen individuals from six families, each with atypical nested duplications within the central 22q11.2 region between LCR22B and LCR22D. We then compared the molecular and clinical data for patients from this study and the few reported atypical duplication cases, to the cases with larger typical duplications between LCR22A and LCR22D. Further, we analyzed genes with the nested region to identify candidates highly enriched in human brain tissues. RESULTS: We observed that atypical nested duplications are heterogeneous in size, often familial, and associated with incomplete penetrance and highly variable clinical expressivity. We found that the nested atypical duplications are a possible risk factor for neurodevelopmental phenotypes, particularly for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities. In addition, we analyzed genes within the nested region between LCR22B and LCR22D to identify nine genes (ZNF74, KLHL22, MED15, PI4KA, SERPIND1, CRKL, AIFM3, SLC7A4, and BCRP2) with enriched expression in the nervous system, each with unique spatiotemporal patterns in fetal and adult brain tissues. Interestingly, PI4KA is prominently expressed in the brain, and this gene is included either partially or completely in all of our subjects. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance for atypical nested 22q11.2 duplications and identify genes such as PI4KA to be directly relevant to brain development and disorder. We conclude that further work is needed to elucidate the basis of variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes and to exclude the presence of a second disorder. Our findings contribute to the genotype-phenotype data for atypical nested 22q11.2 duplications, with implications for genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Penetrância , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas , Síndrome
17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 8, 2019 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664628

RESUMO

Deletion and duplication of 16p11.2 (BP4-BP5) have been associated with an increased risk of intellectual disability and psychiatric disorder. This is the first study to compare the frequency of a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders in children with 16p11.2 deletion and duplication. We aimed to evaluate (1) the nature and prevalence of psychopathology associated with copy number variation (CNV) in children with 16p11.2 by comparing deletion and duplication carriers with family controls; (2) whether deletion and duplication carriers differ in frequency of psychopathology. 217 deletion carriers, 77 deletion family controls, 114 duplication carriers, and 32 duplication family controls participated in the study. Measures included standardized research diagnostic instruments. Deletion carriers had a higher frequency of any psychiatric disorder (OR = 8.9, p < 0.001), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (OR = 4.0, p = 0.01), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (OR = 39.9, p = 0.01) than controls. Duplication carriers had a higher frequency of any psychiatric diagnosis (OR = 5.3, p = 0.01) and ADHD (OR = 7.0, p = 0.02) than controls. The prevalence of ASD in child carriers of deletions and duplications was similar (22% versus 26%). Comparison of the two CNV groups indicated a higher frequency of ADHD in children with the duplication than deletion (OR = 2.7, p = 0.04) as well as a higher frequency of overall psychiatric disorders (OR = 2.8, p = 0.02) and psychotic symptoms (OR = 4.7, p = 0.02). However, no differences between deletion and duplications carriers in the prevalence of ASD were found. Both deletion and duplication are associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorder, supporting the importance of early recognition, diagnosis, and intervention in these groups.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino
20.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 36(4): 769-775, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Male carriers of an X-autosome translocation are generally infertile, regardless of the position of the breakpoint on the X chromosome while the pathogenicity of Xp22.3 subtelomeric duplications is under debate. To shed light into this controversy, we present a rare case, of an azoospermic male with no other significant clinical findings, in whom classical cytogenetics revealed additional unbalanced chromosomal material, at the telomere of the long arm of one homolog of chromosome 9. METHODS: In peripheral blood specimens of the index case and his parents, we performed GBanding, Inverted-DAPI Banding, AgNOR staining, Telomere specific Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH), Molecular karyotyping by Multi-color FISH, whole genome SNP microarrays, sub-telomeric MLPA, and transcription analysis of the expression of KAL1 gene by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Multi-color FISH revealed an unbalanced translocation involving the short arm of chromosome X. SNP microarray analysis combined to classical cytogenetics and MLPA demonstrated a de novo 8.796 Mb duplication of Xp22.31-p22.33. Compared to three control specimens, the patient presented significantly elevated expression levels of KAL1 mRNA in peripheral blood, suggesting transcriptional functionality of the duplicated segment. CONCLUSIONS: The duplicated segment contains the pseudo-autosomal region PAR1 and more than 30 genes including SHOX, ARSE, STS, KAL1, and FAM9A and is not listed as polymorphic. Our data advocate that duplications of the Xp22.3 region may not be associated with a clinical consequence.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Translocação Genética/genética , Adulto , Criança , Bandeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez , Telômero/genética
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