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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 492, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980615

RESUMO

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is an annual crop cultivated for its protein-rich seeds. It is adapted to poor soils due to the production of cluster roots, which are made of dozens of determinate lateral roots that drastically improve soil exploration and nutrient acquisition (mostly phosphate). Using long-read sequencing technologies, we provide a high-quality genome sequence of a cultivated accession of white lupin (2n = 50, 451 Mb), as well as de novo assemblies of a landrace and a wild relative. We describe a modern accession displaying increased soil exploration capacity through early establishment of lateral and cluster roots. We also show how seed quality may have been impacted by domestication in term of protein profiles and alkaloid content. The availability of a high-quality genome assembly together with companion genomic and transcriptomic resources will enable the development of modern breeding strategies to increase and stabilize white lupin yield.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Lupinus/genética , Sementes/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Centrômero/genética , Ecótipo , Evolução Molecular , Dosagem de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Variação Genética , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Lupinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Genéticos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Sintenia/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
2.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125798, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927376

RESUMO

Availability of cadmium (Cd) and nitrate and their transfer to green leafy vegetables is highly dependent on physical, chemical and biochemical conditions of the soil. The phenotypic characteristics, accumulation of hazardous materials and rhizosphere properties of two ecotypes of water spinach in response to water stress were investigated. Flooding significantly enhanced plant growth and decreased Cd and nitrate concentrations in the shoot and root of both ecotypes of water spinach. Flooding extensively changed the physicochemical properties and biological processes in the rhizosphere, including increased pH and activities of urease and acid phosphatase, and decreased availability of Cd and nitrate and activity of nitrate reductase. Furthermore, flooding increased rhizosphere bacteria community diversity (including richness and evenness) and changed their community structure. Denitrifying bacteria (Clostridiales, Azoarcus and Pseudomonas), toxic metal resistant microorganisms (Rhodosporillaceae, Rhizobiales and Geobacter) were enriched in the rhizosphere under flooding conditions, and the plant growth-promoting taxa (Sphingomonadaceae) were preferentially colonized in the high accumulator (HA) rhizosphere region. These results indicated that flooding treatments result in biochemical and microbiological changes in soil, especially in the rhizosphere and reduced the availability of Cd and nitrate to plants, thus decreasing their uptake by water spinach. It is, therefore, possible to promote crop growth and reduce the accumulation of hazardous materials in vegetable crops like water spinach by controlling soil moisture conditions.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Ipomoea/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Bactérias , Transporte Biológico , Cádmio/análise , Ecótipo , Poluição Ambiental , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras , Água
3.
Food Chem ; 312: 126086, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887623

RESUMO

Garlic-based extracts have been surveyed as healthy promoting supplements in relation to their content of organosulfur compounds. The present study investigated the effect of high pressure extraction and maceration, and four extraction solvents (three hydroalcoholic mixtures and sunflower oil) on the total and relative amounts of the main organosulfur compounds of clove and stem extracts of the Italian ecotype "Aglio Rosso di Sulmona" (Sulmona Red Garlic). Organosulfur compounds were more abundant in cloves than in stem extracts. High pressure extraction led to higher recoveries of hydrophilic compounds than maceration whereas the highest amounts of lipophilic compounds were detected in macerates. A higher alliin-to-allicin conversion ratio was detected in clove, in comparison to stem extracts. Sunflower oil fostered allicin decay to compounds such as ajoenes, vinyldithiins and sulfides. The use of specific extraction methods may lead to standardised grade extracts, both from native raw materials and by-products.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Caules de Planta/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Ecótipo , Alho/genética , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Pressão , Syzygium
4.
ISME J ; 14(1): 178-188, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611653

RESUMO

SAR86 is an abundant and ubiquitous heterotroph in the surface ocean that plays a central role in the function of marine ecosystems. We hypothesized that despite its ubiquity, different SAR86 subgroups may be endemic to specific ocean regions and functionally specialized for unique marine environments. However, the global biogeographical distributions of SAR86 genes, and the manner in which these distributions correlate with marine environments, have not been investigated. We quantified SAR86 gene content across globally distributed metagenomic samples and modeled these gene distributions as a function of 51 environmental variables. We identified five distinct clusters of genes within the SAR86 pangenome, each with a unique geographic distribution associated with specific environmental characteristics. Gene clusters are characterized by the strong taxonomic enrichment of distinct SAR86 genomes and partial assemblies, as well as differential enrichment of certain functional groups, suggesting differing functional and ecological roles of SAR86 ecotypes. We then leveraged our models and high-resolution, remote sensing-derived environmental data to predict the distributions of SAR86 gene clusters across the world's oceans, creating global maps of SAR86 ecotype distributions. Our results reveal that SAR86 exhibits previously unknown, complex biogeography, and provide a framework for exploring geographic distributions of genetic diversity from other microbial clades.


Assuntos
Gammaproteobacteria/classificação , Ecótipo , Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Metagenoma , Oceanos e Mares , Filogeografia
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(7): 7120-7129, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883078

RESUMO

In this study, farmland and mining ecotypes of Solanum photeinocarpum (a potential cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator plant) were reciprocally hybridized each other, and the Cd accumulation characteristics of the F1 hybrids were studied. In pot experiments, higher biomasses and Cd extraction abilities were found for two S. photeinocarpum F1 hybrids than for the parents, but the Cd contents in various organs were lower in the hybrids than the parents. However, the differences between the Cd contents in the two hybrids were not significant. The antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) activities were higher for the S. photeinocarpum F1 hybrids than the parents. Less DNA methylation was found in the hybrids than the parents because more demethylation occurred in the hybrids than the parents. The biomass, Cd content, and Cd extraction ability effects in field experiments were similar to the effects in the pot experiments. It was concluded that reciprocally hybridizing different S. photeinocarpum ecotypes improved the ability of S. photeinocarpum to be used to phytoremediate contaminated land.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Poluentes do Solo , Solanum , Biomassa , Ecótipo , Solanum/química
6.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(3): 253-269, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845304

RESUMO

Cistanche deserticola is a plant used both as food and medicine. We are interested in understanding how C. deserticola responds to environmental conditions. Samples were collected from three ecotypes grown in saline-alkali land, grassland and sandy land. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis were performed by using RNA-seq and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Among 578 metabolites identified, 218, 209 and 215 compounds were found differentially produced among the three ecotypes. Particularly, 2'-acetylacteoside, belonging to phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) is the most significantly differentially produced with a VIP > 0.5 and fold change > 2, representing a potential chemical marker to distinguish the three ecotypes. RNA-Seq analysis revealed 52,043 unigenes, and 947, 632 and 97 of them were found differentially expressed among the three ecotypes. Analysis of the correlation between the metabolome profiles and transcriptome profiles among three ecotypes identified that the 12 key genes related to PhGs biosynthesis were differentially expressed. Particularly, the expression of PAL, ALDH and GOT genes were significantly up-regulated in saline-alkali land compared to the other two. In summary, we found PhGs content was higher in saline-alkali land compared with other ecotypes. This is likely due to the up-regulation of the PhGs biosynthetic genes in response to the saline-alkali conditions.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Cistanche/genética , Cistanche/metabolismo , Ecótipo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metaboloma , Cromatografia Líquida , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/biossíntese , Glicosídeos/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Álcool Feniletílico/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transcriptoma
7.
Planta Med ; 86(3): 212-219, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853912

RESUMO

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is an ancient fruit that is widely consumed as fresh fruit and juice. The aim of the present study was to compare the metabolic profile of pomegranate ecotypes from different geographical origins of Iran, the largest producer of pomegranates in the world. 1H-NMR and 2D NMR spectroscopy were applied to investigate the ecotypic variation. Multivariate data analyses were used to identify overall metabolic differences. Mazandaran pomegranate samples were found to be different from the other ecotypes, having a high content of citric and succinic acids. Bajestan, Ferdows, and Yazd pomegranates contained comparatively higher amounts of anthocyanins and ellagic acid derivatives than other pomegranate ecotypes. The distribution of metabolites among different ecotypes of pomegranate is discussed on the basis of these findings.


Assuntos
Frutas , Romã (Fruta) , Ecótipo , Irã (Geográfico) , Metabolômica , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
8.
Food Chem ; 309: 125649, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718835

RESUMO

Celery is a widely used vegetable known for its peculiar sensorial and nutritional properties. Here, the white celery (Apium graveolens L.) "sedano bianco di Sperlonga" PGI ecotype was investigated to obtain the metabolic profile of its edible parts (blade leaves and petioles) also related to quality, freshness and biological properties. A multi-methodological approach, including NMR, MS, HPLC-PDA, GC-MS and spectrophotometric analyses, was proposed to analyse celery extracts. Sugars, polyalcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phenols, sterols, fatty acids, phthalides, chlorophylls, tannins and flavonoids were detected in different concentrations in blade leaf and petiole extracts, indicating celery parts as nutraceutical sources. The presence of some phenols in celery extracts was here reported for the first time. Low contents of biogenic amines and mycotoxins confirmed celery quality and freshness. Regarding the biological properties, ethanolic celery extracts inhibited the oxidative-mediated DNA damage induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide and scavenged DPPH and ABTS radicals.


Assuntos
Apium/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Apium/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ecótipo , Flavonoides/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
9.
ISME J ; 14(1): 79-90, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501503

RESUMO

The Arctic Ocean is relatively isolated from other oceans and consists of strongly stratified water masses with distinct histories, nutrient, temperature, and salinity characteristics, therefore providing an optimal environment to investigate local adaptation. The globally distributed SAR11 bacterial group consists of multiple ecotypes that are associated with particular marine environments, yet relatively little is known about Arctic SAR11 diversity. Here, we examined SAR11 diversity using ITS analysis and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Arctic SAR11 assemblages were comprised of the S1a, S1b, S2, and S3 clades, and structured by water mass and depth. The fresher surface layer was dominated by an ecotype (S3-derived P3.2) previously associated with Arctic and brackish water. In contrast, deeper waters of Pacific origin were dominated by the P2.3 ecotype of the S2 clade, within which we identified a novel subdivision (P2.3s1) that was rare outside the Arctic Ocean. Arctic S2-derived SAR11 MAGs were restricted to high latitudes and included MAGs related to the recently defined S2b subclade, a finding consistent with bi-polar ecotypes and Arctic endemism. These results place the stratified Arctic Ocean into the SAR11 global biogeography and have identified SAR11 lineages for future investigation of adaptive evolution in the Arctic Ocean.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Regiões Árticas , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ecótipo , Metagenoma , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Temperatura
10.
Planta ; 251(1): 34, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848729

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Arundo donax ecotypes react differently to salinity, partly due to differences in constitutive defences and methylome plasticity. Arundo donax L. is a C3 fast-growing grass that yields high biomass under stress. To elucidate its ability to produce biomass under high salinity, we investigated short/long-term NaCl responses of three ecotypes through transcriptional, metabolic and DNA methylation profiling of leaves and roots. Prolonged salt treatment discriminated the sensitive ecotype 'Cercola' from the tolerant 'Domitiana' and 'Canneto' in terms of biomass. Transcriptional and metabolic responses to NaCl differed between the ecotypes. In roots, constitutive expression of ion transporter and stress-related transcription factors' genes was higher in 'Canneto' and 'Domitiana' than 'Cercola' and 21-day NaCl drove strong up-regulation in all ecotypes. In leaves, unstressed 'Domitiana' confirmed higher expression of the above genes, whose transcription was repressed in 'Domitiana' but induced in 'Cercola' following NaCl treatment. In all ecotypes, salinity increased proline, ABA and leaf antioxidants, paralleled by up-regulation of antioxidant genes in 'Canneto' and 'Cercola' but not in 'Domitiana', which tolerated a higher level of oxidative damage. Changes in DNA methylation patterns highlighted a marked capacity of the tolerant 'Domitiana' ecotype to adjust DNA methylation to salt stress. The reduced salt sensitivity of 'Domitiana' and, to a lesser extent, 'Canneto' appears to rely on a complex set of constitutively activated defences, possibly due to the environmental conditions of the site of origin, and on higher plasticity of the methylome. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of adaptability of A. donax ecotypes to salinity, offering new perspectives for the improvement of this species for cultivation in limiting environments.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Ecótipo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes , Biomassa , Genes de Plantas/genética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Pressão Osmótica , Estresse Oxidativo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Transcriptoma
11.
Ecol Lett ; 22(12): 2077-2086, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612601

RESUMO

A pervasive challenge in microbial ecology is understanding the genetic level where ecological units can be differentiated. Ecological differentiation often occurs at fine genomic levels, yet it is unclear how to utilise ecological information to define ecotypes given the breadth of environmental variation among microbial taxa. Here, we present an analytical framework that infers clusters along genome-based microbial phylogenies according to shared environmental responses. The advantage of our approach is the ability to identify genomic clusters that best fit complex environmental information whilst characterising cluster niches through model predictions. We apply our method to determine climate-associated ecotypes in populations of nitrogen-fixing symbionts using whole genomes, explicitly sampled to detect climate differentiation across a heterogeneous landscape. Although soil and plant host characteristics strongly influence distribution patterns of inferred ecotypes, our flexible statistical method enabled us to identify climate-associated genomic clusters using environmental data, providing solid support for ecological specialisation in soil symbionts.


Assuntos
Clima , Genoma Bacteriano , Ecótipo , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo
12.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 49(5): 656-660, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611210

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop a strategy for distinguishing Yersinia pestis of the Xilingele Plateau ecotype from other biovar of Yersinia pestis using insertion sequences. METHODS: Genome computational analysis was used to discover the positions of insertion sequences unique to Yersinia pestis 91001. PCR was used to confirm that these positions were exclusively present in the Xilingele Plateau ecotype of Yersinia pestis, while it was absent in other Yersinia species. RESULTS: It was validated that the amplicons of IS100-45-1 IS100-51-1, IS285-40 and IS285-41 were exclusive to Yersinia pestis of the Xilingele Plateau ecotype. CONCLUSIONS: Insertion sequences could be reliable candidate biomarkers for Yersinia pestis strains of Xilingele Plateau ecotype. We can differentiate Yersinia pestis strains of Xilingele Plateau ecotype from other Yersinia pestis using simple PCR methods.


Assuntos
Ecótipo , Mutagênese Insercional/genética , Yersinia pestis/genética , Yersinia pestis/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Bases , China , Primers do DNA/metabolismo
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 32957-32966, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512134

RESUMO

Better understanding of microbial activity in the rhizosphere soils associated with lead (Pb) uptake by plants may help with the phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated soils. In this work, the effects of Pb exposure (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 mg kg-1) on Pb accumulation and soil microbial activity in the rhizosphere of the mining ecotype (ME) and corresponding non-mining ecotype (NME) of Athyrium wardii (Hook.) Makino were investigated through a pot experiment. Although the plant growth of the two ecotypes was inhibited under Pb stress, the ME showed a less biomass decrease (12.6-44.0%) for aboveground than the NME, showing a greater tolerance to Pb stress. Pb concentrations as well as Pb accumulation in the two ecotypes showed an increasing trend with increasing soil Pb concentrations. The ME presented greater Pb accumulation ability than the NME, especially in underground parts. Pb availability in the rhizosphere soils of the two ecotypes after harvest decreased compared with those before transplantation. Available Pb in the rhizosphere of the ME was 1.4-4.8 times higher than that of the NME under exposure to 200-800 mg kg-1 Pb. The ME shows a greater ability to mobilize Pb in the rhizosphere soils. Pb exposure resulted in an inhibition of microbial activity in the rhizosphere of the two ecotypes. The ME demonstrated greater soil respiration and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in the rhizosphere than the NME when treated with 200-800 mg kg-1 Pb. The ME showed a less decrease for MBC and a less increase for metabolic quotient in the rhizosphere soils than the NME when exposed to Pb generally. Microorganisms in the rhizosphere soils of the ME seem to be much more adapted to Pb stress, thus showing a great benefit for Pb accumulation and the phytostabilization of Pb-contaminated soils by the ME.


Assuntos
Chumbo/farmacocinética , Mineração , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Traqueófitas/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomassa , China , Ecótipo , Chumbo/análise , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Traqueófitas/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Phytopathology ; 109(12): 2009-2021, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369364

RESUMO

Poplar are important forestry species in China, but the Botryosphaeria dothidea pathogen causes serious economic losses worldwide. To identify candidate B. dothidea resistance proteins and explore the molecular mechanisms involved in poplar-pathogen interactions, proteomic responses of stem samples from resistant and susceptible poplar ecotypes to B. dothidea were investigated using nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with label-free quantitative analysis. We identified 588 proteins, divided into 21 biological process categories including 48 oxidoreductases, 72 hydrolytic enzymes, 80 metabolic enzymes, and 29 proteins of unknown function. Differential proteome analysis revealed large differences between resistant Populus tomentosa Carr and susceptible Populus beijingensis Hsu ecotypes before and after inoculation. Among 102 identified proteins, 22 were highly upregulated in the resistant genotype but downregulated in the susceptible genotype. Proteins induced in P. tomentosa Carr in response to B. dothidea are associated with plant defenses including oxidoreductase activity (catalase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism (alcohol dehydrogenase), photosynthesis (ATP synthase subunit alpha, ATP synthase gamma chain, photosystem I P700 chlorophyll a apoprotein A2, photosystem II CP47 chlorophyll apoprotein), carbon fixation (pyruvate kinase, triosephosphate isomerase, malic enzyme, phosphoglycerate kinase, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain), and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (fructose-bisphosphate aldolase). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis identified 168 proteins related to metabolic pathways, 41 proteins related to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, and 36 proteins related to the biosynthesis of plant hormones, the biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from ornithine, lysine, and nicotinic acid, and photosynthesis in response to B. dothidea. Our findings provide insight into plant-pathogen interactions in resistant and susceptible poplar ecotypes infected with B. dothidea and could assist the development of novel strategies for fighting poplar canker disease.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Populus , Proteômica , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , China , Ecótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Populus/classificação , Populus/microbiologia
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(7)2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319636

RESUMO

Newcastle Disease (ND) is a continuing global threat to domestic poultry, especially in developing countries, where severe outbreaks of velogenic ND virus (NDV) often cause major economic losses to households. Local chickens are of great importance to rural family livelihoods through provision of high-quality protein. To investigate the genetic basis of host response to NDV, three popular Tanzanian chicken ecotypes (regional populations) were challenged with a lentogenic (vaccine) strain of NDV at 28 days of age. Various host response phenotypes, including anti-NDV antibody levels (pre-infection and 10 days post-infection, dpi), and viral load (2 and 6 dpi) were measured, in addition to growth rate. We estimated genetic parameters and conducted genome-wide association study analyses by genotyping 1399 chickens using the Affymetrix 600K chicken SNP chip. Estimates of heritability of the evaluated traits were moderate (0.18-0.35). Five quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with growth and/or response to NDV were identified by single-SNP analyses, with some regions explaining ≥1% of genetic variance based on the Bayes-B method. Immune related genes, such as ETS1, TIRAP, and KIRREL3, were located in regions associated with viral load at 6 dpi. The moderate estimates of heritability and identified QTL indicate that NDV response traits may be improved through selective breeding of chickens to enhance increased NDV resistance and vaccine efficacy in Tanzanian local ecotypes.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/virologia , Ecótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genoma , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas
16.
Planta ; 250(4): 1355-1369, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278465

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Rhizosheath comprises soil that adheres firmly to roots. In this study, two ecotypes of switchgrass with different rhizosheath sizes after drought stress were analyzed which showed metabolic differences under drought conditions. The rhizosheath comprises soil that adheres firmly to roots by a combination of root hairs and mucilage and may aid in root growth under soil drying. The aim of this work is to reveal the potential metabolites involved in rhizosheath formation under drought stress conditions. Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass), which belongs to the Poaceae family, is an important biofuel and fodder crop in drought areas. Five switchgrass ecotypes (cv. Alamo, cv. Blackwake, cv. Summer, cv. Cave-in-Rock and cv. Kanlow) have a broad range of rhizosheath weight under drought conditions. For two selected ecotypes with contrast rhizosheath weight (cv. Alamo and cv. Kanlow), root hair length and density, lateral root number, root morphological parameters were measured, and real-time qRT-PCR was performed. Gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the primary metabolites in the shoots and roots of selected ecotypes under drought stress conditions. The change trends of root hair length and density, lateral root number and related gene expression were consistent with rhizosheath weight in Alamo and Kanlow under drought and watered conditions. For root morphological parameters, Alamo grew deeper than Kanlow, while Kanlow exhibited higher values for other parameters. In this study, the levels of amino acids, sugars and organic acids were significantly changed in response to drought stress in two switchgrass ecotypes. Several metabolites including amino acids (arginine, isoleucine, methionine and cysteine) and sugars (kestose, raffinose, fructose, fucose, sorbose and xylose) in the large soil-sheathed roots of Alamo and Kanlow were significantly increased compared to small or no soil-sheathed roots of Alamo and Kanlow. Difference in rhizosheath size is reflected in the plant internal metabolites under drought stress conditions. Additionally, our results highlight the importance of using metabolite profiling and provide a better understanding of rhizosheath formation at the cellular level.


Assuntos
Panicum/fisiologia , Biocombustíveis , Secas , Ecótipo , Metabolômica , Panicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Panicum/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Solo/química , Água/fisiologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(6): e0007382, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170148

RESUMO

Leishmania braziliensis, the main etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Latin America, is characterized by major differences in basic biology in comparison with better-known Leishmania species. It is also associated with a high phenotypic and possibly genetic diversity that need to be more adequately defined. Here we used whole genome sequences to evaluate the genetic diversity of ten L. braziliensis isolates from a CL endemic area from Northeastern Brazil, previously classified by Multi Locus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) into ten distinct zymodemes. These sequences were first mapped using the L. braziliensis M2904 reference genome followed by identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). A substantial level of diversity was observed when compared with the reference genome, with SNP counts ranging from ~95,000 to ~131,000 for the different isolates. When the genome data was used to infer relationship between isolates, those belonging to zymodemes Z72/Z75, recovered from forested environments, were found to cluster separately from the others, generally associated with more urban environments. Among the remaining isolates, those from zymodemes Z74/Z106 were also found to form a separate group. Phylogenetic analyses were also performed using Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis from genes coding for four metabolic enzymes used for MLEE as well as the gene sequence coding for the Hsp70 heat shock protein. All 10 isolates were firmly identified as L. braziliensis, including the zymodeme Z26 isolate previously classified as Leishmania shawi, with the clustering into three groups confirmed. Aneuploidy was also investigated but found in general restricted to chromosome 31, with a single isolate, from zymodeme Z27, characterized by extra copies for other chromosomes. Noteworthy, both Z72 and Z75 isolates are characterized by a much reduced heterozygosity. Our data is consistent with the existence of distinct evolutionary groups in the restricted area sampled and a substantial genetic diversity within L. braziliensis.


Assuntos
Ecótipo , Variação Genética , Leishmania braziliensis/classificação , Leishmania braziliensis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Brasil , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/isolamento & purificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Anim Cogn ; 22(5): 863-882, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230140

RESUMO

Killer whales (KW) may be predators or competitors of other cetaceans. Since their foraging behavior and acoustics differ among populations ('ecotypes'), we hypothesized that other cetaceans can eavesdrop on KW sounds and adjust their behavior according to the KW ecotype. We performed playback experiments on long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) in Norway using familiar fish-eating KW sounds (fKW) simulating a sympatric population that might compete for foraging areas, unfamiliar mammal-eating KW sounds (mKW) simulating a potential predator threat, and two control sounds. We assessed behavioral responses using animal-borne multi-sensor tags and surface visual observations. Pilot whales barely changed behavior to a broadband noise (CTRL-), whereas they were attracted and exhibited spyhops to fKW, mKW, and to a repeated-tonal upsweep signal (CTRL+). Whales never stopped nor started feeding in response to fKW, whereas they reduced or stopped foraging to mKW and CTRL+. Moreover, pilot whales joined other subgroups in response to fKW and CTRL+, whereas they tightened individual spacing within group and reduced time at surface in response to mKW. Typical active intimidation behavior displayed to fKW might be an antipredator strategy to a known low-risk ecotype or alternatively a way of securing the habitat exploited by a heterospecific sympatric population. Cessation of feeding and more cohesive approach to mKW playbacks might reflect an antipredator behavior towards an unknown KW ecotype of potentially higher risk. We conclude that pilot whales are able to acoustically discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar KW ecotypes, enabling them to adjust their behavior according to the perceived disturbance type.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Ecótipo , Baleia Comum , Vocalização Animal , Orca , Baleias Piloto , Acústica , Animais , Baleia Comum/psicologia , Peixes , Som , Espectrografia do Som , Orca/psicologia
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 328, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is currently regarded as a single species. However, molecular studies indicate that it can be subdivided into ecotypes, each with distinct but overlapping transmission cycle. Here, we evaluate the interactions between and within clusters of haplotypes of the bacterium isolated from vertebrates and ticks, using phylogenetic and network-based methods. METHODS: The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA was determined in ticks and vertebrate tissue samples. A fragment of the groEl gene was amplified and sequenced from qPCR-positive lysates. Additional groEl sequences from ticks and vertebrate reservoirs were obtained from GenBank and through literature searches, resulting in a dataset consisting of 1623 A. phagocytophilum field isolates. Phylogenetic analyses were used to infer clusters of haplotypes and to assess phylogenetic clustering of A. phagocytophilum in vertebrates or ticks. Network-based methods were used to resolve host-vector interactions and their relative importance in the segregating communities of haplotypes. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 199 haplotypes within eight network-derived clusters, which were allocated to four ecotypes. The interactions of haplotypes between ticks, vertebrates and geographical origin, were visualized and quantified from networks. A high number of haplotypes were recorded in the tick Ixodes ricinus. Communities of A. phagocytophilum recorded from Korea, Japan, Far Eastern Russia, as well as those associated with rodents had no links with the larger set of isolates associated with I. ricinus, suggesting different evolutionary pressures. Rodents appeared to have a range of haplotypes associated with either Ixodes trianguliceps or Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes pavlovskyi. Haplotypes found in rodents in Russia had low similarities with those recorded in rodents in other regions and shaped separate communities. CONCLUSIONS: The groEl gene fragment of A. phagocytophilum provides information about spatial segregation and associations of haplotypes to particular vector-host interactions. Further research is needed to understand the circulation of this bacterium in the gap between Europe and Asia before the overview of the speciation features of this bacterium is complete. Environmental traits may also play a role in the evolution of A. phagocytophilum in ecotypes through yet unknown relationships.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Biota , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ásia , Chaperonina 60/genética , Ecótipo , Europa (Continente) , Geografia , Haplótipos , Ixodes/microbiologia , Vertebrados/microbiologia
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 1047-1057, May-June 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011329

RESUMO

This study represents a first attempt to rescue germplasm of a traditional domestic equine cited in early Iberian and South American literature as Curraleiro horse. As an effort to identify and possibly characterize this type of horse we accessed traditional knowledge in strategic rural areas. Most areas were configured by hinterland settlements founded by runaway slave communities from the sixteenth century. Twenty interviews were conducted and analyzed using classical Speech Content Analysis. As a result, five response categories were recognized: 1) Identification and location of Curraleiro horses; 2) Characterization of Curraleiro horses; 3) Historical aspects; 4) Curraleiro horse conservation prospects and 5) Sanitary and productive aspects of Curraleiro horse breeding. We concluded that although scarce, the Curraleiro horse, cited in literature, still exists and showed phenotypical features which allow fine discrimination from any officially recognized breed in Brazil. Our findings may open the door for the recognition of a genuine animal resource which could play a role in rural development for specific regions and traditional communities. Speech Content Analysis was effective for in loco identification and characterization of rare traditional livestock. Thus, we encourage the usage of this tool as an alternative to subsidize identification and genetic conservation programs worldwide.(AU)


Esse estudo representa uma primeira tentativa de resgate de germoplasma em um equino doméstico tradicional citado em literatura precoce Iberiana e Sul Americana como um cavalo Curraleiro. Num esforço de identificar e possivelmente caracterizar esse tipo de cavalo, acessamos conhecimento tradicional em diversas áreas rurais estratégicas. A maioria consistia em assentamentos rurais fundados por comunidades escravas foragidas no século dezesseis. Vinte entrevistas foram conduzidas e analisadas utilizando análise de conteúdo de discurso clássico. Como resultado, cinco categorias de resposta foram reconhecidas: 1) Identificação e localização de cavalos Curraleiros; 2) Caracterização de cavalos curraleiros; 3) Aspectos históricos, 4) Perspectivas de conservação, e 5) Aspectos sanitários e produtivos da criação de cavalos Curraleiros. Concluímos que, apesar de escasso, o cavalo Curraleiro, citado na literatura, ainda existe e apresenta características fenotípicas que permitem discriminação de raças oficialmente reconhecidas no Brasil. Nossos achados podem abrir alas para o reconhecimento de um recurso animal genuíno que pode ter um papel no desenvolvimento rural em regiões específicas e comunidades tradicionais. Análise de conteúdo de discurso foi eficaz para identificação e caracterização in loco de criação tradicional rara. Desta forma, encorajamos o uso dessa ferramenta como alternativa para subsídio de identificação e programas de conservação genética ao redor do mundo.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ecótipo , Cavalos/genética , População Rural
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