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1.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(2): 166-172, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906134

RESUMO

Hydatidosis - caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus - is a zoonosis endemic to the province of Santa Cruz, associated with areas of livestock production. Once infected, man may remain asymptomatic for a prolonged period but the disease has an important impact on public health owing to the complexity and costs of its treatment. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of environmental E. granulosus infection in rural and peri-urban areas of the town of Los Antiguos, through the detection of antigens in scattered canine feces, and to identify risk factors for transmission. From May-2016 to April-2017, 38 peri-urban and rural farms, defined as "epidemiological units", were visited; 144 samples of canine feces were analyzed with the copro-ELISA technique. Rural settlers were enrolled in an epidemiological survey on cultural patterns related to hydatidosis. An environmental contamination index of 17.3% was found and 44.7% of the epidemiological units were positive. Risk practices were found, such as domiciliary slaughter (34.2%), canine feeding with raw viscera (52.6%), and lack of dog deworming (86.8%). In turn, about half of the surveyed population ignored the modes of transmission of the infection and the measures to prevent it. This work shows a high infection index in the area and establishes a baseline for future comparisons. It also reinforces the need to implement education, prevention, and control activities at the local level - according to national program guidelines - in order to reduce the prevalence of environmental contamination of the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Fezes , Humanos , População Rural
2.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(2): 248-255, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882655

RESUMO

Some of the pathogenic microorganisms have been associated with cancer due to the activation of cancer precursors in the host because of the inflammatory processes. Additionally, some other pathogens prevents the tumor formation by creating an anti-neoplastic immune response which has been reported to stop the development of cancer. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) or cyst hydatid disease (CHD) is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in humans. It has been reported that there is a negative correlation between E.granulosus infection and cancer and it has been suggested that direct and/or indirect E.granulosus infection may have an anti-cancer effect. However, the molecular mechanisms of this effect still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydatid cyst fluid administration on cell proliferation and expression of some apoptotic genes (BCL-2, p53 and BAX) in human healthy lung epithelial (BEAS-2B) and human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cell lines and understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the possible anti-cancer action mechanism of hydatid cyst fluid. In order to evaluate the effect of hydatid cyst fluid on cell proliferation and apoptotic gene expression, cell proliferation assay (XTT) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) were performed, respectively. After the application of hydatid cyst fluid, there was no change in the cell proliferation. A statistically significant decrease in BCL-2 gene expression (> 90 fold) and an increase in p53 gene expression (> 1.2 fold) were found. No significant change in BAX gene expression was detected. In this study, it was found that the application of hydatid cyst fluid did not directly cause cell death but it has shown for the first time to sensitize the A549 cell line, which is resistant to apoptosisand shed light on the possible mechanism of hydatid cyst fluid in the apoptotic pathway.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Células A549 , Animais , Apoptose , Humanos , Pulmão
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e25177, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726007

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hydatid cyst is a disease caused by the larvae of Echinococcus spp. The larvae often reside in the liver, lungs, and brain. Occasionally, a primary isolated thoracic vertebral hydatid cyst is reported to cause severe complications. Various diseases may lead to the development of progressive compressive myelopathy. Herein, we report a rare case of a primary isolated thoracic vertebral hydatid cyst with compressive myelopathy. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old female had numbness and weakness in the lower limbs for a span of 3-months. DIAGNOSIS: Thoracic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that an isolated mass was observed in the T5 vertebral body, which compressed the spinal cord. The diagnosis was confirmed after surgical excision, and Echinococcus granulosus was found to be the etiologic factor. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent laminectomy with no complications. OUTCOMES: After surgical decompression, the patient made slow and measurable progress. While relatively rare in the non-pastoral area, the primary isolated thoracic vertebral column hydatid cyst may be considered as a possible etiology of atypical extradural spinal compression. LESSONS: This case illustrates the complexity of spinal echinococcosis manifestations and the necessity of an interdisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Equinococose/complicações , Echinococcus granulosus , Compressão da Medula Espinal/parasitologia , Animais , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Laminectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compressão da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Vértebras Torácicas/parasitologia , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia
4.
Parasite ; 28: 14, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666549

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a chronic zoonosis caused by infection with the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. As the intermediate host, sheep are highly susceptible to this disease. Our previous studies have shown that sheep with haplotype MHC Mva Ibc-Sac IIab-Hin1I ab were resistant to CE infection, while their counterparts without this haplotype were not. In order to reveal the molecular mechanism of resistance in Kazakh sheep, after selecting the differential miRNA in our previous study, herein, transcriptome analyses were conducted to detect the differential expression genes in the intestinal tissue of Kazakh sheep with resistant and non-resistant MHC haplotypes, after peroral infection with E. granulosus eggs. A total of 3835 differentially expressed genes were identified between the two groups, with 2229 upregulated and 1606 downregulated. Further function analysis showed that the most significant genes were related to both innate immune response and adaptive response participating in the defense against E. granulosus infection and the metabolic changes associated with it. The results suggest that genes related to lectin receptors, NK cells activation, chemokines, and tumor necrosis factor, may play important roles in the response of intestinal tissue to E. granulosus.


Assuntos
Equinococose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Equinococose/genética , Echinococcus granulosus , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Ovinos
5.
Parasite ; 28: 15, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666550

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, is a chronic zoonosis. The lifecycle of the E. granulosus parasite includes three consecutive stages that require specific gene regulation or protein expression to survive environmental shifts between definitive hosts and intermediate hosts. The aim of the present study is to screen and analyze the stage differential antigens to be considered for vaccine development against E. granulosus. By using the iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) method, the differentially expressed proteins were selected from the three consecutive developmental stages of E. granulosus: oncosphere, adult tapeworms, and protoscolex. Through a bioinformatics analysis including Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO), and pathway metabolic annotation, we identified some proteins of interest from each stage. The results showed that a large number of differentially expressed proteins (375: oncosphere vs. adult, 346: oncosphere vs. protoscolex, and 391: adult vs. protoscolex) were identified from the three main lifecycle stages. Analysis of the differential protein pathways showed that these differential proteins are mainly enriched in metabolic pathways, Huntington's diseases, Alzheimer's diseases, and ribosome metabolic pathways. Interestingly, among these differential proteins, expression levels of paramyosin, HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, cathepsin L1, cathepsin D, casein kinase, and calmodulin were significantly higher in the oncosphere than in the adult or protoscolex (p < 0.05). We hope our findings will help to identify potential targets for diagnosis or for therapeutic and prophylactic intervention.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus , Proteômica , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e24709, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655936

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IFE) is currently recognized as the gold standard for detecting oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To the best of our knowledge, however, no study has reported on type III OCBs using IFE. In this paper, we report on a rare case of multiple myeloma (MM) with Echinococcus granulosus infection diagnosed by IFE. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 71-year-old man complained of weakness of the right lower extremity accompanied with fever (temperature range 37.8°C-38.2°C) for more than 6 months. DIAGNOSES: MM with E granulosus infection. INTERVENTIONS: The IFE results identified a unique monoclonal band, indicating that the patient may have MM in conjunction with a distinct pathogen infection. He received anthelmintic treatment and bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone therapy. OUTCOMES: The patient was followed up for 15 months. During that time, his temperature returned to normal, his Medical Research Council Grading of Muscle Power scale became 5, and his vital signs stabilized. LESSONS: Detection of OCB type III indicated that the patient was diagnosed with MM accompanied by E granulosus infection. Thus, IFE of CSF may be an auxiliary diagnostic method for MM in the future.


Assuntos
Equinococose/diagnóstico , Echinococcus granulosus , Focalização Isoelétrica , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Bandas Oligoclonais/análise , Idoso , Animais , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/microbiologia , Equinococose/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mieloma Múltiplo/microbiologia
7.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Today, the present protoscolicidals used to minimize the serious risks during hydatid cyst surgery are not completely safe and have various adverse side effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and apoptotic activity of Ferula macrecolea essential oil (FMEO) as well as its in vitro and ex vivo protoscolicidal effects against hydatid cyst protoscoleces. METHODS: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was performed to determine the chemical composition of FMEO. Protoscoleces of hydatid cysts were collected from liver fertile hydatid cysts of infected sheep and were then treated with various concentrations of the essential oil (75, 150, and 300 µL/mL) for 5-60 min in vitro and ex vivo. Then, by using the eosin exclusion test, the viability of the protoscoleces was studied. The caspase-3-like activity of the FMEO-treated protoscoleces was also evaluated through the colorimetric protease assay Sigma Kit based on the manufacturer's instructions. RESULTS: According to GC/MS, the main constituents of the essential oil were terpinolene (77.72%), n-nonanal (4.47%), and linalool (4.35%), respectively. In vitro, the maximum protoscolicidal activity of FMEO was observed at the concentrations of 150 and 300 µL/mL, such that 100% of the protoscoleces were killed after 30 and 20 min of exposure, respectively. Based on the obtained findings, the results demonstrate that FMEO required a longer time to kill protoscoleces ex vivo; after 12 min of exposure to FMEO, only 13.4% of the protoscoleces remained alive. After 48 h of the treatment of protoscoleces, FMEO, in a dose-dependent manner and at doses of 75, 150, and 300 µL/mL, induced the activation of the caspase enzyme by 24.3, 35.3, and 48.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the potent protoscolicidal effects of FMEO in vitro and ex vivo; however, further studies are required to assess the safety and the efficiency of FMEO as a promising scolicidal agent in a preclinical model and clinical setting.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/química , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Echinococcus granulosus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferula/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais
8.
Parasite ; 28: 10, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544075

RESUMO

The Italian wolf population in human-modified landscapes has increased greatly in the last few decades. Anthropisation increases the risk of transmission of many zoonotic infections and in this context, control of taeniid cestode species needs to be addressed from a One Health perspective. Predator-prey interactions are at the root of taeniid cestode transmission, and the wolf plays a key role in the maintenance and transmission of taeniids. To date, all available data on the taeniids of wolves in Italy refer to populations living in a wild habitat. Between 2018 and 2019, we investigated taeniids in a wolf pack living in a highly anthropic hilly agro-ecosystem. Thirty-eight faecal samples were collected and analysed, 4 of which were also genetically characterised for individual wolves and belonged to three different animals. Samples collected were analysed microscopically and by molecular analysis in order to identify the taeniid species. Taeniid eggs were detected in 34.2% (13/38) of samples. Within samples positive to taeniid eggs only Echinococcus granulosus s.s. and Taenia hydatigena were identified in 26.3% and 10.5% of the samples, respectively. On microscopic examination, Capillaria spp., Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara canis eggs, Crenosoma vulpis larvae, and coccidian oocysts were also found. The combination of low biodiversity of taeniid species with a high occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. recorded in this study could be the consequence of a deeper link occurring between wolves and livestock in human-modified landscapes than in wild settings.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Lobos , Animais , Cestoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus , Ecossistema , Fezes/parasitologia , Itália , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Lobos/parasitologia
9.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 747-750, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442817

RESUMO

Two domestic cats from the Patagonia rural area in Argentina were found to be naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto/G1 genotype; so far, the only species/genotype of E. granulosus sensu lato complex described to infect domestic cats. The felines developed abdominal disseminated larval disease; the diagnosis was performed by ultrasound, exploratory laparotomy, and molecular techniques. These results indicate that cystic echinococcosis must be considered for differential diagnosis of felines with abdominal distension and/or observation of vesicles through ultrasound, from endemic areas. Even though cats and dogs are carnivores, differences in digestive physiology and immunological characteristics between them could allow the development of larval or adult worm parasites. Domestic cats with cystic echinococcosis show to be environmentally infected with E. granulosus s. s./G1 eggs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Abdome/parasitologia , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ultrassonografia
10.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 563-568, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462709

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis is a neglected, zoonotic disease in Turkey. The disease is commonly seen in rural areas where the local population is in close contact with livestock and dogs. This research aimed to molecularly identify of hydatid cysts in cattle and human isolates from Konya, Turkey. Following sample collection, direct microscopy was performed. After direct examination, total DNA was extracted, and positive PCR products of cox 1 mitochondrial gene (~ 875 bp) were sequenced. A total of 83 hydatid cysts (cattle n = 57 and human n = 26), 82 were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3 genotypes), and one human isolate was characterized as Echinococcus equinus (G4 genotype). Fertility rates of cysts belonging to cattle for liver and lung cysts were 93.3% and 80%, respectively. Out of 26 human originated isolates, 18 (69.2%) of cysts were found to be fertile. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of E. equinus from human host in Turkey.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus/fisiologia , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus granulosus/fisiologia , Genótipo , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Humanos , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Turquia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008921, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alveolar (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans are caused by the metacestode of the tapeworms Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Immunohistochemistry with the monoclonal antibodies (mAb) Em2G11, specific for AE, and the mAb EmG3, specific for AE and CE, is an important pillar of the histological diagnosis of these two infections. Our aim was to further evaluate mAb EmG3 in a diagnostic setting and to analyze in detail the localization, distribution, and impact of small particles of Echinococcus multilocularis (spems) and small particles of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. (spegs) on lymph nodes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the mAb EmG3 in a cohort of formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens of AE (n = 360) and CE (n = 178). These samples originated from 156 AE-patients and 77 CE-patients. mAb EmG3 showed a specific staining of the metacestode stadium of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus s.l. and had a higher sensitivity for spems than mAb Em2G11. Furthermore, we detected spegs in the surrounding host tissue and in almost all tested lymph nodes (39/41) of infected patients. 38/47 lymph nodes of AE showed a positive reaction for spems with mAb EmG3, whereas 29/47 tested positive when stained with mAb Em2G11. Spegs were detected in the germinal centers, co-located with CD23-positive follicular dendritic cells, and were present in the sinuses. Likewise, lymph nodes with spems and spegs in AE and CE were significantly enlarged in size in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: mAb EmG3 is specific for AE and CE and is a valuable tool in the histological diagnosis of echinococcosis. Based on the observed staining patterns, we hypothesize that the interaction between parasite and host is not restricted to the main lesion since spegs are detected in lymph nodes. Moreover, in AE the number of spems-affected lymph nodes is higher than previously assumed. The enlargement of lymph nodes with spems and spegs points to an immunological interaction with the small immunogenic particles (spems and spegs) of Echinococcus spp.


Assuntos
Equinococose Hepática/diagnóstico , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Echinococcus granulosus/imunologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/imunologia , Linfadenopatia/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Criança , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/patologia , Equinococose Hepática/parasitologia , Equinococose Hepática/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Linfonodos/parasitologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(6): 827-841, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187579

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a worldwide zoonotic disease. At present, the treatment options of CE are limited. The main drugs used in clinical chemotherapy of echinococcosis are albendazole and mebendazole, but they mainly exert longterm antiparasitic effects based on high doses. Therefore, there is an urgent need for effective and safe anti-CE drugs. Previous studies have identified harmine (HM) as a new anti-CE drug. In this study, the efficacy of harmine derivatives was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The harmine derivatives were tested against E. granulosus protoscoleces (PSC) in vitro. The effect of harmine derivatives was time and concentration dependent at different concentrations, and the anti-CE effect was better than that of harmine. The mortality rate of PSC reached 100% on the 5th day after exposure to harmine derivatives at a concentration of 100 µmol · L -1. Compared with the untreated model control mice, the weight of the cyst was significantly reduced in infected mice treated with harmine derivatives. The effect of harmine derivatives was better than that of harmine, and there was significant difference between harmine derivatives and albendazole (P <0.001). Histopathological examination of experimental mice organs (liver, spleen, lung, brain and small intestine) showed that there was no change in the tissues except for mild inflammation in the liver. The neurotoxicity test in Caenorhabditis elegans showed that the derivative inhibited the movement, feeding, perceptual behavior and acetylcholinesterase activity of C. elegans , and its effect was lower than that of harmine. In addition, intervention with HM derivatives was preliminarily proved to cause DNA damage. This study reveals the potential of HM derivatives as a new class of anti-CE agents and indicates that Topo2a may be a promising target for the development of anti-CE drugs.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Dano ao DNA , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Harmina/farmacologia , Camundongos
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 541-549, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144248

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La evidencia sobre las características genotípicas de la infección por Echinococcus granulosus en humanos es escasa. Objetivo: Desarrollar un resumen de la evidencia disponible respecto a genotipos de E. granulosus verificados en hidatidosis humana en el mundo. Material y Métodos: Revisión sistemática. Se incluyeron artículos relacionados con genotipos de E. granulosus, en humanos, sin restricción de lenguaje ni método de secuenciación; publicados entre 1990-2019. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en WoS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Trip Database, BIREME, SciELO, LILACS, IBECS y OPS-OMS. Las variables en estudio fueron: año de publicación, país de origen, número de muestras, órganos parasitados, marcador molecular utilizado y genotipo identificado. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva. Resultados: Se identificaron 701 artículos relacionados; 62 cumplieron los criterios de selección, representando 1.511 muestras. La evidencia existente fue publicada entre 1994 y 2019 y proviene principalmente de Irán (45,2%). El método de secuenciación más utilizado fue amplificación por reacción de polimerasa en cadena más secuenciación tipo Sanger con genotipificación del gen cox1 (79,0%). Los genotipos identificados con mayor frecuencia fueron G1 (49,1%) y el complejo G1/G3 (32,2%). Conclusión: Las publicaciones relacionadas con genotipos de E. granulosus en humanos son escasas y heterogéneas. Eg G1 representa la mayor parte de la carga global mundial.


Abstract Background: The evidence regarding genotypic characteristics of Echinococcus granulosus infection in humans worldwide is scarce. Aim: To develop a synthesis of the available evidence regarding genotypes of E. granulosus verified in humans worldwide. Methods: Systematic review. Articles related with genotypes of E. granulosus, in humans, without language neither genotyped method restriction, published between 1990-2019 were included. A systematic in WoS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Trip Database, BIREME, SciELO, LILACS, IBECS, and PAHO-WHO was carried out. In study variables were year of publication, country, number of samples, host and parasite organs, genotype identified, molecular marker and genes. Descriptive statistics were applied. Results: 701 related articles were identified; 62 fulfilled selection criteria, representing 1,511 samples. The existing evidence was published between 1994 and 2019; and mainly comes from Iran (45.2%). The most commonly used sequencing method was PCR amplification and Sanger type sequencing with partial or total genotyping of the cox1 gene. Genotyped method most frequently used was cox1 (79,0%). Genotypes most frequently identified were G1 and G1/G3 complex (49.1% and 32.2%). Conclusions: Publications related to genotypes of Eg in humans are scarce, heterogeneous, and presenting differing results. Eg G1/G3 accounts for most of the global burden worldwide.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Equinococose , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Genótipo
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1951-1954, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975181

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is one of the neglected tropical diseases recognized by the WHO. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato affects more than 1 million people worldwide and is responsible for high costs in the healthcare system. A clear knowledge of the prevalence of CE and its clinical characteristics could have an important impact on the approach to its diagnosis and to the public health planning of treatment and control interventions. We performed a prevalence study in four municipalities of Catanzaro Province, South Italy. This area is considered to be at high risk of CE because of ovine breeding. We screened by abdominal ultrasound 2,426 volunteers, four of whom had abdominal CE. Given the need for prevention and control programs for CE in endemic areas of Italy, a detailed mapping of prevalence of CE, to complement data obtained through hospital discharge records, appears imperative.


Assuntos
Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 340-344, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a nucleic acid assay for detection of Echinococcus granulosus based on recombinase-aided isothermal amplification (RAA) assay. METHODS: The 12S rRNA gene of E. granulosus was selected as the target gene, and the specific primers and fluorescent probes for RAA assay were designed, screened and synthesized to establish a fluorescent RAA assay for detection of E. granulosus. The sensitivity of the fluorescent RAA assay was evaluated using different copy numbers of target gene sequence-contained recombinant plasmids and various concentrations of E. granulosus genomic DNA as templates, and the specificity of the fluorescent RAA assay was evaluated using the genomic DNA from E. granulosus, E. multilocularis, Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni, Ancylostoma duodenale, Clonorchis sinensis, Taenia saginata, Spirometra mansoni and Taenia solium as templates. RESULTS: A fluorescent RAA assay was successfully established for detection of E. granulosus, which achieved specific amplification of E. granulosus genomic DNA within 20 min at 39 ℃. The lowest detection limit of the fluorescent RAA assay was 10 copies/µL of recombinant plasmids and 0.1 ng/µL E. granulosus genomic DNA, which exhibited a high sensitivity, and the fluorescent RAA assay was all negative for the genomic DNA from E. multilocularis, S. japonicum, S. mansoni, A. duodenale, C. sinensis, T. saginata, Spirometra mansoni and T. solium, which exhibited a high specificity. In addition, this fluorescent RAA assay successfully detected genomic DNA from E. granulosus cysts. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid, sensitive and specific fluorescent RAA assay is successfully established for nucleic acid detection of E. granulosus.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Animais , Primers do DNA , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Recombinases , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238909, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915902

RESUMO

E. granulosus is a cestode that causes Cystic Echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease with worldwide presence. The immune response generated by the host against the metacestode induces a permissive Th2 response, as opposed to pro-inflammatory Th1 response. In this view, mixed Th2 and regulatory responses allow parasite survival. Overall, larval Echinococcus infections induce strong regulatory responses. Fasciola hepatica, another common helminth parasite, represents a major infection in cattle. Co-infection with different parasite species in the same host, polyparasitism, is a common occurrence involving E. granulosus and F. hepatica in cattle. 'While it is known that infection with F. hepatica also triggers a polarized Th2/Treg immune response, little is reported regarding effects on the systemic immune response of this example of polyparasitism. F. hepatica also triggers immune responses polarized to the Th2/ Treg spectrum. Serum samples from 107 animals were analyzed, and were divided according to their infection status and Echinococcal cysts fertility. Cytokines were measured utilizing a Milliplex Magnetic Bead Panel to detect IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-18. Cattle infected only with F. hepatica had the highest concentration of every cytokine analyzed, with both 4.24 and 3.34-fold increases in IL-10 and IL-4, respectively, compared to control animals, followed by E. granulosus and F. hepatica co-infected animals with two-fold increase in IL-10 and IL-4, compared to control animals, suggesting that E. granulosus co-infection dampens the cattle Th2/Treg immune response against F. hepatica. When considering Echinococcal cyst fertility and systemic cytokine concentrations, fertile cysts had higher IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-18 concentrations, while infertile cysts had higher IL-10 concentrations. These results show that E. granulosus co-infection lowers Th1 and Th2 cytokine serological concentration when compared to F. hepatica infection alone. E. granulosus infections show no difference in IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-18 levels compared with control animals, highlighting the immune evasion mechanisms of this cestode.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/imunologia , Fasciola hepatica/imunologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/sangue , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Equinococose/sangue , Equinococose/imunologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/sangue , Fasciolíase/imunologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008545, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841252

RESUMO

The analysis of zoonotic disease risk requires the consideration of both human and animal geo-referenced disease incidence data. Here we show an application of joint Bayesian analyses to the study of echinococcosis granulosus (EG) in the province of Rio Negro, Argentina. We focus on merging passive and active surveillance data sources of animal and human EG cases using joint Bayesian spatial and spatio-temporal models. While similar spatial clustering and temporal trending was apparent, there appears to be limited lagged dependence between animal and human outcomes. Beyond the data quality issues relating to missingness at different times, we were able to identify relations between dog and human data and the highest 'at risk' areas for echinococcosis within the province.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Cães , Echinococcus granulosus , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008519, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776936

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonosis caused by infection with the cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. We carried out a systematic literature review on E. granulosus s.l. human and animal (cattle, sheep, dog) infection in European Mediterranean and Balkan countries in 2000-2019, to provide a picture of its recent epidemiology in this endemic area. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar and Open Grey databases were searched. Included cases were: i) for humans, data from hospital records and imaging studies; ii) for dogs, data from necropsy and coprological studies; iii) for ruminants, cases based on slaughter inspection. The NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) classification was used to categorize extracted data in epidemiological units, defined as data referred to one NUTS2 (basic region) in one year time. Data were then aggregated to NUTS1 level (major regions), calculating the average incidence value of included epidemiological units. For prevalence studies covering different epidemiological units, the pooled prevalence was estimated. Data were extracted from 79 publications, 25 on human infection (covering 437 epidemiological units), and 54 on animal infection (52 epidemiological units for cattle, 35 for sheep and 25 for dogs). At NUTS1 level, average annual incidence rates of human CE ranged from 0.10-7.74/100,000; pooled prevalence values ranged from 0.003-64.09% in cattle, 0.004-68.73% in sheep, and 0-31.86% in dogs. Southern and insular Italy, central Spain, Romania and Bulgaria reported the highest values. Bovine data showed a more similar pattern to human data compared to sheep and dogs. Limitation of evidence included the paucity of human prevalence studies, data heterogeneity, and the patchy geographical coverage, with lack of data especially for the Balkans. Our results confirm Italy, Spain, and Eastern Europe being the most affected areas, but data are extremely heterogeneous, geographical coverage very patchy, and human prevalence studies extremely scant. Results also highlight the notorious problem of underreporting of E. granulosus s.l. infection in both humans and animals.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus granulosus , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Cães , Equinococose/parasitologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Ovinos , Zoonoses/parasitologia
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