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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 86-91, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and treatment for "paroxysmal severe mitral regurgitation" (MR), which is an underappreciated cause of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed cases of transient severe MR that were evaluated at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2019. Paroxysmal severe MR was defined as the appearance of transient severe MR in patients with mild MR at rest, normal left ventricle (LV) size, left ventricular ejection fraction greater than 40%, and absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. RESULTS: We identified 6 patients (5 women) with a median age of 68 years. There were 3 distinct mechanisms of paroxysmal severe MR, which we labeled types 1, 2, and 3. Type 1 MR was caused by LV dyssynchrony from a rate-dependent left bundle branch block, which led to apical leaflet tenting and incomplete coaptation. Type 2 MR occurred from mitral annular dilatation during maneuvers that increased left-sided volume. Type 3 MR was caused by coronary artery vasospasm with apical leaflet tenting. Treatments varied depending on the underlying cause and included cardiac resynchronization therapy for type 1, surgical valve replacement for type 2, and medical therapy for type 3. CONCLUSION: Paroxysmal severe MR is a rare cause of heart failure in patients with preserved LV function. We have identified 3 distinct mechanisms that can lead to this dynamic process, with treatments varying based on the underlying cause.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/patologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular
2.
Harefuah ; 159(10): 739-744, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Phototherapy has been reported to reduce coronary blood flow in neonates but without affecting gross measures of cardiac function. The aim of our current study was to evaluate earlier, more sensitive changes in cardiac function during phototherapy. METHODS: Nineteen neonates with jaundice treated with phototherapy had Doppler echocardiographic evaluation, before, during and after phototherapy and were compared to 25 matched controls. Sensitive measures for cardiac performance in this study included left ventricular dimension, ventricular Doppler parameters and regional function assessment. RESULTS: Phototherapy was associated with a significant increase in heart rate. In addition, atrioventricular valve closure to opening interval decreased significantly during phototherapy while ventricular ejection times tended to decrease. However, left and right ventricular filling parameters and outflow velocity parameters, longitudinal tissue-Doppler annular velocities and myocardial performance indices were not affected by phototherapy and were similar to those in controls. Coronary blood velocities and integrals decreased significantly during phototherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found no differences in early and sensitive measures of cardiac performance including the diastolic and systolic function, despite modestly lower flow in coronary arteries among healthy neonates during phototherapy.


Assuntos
Fototerapia , Diástole , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Coração , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
3.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 16(5,pt.1): 313-318, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195886

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La arteritis de células gigantes (ACG) es una vasculitis que afecta a arterias de mediano y gran calibre. La biopsia de la arteria temporal es la técnica diagnóstica de elección. Atendiendo a la demanda asistencial que supone, pretendemos evaluar la utilidad de la ecografía Doppler en los pacientes con sospecha de ACG, su sensibilidad y especificidad como prueba diagnóstica y si puede suplir a la biopsia. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se ha realizado un estudio prospectivo de 57 pacientes entre febrero de 2015 y julio de 2016, que han sido diagnosticados con exploración mediante ecografía Doppler y biopsia de arteria temporal. RESULTADOS: Fueron incluidos 57 pacientes, de los cuales 3 fallecieron durante el seguimiento y una paciente fue excluida del estudio al negarse a la biopsia. Otros 21 pacientes fueron diagnosticados de ACG por un especialista reumatólogo tras un mínimo de 6 meses de seguimiento. Presentaron ecografía positiva 22 pacientes, de los cuales 8 fueron diagnosticados de ACG y 4 de polimialgia reumática. En nuestro estudio, la sensibilidad de la ecografía es del 42,6% y la especificidad es del 65,7%. Otros 19 pacientes presentaron biopsia positiva: todos ellos fueron diagnosticados de ACG. La biopsia presentó una sensibilidad de un 73,7% y una especificidad de un 100%. CONCLUSIONES: Según nuestro estudio, la utilidad de la ecografía es limitada y son necesarias nuevas investigaciones para determinar su papel en esta entidad


BACKGROUND: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a vasculitis that affects medium- and large-sized arteries. Temporal artery biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis. In view of the high demand for temporal biopsies, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of Doppler ultrasonography in patients with suspected giant cell arteritis, to determine its sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic test and to determine whether it would be possible to substitute biopsy for ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was undertaken including 57 patients from February 2015 to July 2016, who have undergone both ultrasonography and temporal biopsy. RESULTS: A total of 57 patients were included, 3of whom died during the follow-up, and a patient was excluded from the study when she refused to have the biopsy. Another 21 patients were diagnosed with GCA by a rheumatologist after a minimum of 6 months of follow-up and 22 patients had positive ultrasonography, 8 of whom were diagnosed with GCA and 4 with polymyalgia rheumatica. In our study, the sensitivity of ultrasonography was 42.6%, and the specificity was 65.7%. A total of 19 patients had a positive biopsy, all of them were diagnosed with GCA. In our study, the sensitivity of the biopsy was 73.7% and the specificity was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the data from our study, the usefulness of ultrasonography is questionable, and research about the role of ultrasonography in this disease should be further studied


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Arterite de Células Gigantes/patologia , Biópsia , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Artérias Temporais/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Temporais/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Am J Cardiol ; 134: 116-122, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891401

RESUMO

Assessment of right ventricular (RV) systolic function in patients with significant secondary tricuspid regurgitation (STR) remains challenging. In patients with severe aortic stenosis treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), STR and RV enlargement have been associated with poor outcomes. In these patients, speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) may detect RV systolic dysfunction better than 3-dimensional (3D) RV ejection fraction (EF). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of RV dysfunction when assessed with STE in patients with significant STR (≥3+) compared with patients without significant STR (<3+) matched for 3D RV dimensions and RVEF on dynamic computed tomography (CT). Patients with dynamic CT data before TAVI were evaluated retrospectively. To assess the performance of RV-free wall strain (RVFWS) for identifying patients with impaired RV systolic function, patients were subsequently matched 1:1 based on age, gender, indexed RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDVi), indexed RV end-systolic volume (RVESVi), RVEF, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). In a total 267 patients (80 ± 8 years, 48% male), significant STR (≥3+) was observed in 67 patients. Patients with STR≥3+ had larger RVEDVi, larger RVESVi, lower LVEF, and more impaired RVFWS compared with patients with STR<3+ (n = 200). After propensity score matching, patients with STR≥3+ (n = 53) had significantly more impaired RVFWS compared with patients with STR<3+ (n = 53): -18.2 ± 5.0% versus -21.1 ± 3.7%, p = 0.001. In conclusion, patients with significant STR have more pronounced RV systolic dysfunction as assessed with STE than the patients without significant STR despite having similar 3D RV dimensions and RVEF on dynamic CT.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sístole , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105032, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) has been suggested as a major cause of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). Transient atrial mechanical dysfunction (stunning) frequently occurs after conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. The study aim was to determine if reversible atrial mechanical dysfunction in ESUS could help elucidate the mechanism of stroke. METHODS: Eighty-five consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled according to the following inclusion criteria: [1] ≥55 years old; [2] normal sinus rhythm upon admission; [3] no apparent embolic source; and [4] transthoracic echocardiographic evaluation had been performed in both the early phase (<72 h) and late phase (>7 days) after stroke onset. There were 27 patients in the lacunar or atherothrombotic infarction group (controls), 22 in the PAF group, and 36 in the ESUS group. To determine atrial stunning, transmitral flow velocity profiles (Doppler peak E- [early diastolic] and A- [atrial systolic] waves) were obtained. RESULTS: In the early phase, an E/A velocity ratio ≥ 1.0 was less common in the control group (1 patient, 3.7%) than in the PAF group (19 patients, 86.4%; p < 0.001) and ESUS group (10 patients, 27.8%; p < 0.05). In the late phase, the E/A ratio decreased to less than 1.0 in six patients (31.6%) who had PAF and in eight patients (80.0%) who had ESUS. CONCLUSION: Transient atrial mechanical dysfunction could be a helpful finding for elucidating the stroke mechanism in patients with ESUS, and early echocardiographic assessment could improve its detection.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Frequência Cardíaca , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Embolia Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
6.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(4): H753-H764, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822213

RESUMO

A lower heart rate (HR) during heat exposure is a classic marker of heat acclimation (HA), although it remains unclear whether this adaptation occurs secondary to reduced thermal strain and/or improvements in cardiac function. We evaluated the hypothesis that short-term passive HA reduces HR and improves cardiac function during passive heating. Echocardiography was performed under thermoneutral and hyperthermic conditions in 10 healthy adults (9 men/1 woman, 29 ± 6 yr old), pre and post 7 days of controlled hyperthermia. HR (P = 0.61), stroke volume (P = 0.99), and cardiac output (P = 0.99), were similar on days 1 and 7 of HA. Core (pre: 38.17 ± 0.42, post: 38.15 ± 0.27°C, P = 0.95) and mean skin (pre: 38.24 ± 0.41, post: 38.51 ± 0.29°C, P = 0.17) temperatures were similar during hyperthermic echocardiographic assessments. Cardiac systolic function was unaffected by HA (P ≥ 0.10). HA attenuated the decrease in end-diastolic volume (pre: -18 ± 18, post: -12 ± 19 mL, P = 0.05), accentuated the greater atrial contribution to diastolic filling (pre: +11 ± 5, post: +14 ± 5%, P = 0.02), and attenuated the increase in left atrial reservoir strain rate (pre: +1.5 ± 1.2, post: +0.8 ± 0.8 1/s, P = 0.02) during heating. Nonetheless, there were no differences in HR (pre: 106 ± 12, post: 104 ± 12 beats/min, P = 0.50), stroke volume (pre: 65 ± 15, post: 68 ± 13 mL, P = 0.55), or cardiac output (pre: 6.9 ± 2.0, post: 7.1 ± 1.7 L/min, P = 0.70) during passive heating. Short-term controlled hyperthermia HA results in limited adaptations of cardiac function during passive heating.NEW & NOTEWORTHY A lower heart rate during heat exposure is a classic marker of heat acclimation (HA). It remains unknown if improved cardiac function contributes to this response. A 7-day passive HA protocol did not alter cardiac systolic function during passive heating, whereas it improved some indexes of diastolic function in young adults. Nonetheless, heart rate during heating was unaffected by HA. These results suggest that passive HA induces limited adaptations in cardiac function during passive heating.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco , Frequência Cardíaca , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Alta , Termotolerância , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Temperatura Cutânea , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Am J Cardiol ; 133: 139-147, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838928

RESUMO

Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) have recently demonstrated poorer functional outcome with disrupted ventricular contractility during exercise in young patients. It is not known whether this will change with age. Therefore, echocardiography was performed in older patients with congenital VSDs, either surgically closed or unrepaired and all without Eisenmenger physiology, to compare functional outcomes with healthy peers. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed at rest and during supine bicycle exercise, with tissue velocity Doppler for assessment of primary end points: isovolumetric acceleration and systolic velocities. In total, 30 surgically closed VSDs (51 ± 8 years) with 30 healthy controls (52 ± 9 years) and 30 unrepaired VSDs (55 ± 12 years) with 30 matched controls (55 ± 10 years) were included. Surgical patients displayed lower right ventricular (RV) systolic and early diastolic-filling velocities compared with controls, p <0.01, lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (17.8 ± 5 vs 22.7 ± 3mm, p <0.01) and lower fractional area change (37.8 ± 6 vs 46.4% ± 7%, p <0.01). Unrepaired VSDs also had lower RV fractional area change than matched controls (39.9 ± 7 vs 48.4% ± 7%, p <0.01). Both patient groups had more tricuspid regurgitation and larger RV outflow tract dimensions than controls, p <0.01. During exercise, isovolumetric acceleration and systolic velocities were lower in both patient groups compared with controls, with the difference increasing with workload level. In conclusion, adults in their mid-50s with surgically closed or unrepaired VSDs have abnormal RV function at rest, with even more pronounced differences during exercise. These results suggest that a VSD, whether repaired early or considered hemodynamically insignificant, is not a benign lesion and continuous follow-up of adults is warranted.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Comunicação Interventricular/fisiopatologia , Comunicação Interventricular/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Comunicação Interventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia
8.
Am J Cardiol ; 132: 119-125, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741538

RESUMO

It is well known that some patients present with "more than severe" tricuspid regurgitation (TR). We aimed to assess the prognosis of these very severe TR patients. We defined very severe TR using 3 simple echocardiographic parameters: a coaptation gap≥10mm, a laminar TR flow and a systolic reversal of the hepatic vein flow. We included 259 consecutive patients (76 ± 13 years; 46% men) with moderate-to-severe TR (n = 114) and severe TR (n = 145). The primary end point was the combination of hospitalisation for right heart failure (RHF) and cardiovascular mortality. Median follow-up was 24(7 to 47) months. In patients with severe TR, 52 (36%) met the definition of very severe TR. These patients were younger, had more history of RHF and were more frequently treated with loop diuretics than those with moderate-to-severe TR (all p < 0.001). Four-year event-free survival rates were 68 ± 5%, for moderate-to-severe TR, 48 ± 6% for severe TR and only 35 ± 7% for very-severe TR (p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, after adjustment for outcome predictors including age, comorbidity, RHF, TR etiology, left and right ventricular dysfunction, and tricuspid valve surgery, patients with very severe TR had a worsened prognosis than those with moderate-to-severe TR (Adjusted Hazard Ratio [95% Confidence Interval] = 2.43 [1.18 to 5.53]; p = 0.002) and than those with severe TR (Adjusted Hazard Ratio [95% Confidence Interval] = 2.23 [1.06 to 5.56]; p = 0.015). In conclusion, very severe TR is frequent in patients with severe TR, corresponds to a more advanced stage of the disease and is associated with poor outcomes. Therefore, the use of a 5-grade classification of TR severity is justified in routine clinical practice. (ID-RCB: 2017-A03233-50).


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/classificação , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico
9.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(4): e2380, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139176

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: Las strain segmentaria y longitudinal constituyen excelentes parámetros para la cuantificación de la contractilidad miocárdica. Objetivo: Identificar los valores de strain segmentario y longitudinal de pacientes cubanos con drepanocitosis. Material y Método: Estudio descriptivo prospectivo en los 31 pacientes con drepanocitosis y 52 controles que asistieron al Instituto de Cardiología y Cirugía Cardiovascular entre junio de 2017 a enero de 2018, a los que se determinó strain segmentario y longitudinal como variables de estudio. Se compararon medias mediante la prueba t de Student y se realizó un análisis de varianza (ANOVA) con una prueba a posteriori de Tukey para p<0,05. Resultados: En los drepanocíticos las medias de strain segmentario estuvieron entre -17,7±3,4 porciento (p=0,0001*) y -28,6±4,1 por ciento(p=0,0005*) y -29,3±1,1 porciento (p=<0,0002*), fueron homogéneos todos sus segmentos y en el grupo control entre -19,3±2,9 por ciento (p=0,0001*), en general. Independientemente de que en los pacientes drepanocíticos las medias fueron más bajas estuvieron en el rango de lo normal. Los valores de las medias de strain longitudinal global oscilaron entre -19,2±3,3 y -25,2±2,7 fueron más negativos en el grupo control, respecto a los cubanos con drepanocitosis. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos son los primeros de su tipo publicados en Cuba. Las strain segmentaria y longitudinal de los pacientes drepanocíticos cubanos analizados, con resultados significativamente diferentes que los individuos sanos, pero normales, coinciden con lo informado en la literatura internacional(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Segmental and longitudinal strains are excellent parameters for the quantification of myocardial contractility. Objective: To identify the values ​​of segmental and longitudinal strain in Cuban patients with sickle cell disease. Material and Method: A prospective descriptive study was conducted in 31 patients with sickle cell disease and 52 controls who attended the Institute of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery between June 2017 and January 2018, to which segmental longitudinal strain was determined as study variable. The means between the two groups were compared using the Student's t-test; an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with a posteriori Tukey test for p <0.05. Results: In the patients with sickle cell disease, the means of segmental strain were between -17,7±3,4 percent (p=0,0001*) and -28,6±4,1 percent (p=0,0005*) and -29,3±1,1 percent (p=<0,0002*) with all segments being homogeneous; in the control group they were between -19,3±2,9 percent (p=0,0001*) in general. Despite the means were the lowest in Cuban patients with sickle cell disease, they were within the normal range. The mean values ​​of global longitudinal strain ranged between -19.2 ± 3.3 and -25.2 ± 2.7, being more negative in the control group with respect to Cuban patients with sickle cell disease. Conclusions: The results obtained are the first of its type published in Cuba. The segmental and longitudinal strain in Cuban patients with sickle cell disease analyzed, which have significantly different results from those obtained in healthy individuals, but normal, coincide with those reported in the international literature(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Volume Sistólico , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Cuba , Estudo Observacional
10.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(11): 2287-2299, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654963

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether right ventricular longitudinal strain (RVLS) was independently predictive of higher mortality in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Background: RVLS obtained from 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography has been recently demonstrated to be a more accurate and sensitive tool to estimate right ventricular (RV) function. The prognostic value of RVLS in patients with COVID-19 remains unknown. Methods: One hundred twenty consecutive patients with COVID-19 who underwent echocardiographic examinations were enrolled in our study. Conventional RV functional parameters, including RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and tricuspid tissue Doppler annular velocity, were obtained. RVLS was determined using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. RV function was categorized in tertiles of RVLS. Results: Compared with patients in the highest RVLS tertile, those in the lowest tertile were more likely to have higher heart rate; elevated levels of D-dimer and C-reactive protein; more high-flow oxygen and invasive mechanical ventilation therapy; higher incidence of acute heart injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and deep vein thrombosis; and higher mortality. After a median follow-up period of 51 days, 18 patients died. Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors displayed enlarged right heart chambers, diminished RV function, and elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Male sex, acute respiratory distress syndrome, RVLS, RV fractional area change, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion were significant univariate predictors of higher risk for mortality (p < 0.05 for all). A Cox model using RVLS (hazard ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15 to 1.53; p < 0.001; Akaike information criterion = 129; C-index = 0.89) was found to predict higher mortality more accurately than a model with RV fractional area change (Akaike information criterion = 142, C-index = 0.84) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (Akaike information criterion = 144, C-index = 0.83). The best cutoff value of RVLS for prediction of outcome was -23% (AUC: 0.87; p < 0.001; sensitivity, 94.4%; specificity, 64.7%). Conclusions: RVLS is a powerful predictor of higher mortality in patients with COVID-19. These results support the application of RVLS to identify higher risk patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Direita , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia
11.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(11): 2145-2153, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621039

RESUMO

Cardiovascular complications have been increasingly detected in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) detects early myocardial changes in a number of pathophysiological processes, which may be useful in SCD. This study was designed to examine the value of STE in predicting clinical outcome in adult patients with SCD. A total of 219 patients, mean age 33 ± 12 years were prospectively enrolled. Several clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic variables including left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) by STE were assessed. The endpoint was a composite of the following events: (1) all-cause mortality, (2) three or more acute painful episodes that require hospitalization in one year, (3) acute chest syndrome and (4) hospitalization due to disease complication. The majority of the patients had enlargement of LV and left atrial (LA) with preserved ejection fraction. During the mean follow-up of 30 months, 69 patients (32%) had reached the endpoint, including eight deaths (3.7%). No difference was observed in the parameters of diastolic function comparing the patients with and without events. LVGLS ranged from - 12.25 to - 25.44 (mean - 20.26 ± 2.5), with higher values in the patients who had events compared with those who did not. In the multivariable analysis, higher LVGLS values were associated with adverse events (adjusted OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.04-1.51; p = 0.021), independently of the TR maximal velocity and LV ejection fraction. In patients with SCD, higher LV global longitudinal strain was a predictor of adverse outcome, independently of age, TR velocity and LV function.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Contração Miocárdica , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(11): 2173-2185, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671607

RESUMO

The association between left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation and hemodynamic forces is still mostly unexplored. The normative values and the effects of demographic and technical factors on hemodynamic forces are not known. The authors studied the association between LV myocardial deformation and hemodynamic forces in a large cohort of healthy volunteers. One-hundred seventy-six consecutive subjects (age range, 16-82; 51% women), with no cardiovascular risk factors or any relevant diseases, were enrolled. All subjects underwent an echo-Doppler examination. Both 2D global myocardial and endocardial longitudinal strain (GLS), circumferential strain (GCS), and the hemodynamic forces were measured with new software that enabled to calculate all these values and parameters from the three apical views. Higher LV mass index and larger LV volumes were found in males compared to females (85 ± 17 vs 74 ± 15 g/m2 and 127 ± 28 vs 85 ± 18 ml, p < 0.0001 respectively) while no differences of the mean values of endocardial and myocardial GLS and of myocardial GCS were found (p = ns) and higher endocardial GCS in women (- 30.6 ± 4.2 vs - 31.8 ± 3.7; p = 0.05). LV longitudinal force, LV systolic longitudinal force and LV impulse were higher in men (16.2 ± 5.3 vs 13.2 ± 3.6; 25.1 ± 7.9 vs 19.4 ± 5.6 and 20.4 ± 7 vs 16.6 ± 5.2, p < 0.0001, respectively). A weak but statistically significant decline with age (p < 0.0001) was also found for these force parameters. This new integrated approach could differentiate normality from pathology by providing average deformation values and hemodynamic forces parameters, differentiated by age and gender.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemodinâmica , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235791, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal left ventricular (LV) contraction can be impaired in the presence of a normal LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and abnormalities have been reported in global longitudinal strain (GLS), long-axis systolic excursion (SExc), and the peak systolic velocity (s`) of mitral annular motion using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). However, the relationships of GLS with s` and SExc have not been systematically evaluated in subjects with a normal LVEF, and whether these relationships might be affected by variations in LV end-diastolic length (LVEDL) and heart rate is unknown. METHODS: We investigated the univariate and multivariate correlations of GLS with TDI measurements of s` and SExc (both using averages of the septal and lateral walls), LVEDL and heart rate in subjects with a normal LVEF (>50%) but a low peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity (septal e`≤ 7.0 cm/s and lateral e`≤ 9 cm/s), and thus an increased risk of a future cardiac event. RESULTS: 84 subjects (age 66±8 years, 29 males) with a LVEF of 62±6% and GLS of -17.5±2.3% were studied. On univariate analysis the absolute value of GLS was positively correlated with s`(r = 0.28, p<0.01) and SExc (r = 0.50, p<0.001) and inversely correlated with heart rate (r = -0.36, p = 0.001), but was not correlated with LVEDL (r = -0.15). In multivariate models, SExc explained more of the variance in GLS than s`, and absolute GLS was not only positively correlated with SExc, but also inversely correlated with LVEDL. Heart rate was an independent inverse correlate of GLS in conjunction with LVEDL and either s` or SExc, but made a larger contribution in models which included s`. Interobserver correlations were close for s` and SExc (r = 0.89-0.93), but only moderate for GLS (r = 0.71). CONCLUSION: In subjects with a normal LVEF but reduced e`, the absolute value of GLS is more closely related to SExc than s`, and is also independently and inversely related to LVEDL and heart rate. Measurement of SExc may provide a useful additional or alternative technique to GLS for the assessment of LV long-axis function.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/anatomia & histologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico , Sístole
14.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 151-158, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650909

RESUMO

Normal-flow low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (NF-LG-SAS), defined by an aortic valve area (AVA) <1 cm², mean pressure gradient (MPG) <40 mm Hg and indexed stroke volume ≥35 ml/m², is the most prevalent form of low-gradient aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved ejection fraction (PEF). However, the true severity of AS in these patients is controversial. The aim of this Doppler echocardiographic study was to investigate changes over time in the hemodynamic severity of patients with NF-LG-SAS with PEF. We retrospectively identified 96 patients who had 2 Doppler echocardiographic examinations without an intervening event. After a median follow-up of 25 (interquartile range 15 to 52) months, progression was observed, with increased transaortic MPG (from 28 [25 to 33] to 39 [34 to 50] mm Hg; p<0.001), peak aortic jet velocity (from 3.46 [3.20 to 3.64] to 4.01 [3.70 to 4.39] m/s; p<0.001), and decreased AVA (from 0.87 [0.82 to 0.94] to 0.72 [0.62 to 0.81] cm²; p<0.001). Median annual rates of progression were 4.3 (1.7 to 8.1) mm Hg/year, 0.25 (0.08 to 0.44) m/s/year, and -0.05 (-0.10 to -0.02) cm²/year, respectively. There was no significant change in left ventricular ejection fraction over time (p = 0.74). At follow-up, 46 patients (48%) acquired the features of classical high-gradient severe AS (MPG ≥40 mm Hg). This study shows that most patients with NF-LG-SAS with PEF exhibit significant hemodynamic progression of AS severity without EF impairment. These findings suggest that NF-LG-SAS with PEF is an "intermediate" stage between moderate AS and classical high-gradient severe AS requiring close monitoring.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Progressão da Doença , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Pressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 168-173, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650915

RESUMO

The prognosis of patients with left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction (LVHT) is assessed controversially. LVHT is associated with other cardiac abnormalities and with neuromuscular disorders (NMD). Aim of the study was to assess cardiac and neurological findings as predictors of mortality rate in adult LVHT-patients. Included were patients with LVHT diagnosed between 1995 and 2019 in 1 echocardiographic laboratory. Patients underwent a baseline cardiologic examination and were invited for a neurological investigation. In January 2020, their survival status was assessed. End points were death or heart transplantation. LVHT was diagnosed by echocardiography in 310 patients (93 female, aged 53 ± 18 years) with a prevalence of 0.4%/year. A neurologic investigation was performed in 205 patients (67%). A specific NMD was found in 33 (16%), NMD of unknown etiology in 123 (60%) and the neurological investigation was normal in 49 (24%) patients. During follow-up of 84 ± 71 months, 59 patients received electronic devices, 105 patients died, and 6 underwent heart transplantation. The mortality was 4.7%/year, the rate of heart transplantation/death 5%/year. By multivariate analysis, the following parameters were identified to elevate the risk of mortality/heart transplantation: increased age (p = 0.005), inpatient (p = 0.001), presence of a specific NMD (p = 0.0312) or NMD of unknown etiology (p = 0.0365), atrial fibrillation (p = 0.0000), ventricular premature complexes (p = 0.0053), exertional dyspnea (p = 0.0023), left bundle branch block (p = 0.0201), and LVHT of the posterior wall (p = 0.0158). In conclusion, LVHT patients should be systematically investigated neurologically since neurological co-morbidity has a prognostic impact.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Bloqueio de Ramo/epidemiologia , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Miocárdio Ventricular não Compactado Isolado/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Doenças Neuromusculares/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Ecocardiografia , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculares/epidemiologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/epidemiologia , Distrofia Miotônica/epidemiologia , Atrofia Óptica Hereditária de Leber/epidemiologia , Síndrome Pós-Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236173, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687535

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia (HU) is a marker for heart failure. There are relatively few data in the Asian population regarding the effects of hyperuricemia and gouty disorders on cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction (DD), an intermediate stage in the development of heart failure. We consecutively recruited asymptomatic Asian individuals to undergo cardiovascular surveys. We categorized them into Non-HU, HU, and Gout groups. We measured cardiac structure and indices for diastolic function, including tissue Doppler (TDI)-derived LV e' and E/e'. Among 5525 participants, 1568 had HU and 347 had gout. The presence of gout and higher uric acid levels (SUA) (<4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10, > = 10 mg/dL) were associated with greater LV wall thickness, greater LV mass/volumes, larger LA volume, lower LV e' and higher E/e'. Higher SUA was associated with greater LV mass index (adjusted coefficient: 0.37), greater mass/volume ratio (adjusted coefficient: 0.01) and larger LA volume index (adjusted coefficient: 0.39, all p<0.05). Both HU and Gout groups were associated with lower LV e' (coefficient: -0.086, -0.05), higher E/e' (coefficient: 0.075, 0.35, all p <0.05), larger LA volume, and higher DD risk (adjusted ORs: 1.21 and 1.91 using Non-HU as reference, respectively, both p <0.05). SUA set at 7.0 mg/dL provided the optimal cut-off for identifying DD, with markedly lower e' (HU: 8.94 vs 8.07, Gout: 7.94 vs 7.26 cm/sec) and higher LV E/e' in HU/Gout women than in men (HU: 7.84 vs 9.79 cm/sec for men and women, respectively, all p <0.05). Hyperuricemia, even at a relatively low clinical cut-off, was associated with unfavorable remodeling and was tightly linked to diastolic dysfunction. The presence of gout likely aggravated these conditions. Women with hyperuricemia or gout had worse diastolic indices than men despite similar degrees of LV remodeling.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Gota/epidemiologia , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Remodelação Ventricular , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Gota/sangue , Gota/diagnóstico , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235075, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess prevalence of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in stable cohort of COPD patients, where LV disease had been thoroughly excluded in advance. METHODS: 100 COPD outpatients in GOLD II-IV and 34 controls were included. Patients were divided by invasive mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) in COPD-PH (≥25 mmHg) and COPD-non-PH (<25 mmHg), which was subdivided in mPAP ≤20 mmHg and 21-24 mmHg. LV myocardial performance index (LV MPI) and strain by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were used for evaluation of LV global and systolic function, respectively. LV MPI ≥0.51 and strain ≤-15.8% were considered abnormal. LV diastolic function was assessed by the ratio between peak early (E) and late (A) velocity, early TDI E´, E/E´, isovolumic relaxation time, and left atrium volume. RESULTS: LV MPI ≥0.51 was found in 64.9% and 88.5% and LV strain ≤-15.8% in 62.2.% and 76.9% in the COPD-non-PH and COPD-PH patients, respectively. Similarly, LV MPI and LV strain were impaired even in patients with mPAP <20 mmHg. In multiple regression analyses, residual volume and stroke volume were best associated to LV MPI and LV strain, respectively. Except for isovolumic relaxation time, standard diastolic echo indices as E/A, E´, E/E´ and left atrium volume did not change from normal individuals to COPD-non-PH. CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical LV systolic dysfunction was a frequent finding in this cohort of COPD patients, even in those with normal pulmonary artery pressure. Evidence of LV diastolic dysfunction was hardly present as measured by conventional echo indices.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diástole , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Sístole , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia
18.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 220(5): 297-304, jun.-jul. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194970

RESUMO

La ecografía clínica se debe considerar, hoy por hoy, como una exploración complementaria que puede modificar la práctica clínica. Es una herramienta más de la historia clínica. Las enfermedades autoinmunes sistémicas (EAS) son enfermedades en las que se pueden ver implicados múltiples estructuras y órganos. La ecografía tiene utilidad aplicada de forma genérica para detectar complicaciones, como la presencia de líquido libre intraabdominal, pleural o pericárdico en las poliserositis, la presencia de disfunción sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo en pacientes con miocarditis o para confirmar la existencia de una trombosis venosa profunda en un paciente con síndrome antifosfolípido. También, de forma específica en las EAS, la ecografía nos permite explorar las glándulas salivales en pacientes con síndrome de Sjögren, determinar la presencia del signo del halo en la arteritis de células gigantes, la presencia de inflamación tendinosa o articular, cuantificar la hipertensión pulmonar en pacientes con esclerodermia o valorar la presencia de enfermedad pulmonar intersticial en una dermatomiositis. La ecografía clínica realizada por el internista es, por tanto, una técnica extremadamente útil en el diagnóstico y seguimiento de los pacientes con EAS


Clinical ultrasonography should be considered a complementary examination that can change clinical practice, as well as a tool to add to the medical history. Systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD) can involve numerous structures and organs. Ultrasonography has broad applied utility in detecting complications such as the presence of free intraabdominal, pleural and pericardial fluid in polyserositis, left ventricular systolic dysfunction in myocarditis and deep vein thrombosis in antiphospholipid syndrome. Specifically for SAD, ultrasonography helps examine the salivary glands in Sjögren's syndrome, determines the presence of the halo sign in giant cell arteritis and the presence of tendon or joint inflammation, quantifies pulmonary hypertension in scleroderma and assesses the presence of interstitial pulmonary disease in dermatomyositis. Clinical ultrasonography performed by internists is therefore an extremely useful technique in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with SAD


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(6): e006769, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) typically develop dyspnea and pulmonary congestion upon exercise. Lung ultrasound is a simple diagnostic tool, providing semiquantitative assessment of extravascular lung water through B-lines. It has been shown that patients with HFpEF develop B-lines upon submaximal exercise stress echocardiography; however, whether exercise-induced pulmonary congestion carries prognostic implications is unknown. This study aimed at evaluating the prognostic value of B-line assessment during exercise in patients with HFpEF. METHODS: Sixty-one New York Heart Association class I to II patients with HFpEF underwent standard echocardiography, lung ultrasound (28-scanning point method), and BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) assessment during supine exercise echocardiography (baseline and peak exercise). The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization at 1 year. RESULTS: B-lines, E/e', and BNP significantly increased during exercise (P<0.001 for all). By multivariable analysis, both peak (hazard ratio, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.21-1.85], P<0.001), and change (hazard ratio 1.34 [95% CI, 1.12-1.62], P=0.002) B-lines were retained as independent predictors of outcome (hazard ratios per 1 B-line increment), along with BNP and E/e' ratio. Importantly, adding peak B-line on top of a clinical model significantly improved prognostic accuracy (C-index increase, 0.157 [0.056-0.258], P=0.002) and net reclassification (continuous net reclassification improvement, 0.51 [0.09-0.74], P=0.016), with similar results for B-line change. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of exercise-induced pulmonary congestion by lung ultrasound is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with HFpEF; its use may help refining the routine risk stratification of these patients on top of well-established clinical variables.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Teste de Esforço , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Pulmonar , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Edema Pulmonar/mortalidade , Edema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Edema Pulmonar/terapia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(10): 1907-1916, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507994

RESUMO

Global longitudinal strain (GLS) declines throughout adult-life as the LV remodels and adapts. Information on the impact of cardiac risk factors such as male sex, obesity, smoking status, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes on GLS. over time has not yet been investigated. The present prospective longitudinal study included 689 participants of the 4th and 5th Copenhagen City Heart Study who had GLS measured at both timepoints. Mean age was 51 years and 45% were male. All participants underwent two echocardiographic examinations median 10.4 (IQR: 10.2, 10.9) years apart. Average decline in GLS during follow-up was -0.7%. High age, male sex, high body mass index, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) proved to be significantly associated with an accelerated decline in GLS. In a multivariable regression model including all the investigated cardiovascular risk factors, age (stand. ß-coef. = -0.10, P = 0.005), male sex (stand. ß-coef. = -0.16, P < 0.001), and MAP (stand. ß-coef. = -0.07, P = 0.009) were independent predictors of an accelerated decline in GLS during a 10-year period. Finally, the investigated risk factors had different regional impact after the same multivariable adjustments. Male sex had a significant impact on changes in longitudinal strain at the apical, mid-wall and basal segments, meanwhile MAP and age only accelerated changes in the mid-wall and basal longitudinal strain. In the general population age, male sex, and MAP are independent predictors of an accelerated decline in GLS over a 10-year period. Furthermore, MAP, male sex and age had different regional impact.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
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