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1.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(2): 136-145, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to simulate and compare the healthcare and economic outcomes associated with routine use of intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with those associated with a scenario where TOE is not routinely used. METHODS: The impact of TOE on surgical decision-making was estimated through a systematic literature review. Individual short-term morbidity and mortality estimates were generated by application of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk calculator. Long-term event rates, unit costs, and utility weights were sourced from published literature and expert opinion. A discrete-event simulation model was then constructed to simulate both the in-hospital and post-discharge outcomes for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Robustness of the base case results was examined through deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €30 000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained was assumed to represent acceptable cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: Routine use of intraoperative TOE was associated with lower costs and higher benefits per patient, which indicates that use of TOE is a dominant strategy. The intervention resulted in the avoidance of 299 cardiac complications, 20 strokes, and 11 all-cause deaths per 10 000 patients. Routine intraoperative TOE was associated with an increased occurrence of bleeding owing to more valvular surgery and subsequent long-term anticoagulation. CONCLUSIONS: Routine intraoperative TOE is a cost-effective procedure for patients undergoing cardiac surgery, leading to lower overall costs. It was associated with a decrease in long-term complications including stroke, cardiac complications, and death, although there was a slight increase in extracranial bleeding events.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/economia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/economia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2019: 6598637, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772540

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare feasibility, effectiveness, safety, and outcome of atrial septal defect (ASD) device closure in children with and without fluoroscopy guidance. Methods and Results: Children undergoing transcatheter ASD closure between 2002 and 2016 were included into this single center, retrospective study. Patients were analysed in two groups [1: intraprocedural fluoroscopy ± transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) guidance; 2: TOE guidance alone]. Three-hundred-ninety-seven children were included, 238 (97 male) in group 1 and 159 (56 male) in group 2. Two-hundred-twenty-nine of 238 (96%) patients underwent successful fluoroscopy guided ASD closures versus 154/159 (97%) successful procedures with TOE guidance alone. Median weight (IQR) at intervention was 20kg (16.0-35.0) in group 1 versus 19.3kg (16.0-31.2) in group 2. Mean (SD) preinterventional ASD diameter was 12.4mm (4.4) in group 1 versus 12.2mm (3.9) in group 2. There was no significant difference in number of defects or characteristics of ASD rims. Median procedure time was shorter in group 2 [60min (47-86) versus 34min (28-44)]. Device-size-to-defect-ratio was similar in both groups [group 1: 1.07 versus group 2: 1.09]. There were less technical intraprocedural events in group 2 [10 (6.3%) versus 47 (20%)]. Intraprocedural complications were less frequent in group 2 [1 (0.6%) versus 8 (3.3%)]. Conclusion: Transcatheter ASD device closure with TOE guidance alone (i.e., without fluoroscopy) is as effective and safe as ASD closure with fluoroscopy guidance. As fluoroscopy remains an important adjunct to transoesophageal echocardiography, especially in complex defects and complications, procedures are always performed in a fully equipped cardiac catheterization laboratory.


Assuntos
Comunicação Interatrial , Implantação de Prótese , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Comunicação Interatrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Comunicação Interatrial/epidemiologia , Comunicação Interatrial/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Implantação de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Implantação de Prótese/instrumentação , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suíça/epidemiologia
3.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(12): 869-882, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775449

RESUMO

Transesophageal echocardiography(TEE) is valuable in intensive care unit (ICU) because its application meets the requirements of diagnosis and treatment of critically ill patients.However, the current application has not fully adapted to the specialty of critical care. TEE could be more valuablein ICU when used with a new way that under the guidance of the theory of critical care and embedded into the treatment workflow. We have expanded and improved the application of traditional TEE and integrated the concept of critical care, established the concept of transesophageal echocardiography for critical care (TEECC). Chinese Critical Ultrasound Study Group (CCUSG) organized experts in the area to form the consensus based the previous studiesand the long term practice of critical care ultrasound and TEE, aiming at clarifying the nature and characteristics of TEECC, promoting the rational and standardized clinical application and the coming researches.The consensus of Chinese experts on clinical application of TEECC (2019) were 33 in total, of whichthe main items were as follows: (1) TEECC is a significant means, which is expanded and improved from the traditional transesophageal echocardiography according to characteristics of critically ill patients and is applied in ICU based on critically clinical scenarios and requirements by the critical care physician, to promote visualized, refined and precisely management of critically ill patients.(2) TEE possesses distinctive superiority in implementation in ICU. It has characteristics of images with good quality, operations with good stability and low-dependent of operators, monitoring with continuity, and visualization with all-dimensional and detail of heart and blood vessels.(3)As a means of refined monitoring that could resulted in precise diagnosis and treatment, TEECC expands the dimension of intensive monitoring and improves the performance of critical care. (4) Indications of TEECC application include clinical etiological searching and invasive procedures guiding when it acted as a traditional role; and also refined hemodynamic monitoring based on critical care rationale and over-all management under specific critical clinical scenarios. (5) TEE and TTE assessments are complementary; they are not alternative. Integrated assessment of TTE and TEE is required under many critical clinical scenarios.(6) TEE should be a necessary configuration in ICU. (7) All-round and significant information regarding to the mechanism of acute circulatory disorders can be provided by TEECC; it is a non-substitutable means of identifying the causes of shock under some special clinical scenarios. (8) Focal extracardiac hematoma can be accurately and rapidly detected by TEE in patients with open-thoracic cardiac surgery or severe chest trauma when highly suspected pericardial tamponade.(9) The priority of pathophysiologic mechanism of septic shock can be rapidly and accurately identified by TEE; even if its pathophysiological changes are complex, including hypovolemia and/or vasospasm and/or left and right heart dysfunction. (10) Causes of hemodynamic disorders can be rapidly and qualitatively evaluated so that the orientation of treatment can be clarified by TEECC. (11) A full range of quantitative indicators for refined hemodynamic management in critically ill patients can be provided by TEECC. (12) TEECC helps to accurately assess volume status and predict fluid responsiveness.(13) TEECC is specially suitable for accurate quantitative assessment of cardiac function.(14) Mini TEE provides long-term continuous hemodynamic monitoring. (15) Standard views are easy to be acquired by TEECC, which is a premise for accurate and repeatable measurements, and a guarantee for assessment of effect and risk of therapy. (16) Compared with invasive hemodynamic monitoring, TEECC is minimally invasive, with low infection risk and high safety.(17) In patients with acute cor pulmonale (ACP) under condition of right ventricular dysfunction and low cardiac output, TEECC is a key tool for assessment. (18) TEECC should be implemented actively when suspicious of left to right shunt in critically ill patients who occurred hypotension that hard to explain the cause. (19) TEECC should be implemented actively when suspicious of right to left shunt in critically ill patients who occurred hypoxemia that hard to explain the cause. (20) TEECC is preferred in hemodynamics monitoring under prone position of ventilated patients.(21) TEECC is an imperative means to achieve over-all management of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy, especially for all-round hemodynamic monitoring. (22) Three basic views is recommended to be used to simplify TEE assessment during cardiac arrest so that reversible causes could be identified, and resuscitation could be guided. (23) The flow related echodynamic evaluation (TEECC-FREE) workflow is preferred in refined hemodynamics monitoring and therapy. (24) Simple workflow of TEECC could be implemented in special critical clinical scenarios. (25) Application of TEECC is highly secure; however, impairments of procedure should also be alert by operators. (26) Pitfalls in application of TEE should be paid attention to by the critical care physician. (27) Timely and rationally application of TEECC is in favor of diagnosis and treatment of critically ill patients and may improve the prognosis.


Assuntos
Consenso , Cuidados Críticos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , China , Estado Terminal , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/efeitos adversos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Coração/fisiologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
4.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 33(2): 221-228, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582101

RESUMO

Diastolic dysfunction (DD) is a common condition that is increasingly encountered in patients undergoing both cardiac and noncardiac surgery as the age profile of our patient population increases and the noninvasive diagnosis of DD becomes more accessible. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the significance of DD and adverse perioperative outcomes, and thus, it is becoming imperative for anesthesiologists to have an understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of patients with DD. Current guidelines are based on transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) measurements in patients who are spontaneously breathing and in a euvolemic state and, consequently, not applicable to the perioperative period. In this review article, we discuss the grading of DD as well as introduce a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with DD during the perioperative period.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Ventricular/fisiopatologia
7.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 460-470, Sept-Oct. 2019. tab, graf, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1040110

RESUMO

In atrial fibrillation (AF), the CHA2DS2-VASc score calculates the risk for stroke. Di Biase classified the left atrial appendage (LAA), using magnetic resonance imaging, into 4 morphological types and correlated it with cerebrovascular events. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) also evaluates LAA and is a more widespread technique. Objective: To evaluate, using TEE, the possibility of characterizing LAA and to analyze its morphological aspects using the CHA2DS2VASc score. Methodology: A total of 247 patients were divided into three groups considering the CHA2DS2-VASc score: Group 1: 0 and 1; Group 2: 2 and 3 and, Group 3: ≥ 4 points. TEE produced the echocardiographic data. LAA was classified into thrombogenic and non-thrombogenic morphologies. In the analysis of statistical tests, a significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: The average age was 50 and 16.2% presented AF. In Group 1, we observed normal variables with a lower prevalence of AF (8.7%, p < 0.001). In group 2, spontaneous contrast was detected in 26.7%, (p < 0.001), thrombus in 6.7% (p = 0.079) and flow velocity in LAA < 0.4 m/s in 22.7% (p < 0.001) of the cases. Group 3 presented the highest percentages of AF (31.8%, p < 0.001), stroke/TIA (77.3%, p < 0.001), EF < 55% (18.2%, p = 0.010) and higher prevalence of thrombogenic type LAA (72.7%, p = 0.014). A higher occurrence of stroke/TIA was observed in patients with thrombogenic LAA (25.2%) compared to the non-thrombogenic group (11.2%), (p = 0.005). Conclusions: The thrombogenic morphology of LAA identified in TEE presented a higher risk of stroke regardless of the CHA2DS2VASc score. Patients with higher scores had greater abnormalities in echocardiographic variables


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial , Trombose , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Volume Sistólico , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia/métodos , Análise Estatística , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Apêndice Atrial , Diabetes Mellitus , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipertensão
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17072, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Training in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is based on hands-on training in the operating room, which is time consuming and therefore limits its experience among anesthesiologists. Medical simulations have been successfully used for training of invasive procedures in many areas.This paper compares the difference in effectiveness of teaching the 11 basic TEE views using either e-learning, simulation based training or hands-on training in the operating room in 3 groups of residents. METHODS: We included 51 anesthesia and intensive care residents of all training levels but no prior training in echocardiography in this prospective randomized single-center study.Residents received a tutorial about theoretical knowledge followed by 2 practical study sessions either by e-learning using an online simulator (www.pie.med.utoronto.ca/TEE), with the simulation mannequin (CAE Vimedix Simulator) or in the operating room. Both, a theoretical multiple choice test (0-50 points) and a practical exam test (0-110 points) on the simulation mannequin had to be completed.The primary endpoint was the post-training scores in the practical and theoretical exams after all training sessions. RESULTS: Residents received significantly higher test scores in both practical and theoretical examinations after training with the simulation mannequin (108.41 ±â€Š2.09, 40.6 ±â€Š5.23, n = 17) compared with e-learning (106.88 ±â€Š4.53, 36 ±â€Š4.76, n = 17) or hands-on training (106.82 ±â€Š2.01, 34.94 ±â€Š4.72, n = 17). CONCLUSIONS: Simulation based TEE training provides more effective training than other teaching methods. It is therefore especially suitable for the initial stages of TEE training to acquire psychomotor skills and knowledge of echo-anatomy.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cardiol Young ; 29(9): 1202-1205, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379319

RESUMO

Secundum atrial septal defect is the most common form of interatrial communication. Atrial septal defects can present in young adults with a variety of clinical presentations, including breathlessness on effort, palpitations, or stroke. Clinical heart failure and resting desaturation are both rarely seen in young patients. We present a case of a young man with a secundum atrial septal defect and a diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis, only made after two attempts at surgical correction of the atrial septal defect, with pericardiectomy at the third attempt and subsequent symptomatic improvement.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Comunicação Interatrial/diagnóstico , Pericardite Constritiva/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Eletrocardiografia , Comunicação Interatrial/complicações , Comunicação Interatrial/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pericardiectomia/métodos , Pericardite Constritiva/complicações , Pericardite Constritiva/cirurgia
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(8)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466979

RESUMO

A 65-year-old man presented in a peri-arrest situation after collapse, he was found hypoxic with ischaemic arms. CT imaging showed massive bilateral pulmonary embolisms (PEs) and an aortic arch embolus extending from brachiocephalic trunk to left subclavian artery. Following intravenous thrombolysis, repeat imaging revealed that the aortic embolus had migrated distally into both axillary arteries and had occluded the right carotid from origin to skull base. Bilateral upper limb embolectomies were carried out from the brachial arteries together with forearm fasciotomies. Left hemianopia related to a right middle cerebral artery territory infarct was managed conservatively; forearm fasciotomy wounds were primarily closed and the patient was discharged on lifelong anticoagulation. A transoesophageal echocardiogram revealed a patent foramen ovale. This case demonstrates a very unusual presentation of concomitant PE and paradoxical saddle aortic arch embolism. A multidisciplinary approach has resulted in an excellent clinical outcome for this complex patient.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/patologia , Embolia Paradoxal/complicações , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Idoso , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Embolia Paradoxal/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Paradoxal/terapia , Forame Oval Patente/complicações , Forame Oval Patente/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/complicações , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Card Surg ; 34(10): 965-968, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Intraoperative assessment of the repaired mitral valve (MV) by saline testing is a standard maneuver in MV repair. Despite a growing interest in application of nonresectional techniques, the utility of the saline test following repair with neochordae has not been systematically assessed. We sought to determine the accuracy of the saline test following MV repair using nonresectional techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 25 adult patients undergoing MV repair for degenerative valve disease between November 2018 and February 2019. The surgical repair was performed using nonresectional techniques with neochordae either through a sternotomy or a robotic approach. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients underwent successful MV repair, all with excellent echocardiographic results. In four patients (16%), the saline test suggested discrete areas of leaflet malcoaptation and leakage, leading to additional repair maneuvers. In 16 patients (64%), the final saline test demonstrated excellent coaptation with little or no leak. In nine patients (36%), the final saline test was inconclusive (ventricle could not be filled) or poor (diffuse leak). Post-repair intraoperative echocardiography demonstrated no or trivial mitral regurgitation in all patients, and no patient required a second pump run. CONCLUSION: After repair with neochordae, a satisfactory saline test indicates a good repair and discrete leaks on the saline test suggest the need for further surgical maneuvers. If the surgeon has employed standard repair techniques using neochordae but the saline test is inconclusive or poor, additional repair maneuvers are generally unnecessary, as intraoperative echocardiography will usually demonstrate a good repair.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Solução Salina/farmacologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Int J Artif Organs ; 42(11): 603-610, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269859

RESUMO

The past 65 years have witnessed remarkable progress in the development of safe, hemodynamically favorable mechanical heart valves. Today, there are a large number and variety of prostheses in use and many prostheses have been used for a while and then discontinued. When patients lack reliable information about their heart valve prostheses, identification of valve model becomes difficult even for specialized physicians in this area. A combination of cinefluoroscopy and echocardiography makes it possible to provide accurate and detailed information regarding identification of prosthetic valve models. Fluoroscopic examination is a useful technique to evaluate patients following mechanical heart valve replacement. However, transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography have almost replaced cinefluoroscopy in the evaluation of prosthetic heart valves. Especially, real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography provides distinctive images of prosthetic heart valves, particularly for those in the mitral position. A large body of literature has been published to familiarize physicians with the radiological appearance of numerous mechanical prostheses. However, there is a lack of data regarding the identification of prosthetic valve models based on echocardiographic appearance. In this review, we aimed to describe distinctive echocardiographic and cinefluoroscopic markers for identifying the type and brand of several commonly used mechanical prosthetic heart valves.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Biomarcadores , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Hemodinâmica , Humanos
15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(1): 234-239, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volume replacement strategies and resuscitation endpoints of therapy in the critical ill or injured patient continues to be a heavily debated topic despite decades of research and the ever evolving technologies that provide for alternate methods of monitoring. Hemodynamic transesophageal echocardiography (hTEE), refined for the use in the intensive care unit (ICU), allows for direct visualization of cardiac filling and function, enabling real-time guidance in the resuscitation of critically ill patients. The disposable, 17F hTEE probe can remain indwelling for up to 72 hours, providing continuous, unobstructed assessments of cardiac activity via the transgastric short axis, midesophageal four chamber, and superior vena cava views. With such, preload and contractility, ventricular size and function, and volume responsiveness can be accurately evaluated and trended for change over time. Hemodynamic transesophageal echocardiography as a monitoring modality is becoming more pervasive in ICUs on a worldwide scale, allowing for real-time visualization of resuscitation and its therapeutic effects, a better understanding of resuscitation effects on individual patients, a more rapid conclusion to patient's resuscitation needs and provides the physician more confidence and patience in guiding complex volume resuscitations. RESULTS: This presentation will focus on discussing practical applications of the hTEE system and its benefits in critical care management. We will review four patients at our facility admitted to the ICU due to hemodynamic instability of varying etiologies that required volume resuscitation. With the videos, we will demonstrate how hTEE can guide patient therapy, often counter-intuitively, in the critically ill using the three basic cardiac views. Specific scenarios and hTEE videos include: (1) volume resuscitation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), (2) volume resuscitation guided by hTEE, (3) underresuscitation in a "routine" trauma case, and (4) deescalation of therapy by weaning of high-dose vasopressors using hTEE monitoring. CONCLUSION: Hemodynamic transesophageal echocardiography is an excellent hemodynamic monitoring modality for the intensivist and has many practical applications in the management of the critical ill or injured patients. Hemodynamic transesophageal echocardiography has demonstrated that patient's resuscitation needs are often underestimated and that a more tailored approach to volume delivery is achievable, a particular benefit in the older and more comorbid patient. Future applications of hTEE include CRRT volume management, organ donor hemodynamic optimization, and postresuscitation monitoring in trauma patient requiring massive transfusion protocol. These videos demonstrate examples of the benefits of real-time cardiac monitoring, which allowed for guided resuscitation and improved patient outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Procedures and techniques, level IV.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Hemodinâmica , Ressuscitação/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 178, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312292

RESUMO

Mitral valve aneurysm is a rare abnormality whose pathophysiology is poorly understood. It is defined as a bulge of the mitral valve leaflet toward the left atrium. Aneurysm in the posterior leaflet is exceptional. We report the case of a 26-year old man, who had been followed up for rheumatic aortic regurgitation for 4-years, hospitalized for febrile syndrome associated with episodes of left heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed aortic valve vegetations with wide aneurysm of the small mitral valve associated with severe mitral valve regurgitation. The patient underwent mitral and aortic valve replacement with simple postoperative outcome. Clinical suspicion associated with suitable preoperative imaging and early surgical treatment are essential to recognize and treat this rare complication of infectious endocard.


Assuntos
Endocardite/complicações , Aneurisma Cardíaco/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Aneurisma Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Cardíaco/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia
17.
Angiology ; 70(10): 916-920, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220924

RESUMO

We aimed to determine whether attempts to restore and maintain sinus rhythm will reduce recurrent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients (n = 245) between March 1998 and May 2002 with AF who had an ischemic stroke including transient ischemic attack 1 to 12 months before transesophageal echocardiographic examination and had been followed for 3 years were retrospectively reviewed. Cardioversion was attempted in 130 patients; 117 (90%) patients were successfully cardioverted (rhythm control group). The 13 patients who could not be cardioverted and 115 patients who did not undergo cardioversion were assigned to the rate control group. Age, gender, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, mitral valve disease, and left atrial diameter were similar in both groups. The rhythm control group included 56 patients (48.7%) who were still in sinus rhythm after 3 years. During follow-up, there were 2 embolic events (3.4%) and 2 deaths (3.4%) in the rhythm control group, whereas 18 embolic events (14.6%) and 18 deaths (14.6%) occurred in the rate control group (P = .049 and P = .049, respectively). Restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm seems to have a beneficial effect on secondary prevention of stroke in patients with AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 38(5): 315-321, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221488

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Ross procedure is an alternative to standard aortic valve (AV) replacement in young and middle-aged patients. However, durability and incidence of reoperation remain a concern for most cardiac surgeons. Our aim was to assess very long-term clinical and echocardiographic outcomes of the Ross procedure. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of 56 consecutive adult patients who underwent the Ross procedure. Mean age at surgery was 44±12 years (range, 16-65 years) and 55% were male. Clinical endpoints included overall mortality and the need for valve reoperation due to graft failure. The echocardiographic endpoint was the presence of any graft deterioration. Median clinical follow-up was 20 years (1120 patient/years). RESULTS: Indications for surgery were dominant aortic stenosis in 50% and isolated aortic regurgitation in 21%. Concomitant mitral valve repair was performed in 21% and a subcoronary technique was most commonly used (86%). Overall long-term survival was 91%, 80% and 77% at 15, 20 and 24 years, respectively. The survival rate was similar to the age- and gender-matched general population (p=0.44). During the follow-up period, freedom from graft reoperation was 80%. Eleven patients (31%) developed moderate AV regurgitation, three (8.6%) developed moderate pulmonary regurgitation and one (2.9%) presented moderate pulmonary stenosis. CONCLUSION: The Ross procedure, mostly using a subcoronary approach, proved to have good clinical and hemodynamic results, with low reoperation rates in long-term follow-up. Moderate autograft regurgitation was a frequent finding but had no significant clinical impact.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Previsões , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Valva Pulmonar/transplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 21(7): 66, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183616

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia worldwide and is a major risk factor for embolic stroke. For patients with atrial fibrillation who are unable to tolerate systemic anticoagulation, left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion has been shown to mitigate stroke risk. In this article, we describe the vital role of the echocardiographer in intraprocedural guidance of percutaneous LAA occlusion procedures as well as in the pre- and post-procedure assessment of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: A few percutaneously delivered devices for LAA exclusion from the systemic circulation are available in contemporary practice. These devices employ an either exclusive endocardial LAA occlusion approach, such as the Watchman (Boston Scientific, Maple Grove, MN) and Amulet (St. Jude Medical, Minneapolis, MN), or both an endocardial and pericardial (epicardial) approach such as the Lariat procedure (SentreHEART, Palo Alto, CA). Two- and three-dimension transesophageal echocardiography is critical for patient selection, procedure planning, procedural guidance, and ensuring satisfactory immediate as well as long-term LAA occlusion/exclusion efficacy. This review will provide an overview of the role of the echocardiographer in all aspects of LAA occlusion/exclusion procedures for the most commonly used commercially available devices in current practice.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Átrios do Coração , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
EuroIntervention ; 15(8): 663-670, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217149

RESUMO

AIMS: Device surveillance after left atrial appendage (LAA) closure (LAAC) is important to assess device positioning, peri-device leak (PDL) and device-related thrombus (DRT). There are limited data on the role of cardiac CT angiography (CCTA) after LAAC. We therefore sought to compare CCTA to transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients who successfully underwent LAAC. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report our consecutive series of non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients who underwent LAAC and had CCTA and TEE post LAAC. Prospective cardiac-gated CCTA was performed with the Toshiba 320-detector or Siemens second-generation 128-slice dual-source scanner, and post-processing was performed with IMPAX 3D reformats. Glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m² was an exclusion for CCTA. Device positioning, PDL or fabric leak, ratio of left atrial (LA) to LAA linear attenuation coefficient, and DRT were analysed. One hundred and two patients underwent LAAC (79 WATCHMAN, 17 Amulet, 6 ACP). Mean age was 76.4±7.5 years, CHADS2 score 3.0±1.3, and CHADS-VASc score 4.6±1.6. CCTA was performed at a mean of 105.2±54.8 days, and TEE at a mean of 124.9±100.3 days post LAAC. LAA patency was observed in 52/100 (52%), with 45 (86.5%) via PDL and seven (13.5%) through fabric leak. Linear attenuation coefficient <100 HU and LA:LAA ratio <0.25 were seen in occluded devices. PDL was only observed in 35/102 (34.3%) on TEE. Mean device compression was greater with sealed devices (11.3±4.3% versus 8.2±4.0%, p<0.001). There was only one DRT, which was observed on both TEE and CCTA. CONCLUSIONS: CCTA is a suitable alternative to TEE for device surveillance post LAAC. CCTA was more sensitive than TEE for assessing PDL and can delineate the cause of residual LAA contrast patency.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
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