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1.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(11): 1555-1560, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress echocardiography (SE) is becoming an increasingly frequently performed diagnostic examination in Poland. After the published retrospective PolSTRESS Registry, this prospective study is the first one available so far. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze SE tests, taking into account the clinical characteristics of the patients, indications, applied protocols, and diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Reference cardiological centers in Poland were asked for a 1-month prospective analysis of the data obtained. The study included 189 SE examinations. To evaluate coronary artery disease (CAD) (178 tests), all 17 centers performed dobutamine SE (DSE) (100%), 3 centers (17%) performed pacing, while cycle ergometer and treadmill SE were performed by 1 (5%) and 2 (11%) centers, respectively. In patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) (11 tests), 3 centers (16%) performed SE to evaluate low-flow/low-gradient aortic stenosis (AS), 4 (22%) in asymptomatic AS and 1 (5%) to evaluate mitral regurgitation. RESULTS: For CAD assessment, a positive result was found in 37 (20%) patients, negative in 109 (61%) and nondiagnostic in 32 (19%). In the CAD group, coronarography was performed in 41 (23%) people. The analysis of the significance of the SE results for decision-making on interventional measures revealed that 30 patients (from the total study population of 189) were referred for the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The most commonly used SE is the DSE. Negative test results allowed in almost half of the patients to resign from invasive coronarography. Stress echocardiography should be more frequently used in patients with VHD in the qualification for invasive treatment.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Polônia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
Croat Med J ; 60(5): 449-457, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686459

RESUMO

AIM: To assess whether the simultaneous performance of exercise stress echocardiography and cardio-pulmonary testing (ESE-CPET) may facilitate the timely diagnosis of subclinical left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients with non-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), preserved left ventricular systolic function, and exertional dyspnea or exercise intolerance. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2017 and April 2018, involved 104 non-severe COPD patients with exertional dyspnea and preserved ejection fraction who underwent echocardiography before CPET and 1-2 minutes after peak exercise. Based on the peak E/e' ratio, patients were divided into the group with stress-induced LVDD - E/e'>15 and the group without stress-induced LVDD. We assessed the association between LVDD and the following CPET variables: minute ventilation, peak oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilatory efficiency, heart rate reserve, and blood pressure. RESULTS: During ESE-CPET, stress-induced LVDD occurred in 67/104 patients (64%). These patients had lower work load, peak VO2, O2 pulse, and minute ventilation (VE), and higher VE/VCO2 slope than patients without stress-induced LVDD (35.18±10.4 vs 37.01±11.11, P<0.05). None of the CPET variables correlated with E/e'. CONCLUSION: Combined ESE-CPET may distinguish masked LVDD in patients with non-severe COPD with exertional dyspnea and preserved left ventricular systolic function. None of the CPET variables was a predictor for subclinical LVDD.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Kardiologiia ; 59(10): 23-30, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615385

RESUMO

AIM: to compare diagnostic accuracy of exercise treadmill testing and stress echocardiography in the diagnosis of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients aged >70 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 390 patients aged >70 years with suspected stable ischemic heart disease, who underwent elective coronary artery angiography (CAG). Exercise treadmill testing (ETT) according to the modified Bruce protocol was carried out in 189 patients (48 %), bicycle stress echocardiography - in 179 patients (46 %). Initially we determined the prevalence of angiographically significant CAD according to the gender and chest pain character, and identified persons in whom stress testing was appropriate. After that diagnostic accuracy of both tests was evaluated in patients with atypical angina and non-anginal chest pain. RESULTS: Among 72 patients with atypical angina and non-anginal pain who underwent ETT and had unequivocal results, 38 (53 %) had obstructive CAD. ETT for detection of obstructive CAD had sensitivity 79 %, specificity 82 %, positive likelihood ratio (LR+) 4.4, and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) 0.3. Positive result increased probability of obstructive CAD from 53 % to 83 %, negative result reduced probability of obstructive CAD to 25 %. Among 111 patients with atypical angina and non-anginal pain who underwent stress echocardiography and had unequivocal results, 69 (62 %) had obstructive CAD. Sensitivity, specificity, LR+, and LR- of stress echocardiography were equal to 89 %, 95 %, 17.8, and 0.1, respectively. Positive result increased probability of obstructive CAD from 62 % to 95 %, negative result reduced probability of obstructive CAD to 16 %. CONCLUSION: bicycle stress echocardiography was found to be more accurate than ETT to rule in or rule out obstructive CAD in patients aged ≥ 70 years with atypical angina and non-anginal pain.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Idoso , Angina Pectoris , Angiografia Coronária , Teste de Esforço , Humanos
5.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(10): 982-987, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 1% to 2% of patients with stable atypical chest pain (SACP) experienced a major coronary event, even after a negative functional or anatomical test. METHODS: Over the past 15 years, 1706 patients with SACP evaluated in our clinics underwent functional stress testing or coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA). In these patients, we also assessed the presence of three major modifiable lifestyle-related risk factors (cigarette smoking, low intake of fruit and vegetables, and physical inactivity). Patients were stratified according to the presence of at least one risky lifestyle factor or no risky lifestyle factors. Functional or anatomical tests were positive in 170 patients (10%). We followed the remaining 1536 patients with negative tests for 1 year to evaluate the incidence of major coronary events. RESULTS: The percentage of patients reporting major coronary events was 1.2% in the group with risky lifestyles and 0.2% in the non-risky lifestyle group (P < .01). Events were more common in smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SACP, when functional or anatomical tests are negative, have a residual risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events of 1% at 1 year of follow-up. People with incorrect lifestyles, especially smokers, have a higher risk of events. We think that in this population, a more effective intervention on lifestyles could be the key to reduce major cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Previsões , Medição de Risco/métodos , Dor no Peito/epidemiologia , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
6.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 739-748, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of assessment of myocardial viability in identifying patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy who might benefit from surgical revascularization remains controversial. Furthermore, although improvement in left ventricular function is one of the goals of revascularization, its relationship to subsequent outcomes is unclear. METHODS: Among 601 patients who had coronary artery disease that was amenable to coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) and who had a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or lower, we prospectively assessed myocardial viability using single-photon-emission computed tomography, dobutamine echocardiography, or both. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo CABG and receive medical therapy or to receive medical therapy alone. Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured at baseline and after 4 months of follow-up in 318 patients. The primary end point was death from any cause. The median duration of follow-up was 10.4 years. RESULTS: CABG plus medical therapy was associated with a lower incidence of death from any cause than medical therapy alone (182 deaths among 298 patients in the CABG group vs. 209 deaths among 303 patients in the medical-therapy group; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.90). However, no significant interaction was observed between the presence or absence of myocardial viability and the beneficial effect of CABG plus medical therapy over medical therapy alone (P = 0.34 for interaction). An increase in left ventricular ejection fraction was observed only among patients with myocardial viability, irrespective of treatment assignment. There was no association between changes in left ventricular ejection fraction and subsequent death. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study do not support the concept that myocardial viability is associated with a long-term benefit of CABG in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. The presence of viable myocardium was associated with improvement in left ventricular systolic function, irrespective of treatment, but such improvement was not related to long-term survival. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; STICH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595.).


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Coração/fisiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Volume Sistólico , Idoso , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Feminino , Seguimentos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
7.
N. Engl. j. med ; 381(8): 739-748, ago., 2019. graf., tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of assessment of myocardial viability in identifying patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy who might benefit from surgical revascularization remains controversial. Furthermore, although improvement in left ventricular function is one of the goals of revascularization, its relationship to subsequent outcomes is unclear. METHODS: Among 601 patients who had coronary artery disease that was amenable to coronaryartery bypass grafting (CABG) and who had a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or lower, we prospectively assessed myocardial viability using single-photonemission computed tomography, dobutamine echocardiography, or both. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo CABG and receive medical therapy or to receive medical therapy alone. Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured at baseline and after 4 months of follow-up in 318 patients. The primary end point was death from any cause. The median duration of follow-up was 10.4 years. RESULTS: CABG plus medical therapy was associated with a lower incidence of death from any cause than medical therapy alone (182 deaths among 298 patients in the CABG group vs. 209 deaths among 303 patients in the medical-therapy group; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.90). However, no significant interaction was observed between the presence or absence of myocardial viability and the beneficial effect of CABG plus medical therapy over medical therapy alone (P=0.34 for interaction). An increase in left ventricular ejection fraction was observed only among patients with myocardial viability, irrespective of treatment assignment. There was no association between changes in left ventricular ejection fraction and subsequent death. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study do not support the concept that myocardial viability is associated with a long-term benefit of CABG in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. The presence of viable myocardium was associated with improvement in left ventricular systolic function, irrespective of treatment, but such improvement was not related to long-term survival. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; STICH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595.). (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Estudos Prospectivos , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Emissão de Fóton Único de Sincronização Cardíaca
8.
Heart Lung Circ ; 28(9): 1310-1319, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266725

RESUMO

Degenerative or fibrocalcific aortic stenosis (AS) is now the most common native valvular heart disease assessed and managed by cardiologists in developed countries. Transthoracic echocardiography remains the quintessential imaging modality for the non-invasive characterisation of AS due to its widespread availability, superior assessment of flow haemodynamics, and a wealth of prognostic data accumulated over decades of clinical utility and research applications. With expanding technologies and increasing availability of treatment options such as transcatheter aortic valve replacements, in addition to conventional surgical approaches, accurate and precise assessment of AS severity is critical to guide decisions for and timing of interventions. Despite clear guideline echocardiographic parameters demarcating severe AS, discrepancies between transvalvular velocities, gradients, and calculated valve areas are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This often results in diagnostically challenging cases with significant implications. Greater emphasis must be placed on the quality of performance of basic two dimensional (2D) and Doppler measurements (attention to detail ensuring accuracy and precision), incorporating ancillary haemodynamic surrogates, understanding study- or patient-specific confounders, and recognising the role and limitations of stress echocardiography in the subgroups of low-flow low-gradient AS. A multiparametric approach, along with the incorporation of multimodality imaging (cardiac computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) in certain scenarios, is now mandatory to avoid incorrect misclassification of severe AS. This is essential to ensure appropriate selection of patients who would most benefit from interventions on the aortic valve to relieve the afterload mismatch resulting from truly severe valvular stenosis.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Ecocardiografia , Hemodinâmica , Imagem Multimodal , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/prevenção & controle , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/terapia , Calcinose/prevenção & controle , Calcinose/terapia , Humanos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e15990, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that coronary microcirculation dysfunction (CMVD) is closely correlated with adverse clinical outcomes. In this study, quantitative stress myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was used to evaluate the CMVD and to investigate its association with the prognosis of patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2006 to 2014, 227 consecutive patients with chest pain and a diagnostic coronary angiography without significant coronary artery stenosis (<50%) who underwent adenosine triphosphate disodium (ATP) stress MCE were enrolled. Quantitative MCE measurements were analyzed using replenishment curves. RESULTS: Median follow-up time of this study was 5.3 years. Predictors of impaired coronary flow reserve (CFR) were smoking, diabetes, high apolipoprotein B, high low-density lipoprotein, serum uric acid, and low apolipoprotein A. During follow-up, 22 patients were reported to have 30 cardiac events (21 unstable angina, 3 nonfatal myocardial infarctions, 6 percutaneous coronary interventions). Using multivariate analysis, abnormal ß reserve (≤1.6), impaired CFR (≤2.0), and diabetes were independent predictors of primary endpoint events in patients with nonobstructive CAD (P < .05). Multivariate analysis showed that CFR ≤2.0 (odds ratio [OR] =  25.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.01-182.32; P = .003), ß reserve ≤1.6 (OR = 29.96, 95% CI: 3.5-241.27; P = .002), and diabetic (OR = 33.11, 95% CI: 3.65-300.02; P = .002) significantly increased the risk of the primary endpoint events. CONCLUSIONS: ATP stress quantitative MCE is a feasible and effective method to evaluate microcirculation abnormalities in human coronary arteries and it can be used for the clinical analysis, risk stratification, and treatment of early CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco
10.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(5): 661-665, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300200

RESUMO

Exercise electrocardiography (ExECG) is widely employed to assess patients for coronary artery disease but it has limited diagnostic accuracy. Many patients with positive (ischemic) tests based on exercise-induced ST depression undergo secondary evaluation by noninvasive stress imaging. We hypothesized that high functional capacity in patients with positive ExECG could predict: (1) negative results in secondary evaluation by exercise echocardiography (ESE) or myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and (2) low mortality on late follow-up. We evaluated 511 consecutive patients (312 men, 199 women; age 51 ± 9 years) referred for ESE or MPS after an ischemic ExECG at a treadmill workload of ≥10 metabolic equivalents. All-cause mortality was also obtained. Of 511 patients, 401 underwent ESE and 110 had MPS for secondary study. ESE was negative in 94% (376 of 401) and positive in 6% (25 of 401). MPS was also negative in 94% (103 of 110) and positive in 6% (7 of 110). Total stress imaging results were negative in 92% (286 of 312) of men and 97% (193 of 199) of women. During follow-up of approximately 6 years, there were 3 deaths with total all-cause mortality of 0.6% and average annual mortality of 0.1%. In conclusion, high functional capacity in patients with an ischemic ExECG predicts a negative ESE or MPS in a large majority of patients and very favorable late survival in both men and women. These results suggest that patients with ischemic ExECGs and a workload of ≥10 metabolic equivalents during ExECG may not require additional noninvasive or invasive evaluation.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , California , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Kardiol Pol ; 77(7-8): 696-702, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rotation and twist of the left ventricle (LV) have been comprehensively evaluated at rest. However, little is known about rotational mechanics during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). AIMS: We aimed to quantify and compare the basal and apical rotation and twist of the LV at rest as well as at the peak and recovery stages of DSE in patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We enrolled 91 patients, including 48 patients with CAD and 43 patients without CAD (mean [SD] age, 62 [9] years and 61 [10] years, respectively). Coronary artery disease was defined as the presence of stenoses of 50% or more in the left main coronary artery and/or stenoses of 70% or more in other epicardial arteries. Rotation was measured by 2­dimensional speckle­tracking echocardiography, and twist was calculated as the difference between the basal and apical rotation. RESULTS: Neither rotation nor twist differed between patients with and without CAD at rest, although apical rotation was significantly greater in the CAD group at peak DSE (mean [SD], 5.43° [3.45°] vs 3.71° [3.52°], P = 0.01) and at recovery (mean [SD], 5.05° [3.65°] vs 2.87° [2.73°], P <0.01). On the contrary, the absolute value for basal rotation at recovery was higher in patients without CAD (mean [SD], 3.87° [3.37°] vs 2.63° [2.43°], P = 0.03). In both groups, the rotation and twist did not change significantly during the dobutamine challenge. CONCLUSIONS: During DSE, we observed differences in LV rotation between patients with and without CAD, revealing the effect of ischemia on deformation parameters.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rotação , Função Ventricular Esquerda
12.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(4): 528-533, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204038

RESUMO

Exercise stress echocardiograms (ESEs) are a functional cardiovascular (CV) test typically used for the investigation of coronary artery disease. ESEs are often terminated at a predetermined age-predicted maximum heart rate (APMHR) to facilitate timely acquisition of ultrasound images at peak exercise. Although an APMHR of 85% is often used, this has not been validated as a suitable termination end point. Heart rate blood pressure product (HRBPP) as an established measure of myocardial work may provide a more reliable assessment of cardiac workload. The aim of this study was to assess maximal HRBPP (MHRBPP) and APMHR as markers of cardiac workload during ESE, using CV events at mean follow-up as the outcome variable. After exclusions, 712 patients being investigated for ischemic heart disease, performed an ESE to volitional fatigue using the standard Bruce protocol. Patient demographics and test data were collected and patients followed for 4.4 ± 2.1 years. Cut-points for MHRBPP (25,060; area under curve 0.77) and APMHR (93.8% and 97.9%; area under curve 0.71; p = 0.12 for difference) were established from receiver operating characteristic analysis. Those achieving an APMHR >85% but MHRBPP <25,060 had significantly more CV events than achieving an MHRBPP >25,060 regardless of APMHR (p <0.05). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates the superior prognostic power of MHRBPP over APMHR alone for the prediction of future CV events in patients performing an otherwise negative ESE for the detection of myocardial ischemia.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco
13.
Echocardiography ; 36(6): 1084-1094, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared the diagnostic accuracy of longitudinal strain (LS) imaging during stress echocardiography with visual assessment of wall motion (WM) for detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Our systematic search included studies reporting diagnostic measures for LS imaging and visual assessment of WM for detecting significant CAD during stress echocardiography. Summary diagnostic accuracy measures including area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and likelihood ratios (LRs) were estimated. RESULTS: In thirteen studies with 978 patients, ten studies used invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard. Pooled AUC for diagnosing significant CAD was 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.94) for LS imaging as compared to 0.83 (95% CI 0.80-0.86), P < 0.001 for visual assessment of WM. LS imaging had higher sensitivity (88% [95% CI 84-92] vs 74% [95% CI 68-80], P < 0.001) and comparable specificity to visual assessment of WM (80% [95% CI 72-87] vs 83% [95% CI 74-90], P = 0.592). The DOR for LS imaging and visual assessment of WM was 31 and 15, P = 0.254, respectively. The positive LR was 4.5 for both; negative LR was 0.14 and 0.31, P = 0.002 for LS imaging and visual assessment of WM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal strain imaging during stress echocardiography has better diagnostic accuracy for detecting significant CAD as compared to visual assessment of WM. Studies using larger sample size and standardized techniques of strain measurement are required to further ascertain the added advantage of strain measurement over visual assessment alone.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
14.
Echocardiography ; 36(6): 1095-1102, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress testing in patients with low pretest probability (PTP) of coronary artery disease (CAD) has become an increasing practice, potentially leading to underestimation of its true clinical value. Our aim was to describe the current use of most employed imaging functional tests and their prognostic value. METHODS AND RESULTS: We selected patients with low PTP of CAD (CAD consortium clinical score < 15%) who underwent exercise or dipyridamole stress echocardiography or single photon emission computed tomography for suspected angina. Main exclusions were age < 45, known CAD, and abnormal rest wall motion. Of the 2279 subjects undergoing stress test, 883 (39%) had low PTP, and 91 (10.3%) had a positive test for ischemia. After a median follow-up of 5.8 years, 36 patients had events (21 died, 14 had nonfatal myocardial infarction). The percentage of events in the abnormal and normal stress test groups were similar (5 [5.5%] vs 31 [3.9%], P = ns), as the annualized event rate (0.87% vs 0.62%, P = ns). Age was the only variable associated with outcome in the regression analysis (hazard ratio 1.072, 95% CI 1.034-1.113, P < 0.001). An abnormal result was not associated with worse outcome in each of the subgroups of functional tests. CONCLUSIONS: In our geographical area, a considerable proportion of patients undergoing imaging functional tests for stable chest pain have a low estimated PTP of CAD. Of these, 1 in 10 resulted positive for inducible ischemia. However, none of the most common imaging functional tests, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and stress echocardiography offer prognostic information in these patients.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor no Peito/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(9): 1651-1659, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053980

RESUMO

We investigated the influence of the extent of viability using low dose dobutamine wall motion score index (WMS) on the survival benefit of surgical revascularization (CABG) versus medical therapy. In the STICH trial, viability assessment was not helpful in determining the benefit of CABG. However, the extent of viable myocardium with contractile function was not assessed in the trial. Dobutamine echocardiography was performed in 250 patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction (125-medically treated, 125-CABG). The mean ejection fraction (EF) was 32% in both groups. WMS during low dose dobutamine infusion was used to classify patients into groups with extensive (WMS < 2.00), intermediate (WMS 2.00-2.49), and limited (WMS ≥ 2.50) viability. Survival free of cardiac death was assessed at 2 years and for the complete duration of follow-up. There were 44 (35.2%) and 67 (53.6%) cardiac deaths in the revascularized and medically treated patients respectively (follow-up of 5.7 ± 5.8 years). Revascularized and medically treated patients with extensive viability had similar 2-year survival (p = 0.567) but revascularized patients had improved long-term survival (p = 0.0001). In those with intermediate viability, revascularization improved both 2 year (p = 0.014) and long-term survival (p = 0.0001). In patients with limited viability, 2-year survival was worse in revascularized patients (p = 0.04) and long-term survival was similar (p = 0 .25) in revascularized and medically treated groups. Patients with extensive and intermediate amounts of viability have improved survival with CABG but those with limited viability have poorer short-term outcome and no long-term benefit.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Dobutamina/administração & dosagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias/cirurgia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Miocárdio/patologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Sobrevivência de Tecidos , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/cirurgia
16.
Hemoglobin ; 43(1): 34-37, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084365

RESUMO

ß-Thalassemia major (ß-TM) patients are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Determination of subclinical cardiac involvement is essential for preventive measures. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the role of stress echocardiography for identification of subclinical cardiac dysfunction in ß-TM patients. In this prospective study, 45 ß-TM patients who were referred for cardiac evaluation, were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included non sinus rhythm and overt cardiac disease. Stress echocardiography levels and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results were obtained from ß-TM patients. Patients were divided into two groups of normal vs. iron overload from cardiac T2* greater or less than 20 msec, respectively. Resting and peak exercise right ventricular stroke volume (RVSV) and left ventricular SV (LVSV) were significantly lower in iron overload vs. normal ß-TM patients, respectively (p value <0.05). At peak LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) and myocardial performance index (MPI) were significantly decreased and increased compared with resting in iron overload vs. normal ß-TM patients, respectively (p value <0.05). There was a significant relationship between inappropriate hemodynamic response to exercise and lower age (p value = 0.032). Resting LVSV and RVSV seemed better prognosticators for iron overload than LV ejection fraction (LVEF). Decreased GLS and increased MPI at peak exercise could also predict the presence of cardiac iron overload. These measurements by stress echocardiography could be evaluated when cardiac T2* could not be determined.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Talassemia beta/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Quelantes de Ferro/uso terapêutico , Sobrecarga de Ferro/diagnóstico , Sobrecarga de Ferro/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrecarga de Ferro/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto Jovem , Talassemia beta/diagnóstico , Talassemia beta/terapia
17.
Heart Lung Circ ; 28(9): 1376-1383, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078426

RESUMO

Stress echocardiography is an established cardiac imaging modality for the detection and quantification of severity of coronary artery disease. In recent years, there has also been an increasing use of stress echocardiography in the assessment of non-ischaemic cardiac disease given its ability to assess functional capacity and haemodynamic changes with exercise which can help guide therapy and inform prognosis. The emerging use of strain, myocardial contrast and three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography further assists in improving diagnostic accuracy particularly in patients with coronary artery disease. This paper summarises the protocols, indications and clinical applications of stress echocardiography in both ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiac disease.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional , Miocárdio , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Humanos
18.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; 53(3): 153-161, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063000

RESUMO

Objective. Skeletal muscle perfusion during walking relies on complex interactions between cardiac activity and vascular control mechanisms, why cardiac dysfunction may contribute to intermittent claudication (IC) symptoms. The study aims were to describe cardiac function at rest and during stress in consecutive IC patients, to explore the relations between cardiac function parameters and treadmill performance, and to test the hypothesis that clinically silent myocardial ischemia during stress may contribute to IC limb symptomatology. Design. Patients with mild to severe IC (n = 111, mean age 67 y, 52% females, mean treadmill distance 195 m) underwent standard echocardiography, dobutamine stress echocardiography (SE) and treadmill testing. The patient cohort was separated in two groups based on treadmill performance (HIGH and LOW performance). Results. Ten patients (9%) had regional wall motion abnormalities of which three had left ventricular ejection fraction <50% at standard echocardiography. A majority had lower than expected systolic- and diastolic ventricular volumes. LOW performers had smaller diastolic left ventricular volumes and lower global peak systolic velocity during dobutamine stress. No patient demonstrated significant cardiac dysfunction during dobutamine provocation that was not also evident at standard echocardiography. Conclusions. Most IC patients were without signs of ischemic heart disease or cardiac failure. The majority had small left ventricular volumes. The hypothesis that clinically silent myocardial ischemia impairing left ventricular function during stress may contribute to IC limb symptomatology was not supported.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/administração & dosagem , Dobutamina/administração & dosagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Teste de Esforço , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(10): 1853-1860, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129743

RESUMO

Right ventricular longitudinal strain (RVLS) by 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) is a useful parameter for assessing systolic function. However, the exact method to perform it is not well defined as some authors evaluate only free wall (FW) segments while others include all six RV segments. To compare the assessment of RVLS at rest and during exercise by these two approaches. Echocardiography was performed on 80 healthy subjects at rest and during exercise. The analysis consisted of standard and 2D-STE assessment of RV global and segmental strain tracing only RVFW and also tracing all six RV segments. At rest, RVLS could be assessed in 78 (feasibility 97.5%) subjects by both methods. However, during exercise, RVLS by RVFW method was feasible in 67 (83.8%) as compared to 74 (92.5%) by RV6S approach. Both at rest and during exercise, RVLS values by the two methods showed excellent correlation (r = > 0.90). However, RVLS values assessed by RV6S were lower (absolute values) than those by RVFW approach (RV6S vs. RVFW; rest: - 27.0 ± 3.9 vs. - 9.5 ± 3.9, p < 0.001 and exercise: - 30.7 ± 5.2 vs. - 33.3 ± 5.1, p < 0.001). Furthermore, basal strain was higher and apical strain lower (absolute values) by RV6S approach. At rest, reproducibility for RVLS was excellent and similar for the two methods. However, during exercise, reproducibility for RVFW method was poorer, especially at the apex. The two currently described methods for RVLS assessment by 2D-STE demonstrated excellent agreement. However, the RV6S approach seemed to be more feasible and reproducible, particularly during exercise. Moreover, global and segmental strain values are different with both methods and should not be interchanged.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Teste de Esforço , Função Ventricular Direita , Septo Interventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sístole , Septo Interventricular/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(7): 1891-1896, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptogenic stroke, now defined as embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS), represents about a quarter of all ischemic strokes and the reoccurrence is high. Understanding this stroke subtype better would likely guide treatment recommendations. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that left atrial (LA) shape and function at rest, as well as with exercise, are abnormal compared to matched normal controls. METHODS: The study design was prospective enrollment of ESUS subjects who underwent measurement of LA function at rest and exercise by 2D and 3D echocardiograms. The exercise portion of the study was conducted using a ramped supine bicycle protocol during which LA function was measured. Stroke subjects were matched with normal subjects by age, gender, and body surface area. RESULTS: Over a 1-year enrollment period, 18 ESUS patients met inclusionary criteria and were studied. Their average age was 58 years old and 44% were female. ESUS subjects have larger LA end-diastolic volume at rest (14 versus 11 mL/m2, P = .04) and with exercise (11 versus 6 mL/m2, P = .001) compared to normal controls. In ESUS, there was a lack of response to maximal exercise of LA function as measured by the LA ejection fraction (61% versus 73% P = .001) and the LA function index (.68 versus .82, P = .02). The 3D analysis showed spherical remodeling of the LA in ESUS. This remodeling was documented by the sphericity index, which was increased in both diastole (.40 versus .32, P = .02) and systole (.63 versus .71 P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: In support of our hypothesis, we found that ESUS subjects have LA dysfunction and remodeling at rest and exercise in comparison to healthy, matched controls. Evaluation of the left atrium in this high-risk stroke subtype has potential to inform stroke prevention strategies and to suggest pathways for research.


Assuntos
Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Remodelamento Atrial , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/complicações , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
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