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1.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25065, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047345

RESUMO

Neste artigo, nós refletimos sobre as possibilidade e responsabilidades da pedagogia crítica em relação ao neoliberalismo e a Educação Física. Ao explorar essas ideias, nós também discutimos os problemas da definição, bem como o colapso e confusão de termos como pedagogia crítica, pesquisa crítica e saúde crítica e Educação Física, bem como a problemática posição do neoliberalismo nos estudos críticos. Embora exista um crescente corpo de pesquisas que iluminam as nuanças e onipresença das políticas e práticas neoliberais em HPE -tanto em contextos globais e em contextos sociais específicos ­ nós argumentamos que ainda existe mais trabalho a ser feito para identificar como o trabalho pedagógico crítico pode dirigir-se (ou ao menos tentar) aos efeitos do neoliberalismo. Ao fim, continua a existir o perigo de que a pedagogia crítica em tempos neoliberais possa transmitir, em vez de contestar, os piores efeitos da escolarização neoliberal e do neoliberalismo em saúde e Educação Física


In this article, we reflect on the possibilities and responsibilities of critical pedagogy in relation to neoliberalism and physical education. In exploring these ideas, we also discuss problems of definition, such as the collapse and confusion of terms like critical pedagogy, critical research, and critical health and PE, as well the problematic positioning of 'neoliberalism' in critical scholarship. Although there is a growing body of research that illuminates the nuances and pervasiveness of neoliberal HPE policies and practices ­ both globally and in specific social contexts ­ we argue that there is still more work to be done to identify how critical pedagogical work may address (or at least attend to) the effects of neoliberalism. After all, there remains a 'danger' that critical pedagogy in neoliberal times may forward, rather than contest, the worst effects of neoliberal schooling and neoliberal HPE


En este artículo, reflexionamos sobre las posibilidades y las responsabilidades de la pedagogía crítica en relación al neoliberalismo y la Educación Física. Además de explorar estas ideas, debatimos los problemas de la definición, así como el colapso y la confusión de los términos como pedagogía crítica, investigación crítica, salud crítica y Educación Física, así como la problemática del neoliberalismo en los estudios críticos. Si bien hay un creciente cuerpo de investigaciones que iluminan los matices y la omnipresencia de las políticas y practicas neoliberales en HPE ­ tanto en los contextos globales como sociales específicos ­ nosotros argumentamos que ha todavia más trabajo por hacer para identificar como el trabajo pedagógico puede dirigirse (o por lo menos intentar) a los efectos del neoliberalismo. Al ultimo, sigue existiendo el peligro de que la pedagogía crítica en tiempos neoliberales pueda transmitir, en lugar de cuestionar, los peores efectos de la escolarización neoliberal y del neoliberalismo en salud y Educación Física


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Ensino , Educação em Saúde , Economia/tendências
4.
Value Health ; 22(6): 627-641, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have seen significant advancement in a range of health technologies, some with transformative or curative potential. Nevertheless, it is often unclear how global health systems recognize or reward innovation. OBJECTIVES: To consider what is transformative, challenges for transformative therapies, and downstream health ecosystem effects. METHODS: A systematic review of publications in English between 2012 and 2018 was conducted with a focus on value assessment processes and health system effects of a range of breakthrough health technology categories. After screening 9012 records, 222 unique studies were identified. The study also included an analysis of 100 health technology assessments (HTAs) from 5 markets to consider how and in what ways global HTA bodies evaluate transformative therapies. Global sales and technology/procedure utilization data were also evaluated to gain insights into patient access and commercial impact. RESULTS: This article evaluated uncertainties around evidence of efficacy, safety, and duration of effect, as well as underlying study quality and methodological considerations in the target categories. Although many HTA evaluations had similar approaches to assessing parameters such as safety, there were significant differences across technology categories. Technology-driven trends also surfaced where global HTA and payer systems may not yet be prepared to recognize and reward emerging technology impacts, including use of next-generation diagnostic results to guide care, considering novel impacts on therapy sequencing and clinical pathway management, and changes in payment and health delivery models. CONCLUSIONS: Some trends stemming from rapid evolution of breakthrough therapies will prompt reconsideration of our conventional value assessment and reward models, because health system measurement and management processes have not fully anticipated their effects.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Economia/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Saúde Global/normas , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Econ Hum Biol ; 33: 211-223, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003198

RESUMO

A growing body of the literature has argued that austerity has been bad for health, though without directly measuring austerity. This paper explicitly distinguishes the association of mortality with macroeconomic fluctuations from that with fiscal policy measures, using data for 28 European Union (EU) countries covering the period 1991-2013. The main results present a nuanced, complex picture about the mortality impact of fiscal policies. We confirm the mortality decreasing (increasing) effect of recessions (booms), with the exception of suicide mortality, which shows the opposite effects. Austerity regimes are associated with an increase in all-cause mortality (0.7%). At the same time, fiscal stimuli tend to significantly increase death rates due to cirrhosis or chronic liver disease (3%) and those due to vehicle accidents (4.3%). Our results are sensitive to the set of countries included: when excluding the Baltics, Romania and Hungary, austerity policies turn out to significantly increase suicide-related mortality (2.8%), while the effect on all-cause mortality remains unaffected (0.7%). Overall, however it appears that the austerity-increasing effects are mostly compensated by the (mostly) mortality-decreasing effects of recessions. A notable exception appears to be suicides, which receive a 'double-boost' from both recessions and austerity.


Assuntos
Economia/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Políticas , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Med Law Rev ; 27(2): 267-294, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272190

RESUMO

This article explores the relationship between obligation and publicly funded healthcare. Taking the National Health Service (NHS) as the focal point of discussion, the article presents a historical analysis of the shifting nature and function of obligation as it relates to this institution. Specifically, and drawing inspiration from recent literature that takes seriously the notion of the tie or bond at the core of obligation, the article explores how the forms of social relation and bonds underpinning a system like the NHS have shifted across time. This is undertaken via an analysis of Aneurin Bevan's vision of the NHS at its foundation, the importance today of the patient (and the individual generally) within publicly funded healthcare, and the role of contract as a contemporary governance mechanism within the NHS. A core feature of the article is its emphasis on the impact that a variety of economic factors-including privatisation, marketisation, and the role of debt and finance capital-are having on previously settled understandings of obligation and the forms of social relation underpinning them associated with the NHS. It is therefore argued that an adequate analysis of obligation in healthcare law and related fields must extend beyond the doctor-patient relationship and that of state-citizen of the classical welfare state in order to incorporate new forms of relation, such as that between creditor and debtor, and new actors, including private healthcare providers and financial institutions.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/ética , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/tendências , Responsabilidade Social , Contratos , Assistência à Saúde/história , Economia/tendências , Ética nos Negócios , Ética Institucional , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Financiamento Governamental/ética , Financiamento Governamental/história , Financiamento Governamental/tendências , História do Século XX , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais/ética , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/história , Privatização , Reino Unido
7.
Fam Community Health ; 42(1): 54-61, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431469

RESUMO

Experiences during infancy create durable and heritable patterns of social deprivation and illness producing health disparities. This retrospective cohort study of 71 836 infants from Winnipeg, Manitoba, assessed associations between maternal social and economic factors and infant mortality, morbidity, and congenital anomaly. This study found that newborn and postneonatal hospital readmissions are inversely associated with geography. Additionally, social context, including maternal history of child abuse, is associated with infant postneonatal hospital readmissions. Geography and education are associated with infant mortality. Income was not associated with infant mortality or morbidity following adjustment for social support. Interestingly, congenital anomaly rates are 1.2 times more common among 2 parent families and male infants. Understanding associations between infant health and maternal social and economic factors may contribute to interventions and policies to improve health equity.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Economia/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Meio Social , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Sci Data ; 5: 180225, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351304

RESUMO

The Government of Madagascar is trying to reduce deforestation and conserve biodiversity through creating new protected areas in the eastern rainforests. While this has many benefits, forest use restriction may bring costs to farmers at the forest frontier. We explored this through a series of surveys in five sites around the Corridor Ankeniheny Zahamena new protected area and adjacent national parks. In phase one a stratified random sample of 603 households completed a household survey covering demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and a choice experiment to estimate the opportunity costs of conservation. A stratified sub-sample (n = 171) then completed a detailed agricultural survey (including recording inputs and outputs from 721 plots) and wild-harvested product survey. The data have been archived with ReShare (UK Data Service). Together these allow a deeper understanding of the household economy on the forest frontier in eastern Madagascar and their swidden agricultural system, the benefits households derive from the forests through wild-harvested products, and the costs of conservation restrictions to forest edge communities.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Economia , Floresta Úmida , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Economia/tendências , Humanos , Madagáscar
10.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196792, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723295

RESUMO

The fat-tail financial data and cyclical financial market makes it difficult for the fixed structure model based on Gaussian distribution to characterize the dynamics of corporate bonds spreads. Using a flexible structure model based on generalized error distribution, this paper focuses on the impact of macro-level factors on the spreads of corporate bonds in China. It is found that in China's corporate bonds market, macroeconomic conditions have obvious structural transformational effects on bonds spreads, and their structural features remain stable with the downgrade of bonds ratings. The impact of macroeconomic conditions on spreads is significant for different structures, and the differences between the structures increase as ratings decline. For different structures, the persistent characteristics of bonds spreads are obviously stronger than those of recursive ones, which suggest an obvious speculation in bonds market. It is also found that the structure switching of bonds with different ratings is not synchronous, which indicates the shift of investment between different grades of bonds.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Modelos Econométricos , China , Custos e Análise de Custo/economia , Economia/tendências , Cadeias de Markov , Corporações Profissionais/economia , Risco , Distribuições Estatísticas
11.
Health Econ ; 27(1): 189-208, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28618448

RESUMO

We provide the first empirical evidence that better economic performances by immigrants' countries of origin, as measured by lower consumer price index (CPI) or higher gross domestic product, improve immigrants' mental health. We use an econometrically-robust approach that exploits exogenous changes in macroeconomic conditions across immigrants' home countries over time and controls for immigrants' observable and unobservable characteristics. The CPI effect is statistically significant and sizeable. Furthermore, the CPI effect diminishes as the time since emigrating increases. By contrast, home countries' unemployment rates and exchange rate fluctuations have no impact on immigrants' mental health.


Assuntos
Economia/tendências , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Modelos Econométricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(1): e170068, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895117

RESUMO

The Caribbean Red Snapper (Pargo) Lutjanus purpureus is the most economically important snapper in Brazil, which is sold, among other forms, as frozen fillets. During the process of transformation into fillets there is the removal of the distinctive morphological traits, being able to favor the substitution by less valued species. In addition, there is no national legislation requiring the insertion of the specific name on the product label. However, according to a Normative Instruction (IN N ° 29/2015 MAPA) that correlates the common and specific names of the products destined to the national trade, in Brazil only L. purpureus and L. campechanus can be denominated "Pargo". Thus, the DNA barcode tool was used to identify the fillets sold in north of Brazil, labeled "Pargo", with the aid of sequences from the public and control databases. The results showed that among 142 fillets examined, 78% was identified as L. purpureus and 22% as Rhomboplites aurorubens, a snapper with low commercial value in the country, revealing commercial fraud. The molecular identification method successfully used in this study to authenticate fillets snappers may also be used by surveillance authorities in the quality control of processed fish products, towards ensuring consumer rights.(AU)


O Pargo Lutjanus purpureus, lutjanídeo mais importante economicamente no Brasil, é vendido, entre outras formas, como filés congelados. Durante a transformação em filés, há a remoção das características morfológicas distintivas, podendo favorecer a substituição por espécies menos valorizadas. Além disso, não há legislação nacional que exija a inserção do nome específico no rótulo. Porém, de acordo com uma Instrução Normativa (IN N° 29 /2015 MAPA) que correlaciona os nomes comuns e específicos dos produtos destinados ao comércio nacional, no Brasil somente L. purpureus e L. campechanus podem ser denominados "Pargo". Assim, a ferramenta DNA barcode foi usada para identificar os filés vendidos no norte do Brasil, rotulados como "Pargo", com o auxílio de sequências dos bancos de dados públicos e banco controle. Os resultados mostraram que entre os 142 filés examinados, 78% foi identificado como L. purpureus e 22% como Rhomboplites aurorubens, um lutjanídeo com baixo valor comercial no país, revelando fraude comercial. O método de identificação molecular, utilizado com êxito neste estudo para autenticar filés de lutjanídeos, pode também ser utilizado pelas autoridades de vigilância no controle de qualidade de produtos processados derivados de peixes em geral, para garantir os direitos dos consumidores.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , DNA/análise , Economia/tendências , Perciformes/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0171238, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257506

RESUMO

This study investigates patterns of lay perception of economics, and in particular the place of conspiratorial thinking regarding the economic domain. We devised four types of accounts in the economic domain, over a range of questions regarding different aspects of the economy: the classical neo-liberal economic view (which we labeled Econ101), and the Conspiracy view (the destructive outcomes of economy are due to small and powerful groups who are manipulating the markets), to which we added the Government malfunction view (failures in the economy are due to the authorities), and the Bad Invisible Hand view (the invisible hand may go wrong, and the equilibrium reached by its doings may be undesirable). The last two views are the ones most strongly endorsed by our respondents, in the US, Israel and Switzerland. The pattern of inter-correlations between the four accounts, and that between each and the psycho-social variables we examined, exhibits two clusters, Econ101 vs. the other three views of economy. This corresponds to a general opposition between people who trust the neoliberal economic system, and those opposed to it. What sets economic conspiratorial thinking apart are its links with other conspirational beliefs and with paranormal beliefs.


Assuntos
Economia Comportamental , Economia/tendências , Governo , Humanos , Política , Pensamento
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 187: 296-305, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28238540

RESUMO

Economic reform programs designed by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank-so-called 'structural adjustment programs'-have formed one of the most influential policy agendas of the past four decades. To gain access to financial support from these organizations, countries-often in economic crisis-have reduced public spending, limited the role of the state, and deregulated economic activity. This article identifies the multiple components of structural adjustment, and presents a conceptual framework linking them to health systems and outcomes. Based on a comprehensive review of the academic literature, the article identifies three main pathways through which structural adjustment affects health: policies directly targeting health systems; policies indirectly impacting health systems; and policies affecting the social determinants of health. The cogency of the framework is illustrated by revisiting Greece's recent experience with structural adjustment, drawing on original IMF reports and secondary literature. Overall, the framework offers a lens through which to analyze the health consequences of structural adjustment across time, space and levels of socioeconomic development, and can be utilized in ex ante health impact assessments of these policies.


Assuntos
Economia/tendências , Política de Saúde/tendências , Agências Internacionais/economia , Nações Unidas/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Grécia , Política de Saúde/economia , Humanos
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 178: 1-10, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28189818

RESUMO

Economic research on child health and future labor market outcomes has mainly focused on children with impaired health themselves, and only recently begun to assess spillover effects for siblings. Yet, the challenge to accommodate a family's routines within the requirements of a complex and time-consuming disease is most likely to spillover on siblings. While the burden of ill health and managing a disease may have adverse effects, living with a disease may still give families useful experiences and skills that favor future labor market outcomes. Therefore, the potential labor market impacts of growing up with a sick sibling could be both positive and negative. This study investigates differences in the progression of annual labor earnings between siblings of children with type 1-diabetes and population controls. The data is based on detailed Swedish longitudinal registers, covering annual labor earnings in the years 1990-2010 for 764 siblings of 764 children with diabetes and 5506 population controls born in 1962-1971, and follow individuals between ages 19-48. The results indicate that brothers of children with type 1-diabetes have lower earnings growth than controls, while sisters' earnings growth appears unaffected. Consequently, spillovers from one family member to another might differ within a family.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/economia , Economia/tendências , Irmãos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Relações entre Irmãos , Suécia
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 178: 144-156, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28214725

RESUMO

Given many developing economies depend on primary commodities, the fluctuations of commodity prices may imply significant effects for the wellbeing of children. To investigate, this paper examines the relationship between child mortality and commodity price movements as reflected by country-specific commodity terms-of-trade. Employing a panel of 69 low and lower-middle income countries over the period 1970-2010, we show that commodity terms-of-trade volatility increases child mortality in highly commodity-dependent importers suggesting a type of 'scarce' resource curse. Strikingly however, good institutions appear able to mitigate the negative impact of volatility. The paper concludes by highlighting this tripartite relationship between child mortality, volatility and good institutions and posits that an effective approach to improving child wellbeing in low to lower-middle income countries will combine hedging, import diversification and improvement of institutional quality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Comércio/métodos , Economia/tendências , Alocação de Recursos/economia , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Comércio/tendências , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Desnutrição/economia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0169556, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28085906

RESUMO

Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies' market values. In the past, researchers argued that the "buzz" surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that the latter is in fact the most important factor associated with increases in cryptocurrency returns. By contrast, we find that the buzz surrounding cryptocurrencies is negatively associated with returns after controlling for a variety of factors, such as supply growth and liquidity. Also interesting is our finding that a cryptocurrency's association with fraudulent activity is not negatively associated with weekly returns-a result that further qualifies the media's influence on cryptocurrencies. Finally, we find that an increase in supply is positively associated with weekly returns. Taken together, our findings show that cryptocurrencies do not behave like traditional currencies or commodities-unlike what most prior research has assumed-and depict an industry that is much more mature, and much less speculative, than has been implied by previous accounts.


Assuntos
Comércio/tendências , Economia/tendências , Marketing/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Humanos , Marketing/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Health Econ ; 26(7): 827-833, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27683089

RESUMO

Significant contributions have been made since the World Health Organization published Brian Abel-Smith's pioneering comparative study of national health expenditures more than 50 years ago. There have been major advances in theories, model specifications, methodological approaches, and data structures. This introductory essay provides a historical context for this line of work, highlights four newly published studies that move health economics research forward, and indicates several important areas of challenging but potentially fruitful research to strengthen future contributions to the literature and make empirical findings more useful for evaluating health policy decisions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Economia/tendências , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Modelos Econômicos , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
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