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1.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 273-277, jul. - set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118861

RESUMO

Three species of the Ascomycetes genus Camillea were recorded in a fragment of Amazon rainforest in the region of Santarém, Pará state, Brazil. The occurrence of C. leprieurii, C. cyclops and C. bilabiata expand the range of distribution of these species in the state. Camillea leprieurii has previous records in the regions of Marabá, Oriximiná, Itaituba and Novo Progresso, while C. cyclops had been recorded in the west of the state. This is the first record of C. bilabiata for Pará. We provide a morphological description of the specimens and an identification key for Camillea species found in Pará. (AU)


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Xylariales , Fungos , Ecossistema Amazônico
2.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 192-198, jul. - set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118817

RESUMO

Enrichment plantings into secondary forest are an important option in restoring species diversity and ecosystem services. However, little attention has been given to environmental requirements for species performance. This study evaluated the effects of lightgaps and topographic position on the growth and survival of four native tree species (Pouteria caimito, Garcinia macrophylla, Dipteryx odorata and Cynometra bauhiniaefolia) planted into a 26-year old secondary forest originating from abandoned pastures in the central Amazon Basin. Artificial lightgaps and control plots under closed canopy were uniformly distributed on plateaus and bottomlands near water bodies. Seedlings were planted randomly into the plots and monitored for 28 months. Seedling survival rate was high (93%) and did not differ among species. Overall, lightgaps produced a 38% increase in seedling height relative to the controls. Although the four species naturally occur in mature forest, two of the four grew significantly more in lightgaps than in closed canopy secondary forest. Overall, bottomlands facilitated greater seedling growth in height (38%) relative to plateaus, but only one species exhibited a significant increase. This study shows the importance of the environmental variability generated with canopy openings along the topographic gradient, suggesting that both the selection of species and microsite conditions of planting sites have to be considered important criteria in the recovery of degraded areas. (AU)


Assuntos
Cultivos Agrícolas , Pastagens , Ecossistema Amazônico , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
3.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 256-259, jul. - set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118852

RESUMO

The oviposition behavior of the rare butterfly Minstrellus grandis (Callaghan, 1999) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) is recorded for the first time. Two females laid eggs on the old leaves of an unidentified Triplaris sp. (Polygonaceae), a myrmecophytic plant typically known as 'Triplaria' or 'novice' tree, inhabited by aggressive 'taxi' ants of the genus Pseudomyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). These observations suggest that M. grandis caterpillars live associated with one of the most harmful types of Amazon ant-plant symbiosis. (AU)


Assuntos
Formigas , Simbiose , Borboletas , Ecossistema Amazônico , Carnivoridade , Oviposição
4.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 260-262, jul. - set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118854

RESUMO

The first record of Vanilla labellopapillata is presented for the state of Amazonas, Brazil, in the region of Manaus, now the western limit of the species, which was previously known only from the type locality in the state of Pará. A brief description is provided and taxonomic and ecological aspects of the species are discussed in the light of this new finding. (AU)


Assuntos
Florestas , Classificação , Ecossistema Amazônico , Vanilla
5.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 213-222, jul. - set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118827

RESUMO

The ruderal babassu palm (Attalea speciosa) is expanding on large areas of degraded Amazon landscapes. Decomposition of leaves and roots is in the center of plant:soil interactions. We evaluated decomposition and nutrient concentrations of leaves and fine roots of babassu in comparison with two exotic reference species, Acacia mangium (slow degradability) and Leucaena leucocephala (fast degradability), in a 138-day litterbag assay carried out in secondary forest stands of different age and babassu abundance. We chose 4-mm over 2-mm mesh litterbags based on a pilot study. Babassu leaves degraded slower than leaves of A. mangium and L. leucocephala, and also had lower nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium concentrations in all stages of decomposition. By contrast, potassium concentrations in babassu leaves were higher than in both reference species at 0 and 50 days. Roots of all three species decomposed slower than leaves. Compared to the leaves, both biomass loss and nutrient concentrations differed less between babassu and reference-species roots, except for lower nitrogen concentration in babassu roots. Leaf-litter decomposition of all three species was significantly faster in old than in young secondary forest, suggesting an acceleration of decomposition along succession. Babassu leaves decomposed faster in old babassu-dominated than non-dominated secondary forest, pointing to the existence of specialized decomposer communities in babassu-dominated stands. (AU)


Assuntos
Solo , Nutrientes , Ecossistema Amazônico , Acacia , Matéria Orgânica
6.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-07-23. (PAHO/CDE/VT/20-0034).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52508

RESUMO

In 2018, an estimated five million people in the Region of the Americas lived in areas where trachoma is a public health problem, mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, and Peru. In an effort to establish the situation of trachoma in the Region, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has promoted, among other activities, a search for groups affected by this disease in other countries, primarily in populations living in conditions of vulnerability, such as those in the Amazon region. In October 2019 a meeting was held in Panama City, Panama, to establish a roadmap for addressing trachoma in conjunction with other neglected infectious diseases (such as soil-transmitted helminth infections, lymphatic filariasis, ectoparasitic diseases, leprosy, Chagas disease, and yaws) and other blinding eye diseases (mature cataract and advanced pterygium) in remote populations in the Amazon region. This report—available in Spanish, English, and Portuguese—presents the recommendations of the meeting’s participants in two areas of work: 1) integrated mapping of the diseases and associated risk factors; and 2) integrated actions for the control and elimination of these diseases.


Assuntos
Tracoma , Cegueira , Doenças Transmissíveis , Ecossistema Amazônico , Infecções por Coronavirus
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2020-07-23. (OPS/CDE/VT/20-0034).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52507

RESUMO

Estima-se que, em 2018, 5 milhões de pessoas viviam em áreas da Região das Américas nas quais o tracoma representa um problema de saúde pública, particularmente no Brasil, Colômbia, Guatemala e Peru. Como parte dos esforços para determinar a situação do tracoma, a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) tem promovido a busca de grupos afetados pela doença em outros países da Região, principalmente em populações que, como as da Amazônia, encontram-se em situação de vulnerabilidade. Em outubro de 2019 foi realizada uma reunião na Cidade do Panamá (Panamá) com o objetivo de estabelecer um roteiro de trabalho para abordar o tracoma de forma integrada com outras doenças infecciosas negligenciadas (como geohelmintíases, filariose linfática, ectoparasitoses, hanseníase, doença de Chagas e bouba) e outras doenças oculares que causam cegueira (catarata madura e pterígio avançado) em populações que vivem em áreas de difícil acesso na Amazônia. Este relatório — disponível em espanhol, inglês e português — apresenta as recomendações dos participantes da reunião em duas áreas de trabalho: 1) mapeamento integrado das doenças e seus fatores de risco e 2) ações integradas para o controle e a eliminação das doenças.


Assuntos
Tracoma , Cegueira , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Ecossistema Amazônico
8.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-07-20. (OPS/CDE/VT/20-0034).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52494

RESUMO

Se estima que, en el 2018, 5 millones de personas vivían en zonas de la Región de las Américas en las que el tracoma representa un problema de salud pública, en particular en Brasil, Colombia, Guatemala y Perú. Como parte de las actividades para determinar la situación del tracoma, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha impulsado la búsqueda de grupos afectados por la enfermedad en otros países de la Región, principalmente en poblaciones que, como las de la Amazonia, se encuentran en situación de vulnerabilidad. En octubre del 2019 se celebró en Ciudad de Panamá (Panamá) una reunión dirigida a establecer una hoja de ruta que abordase el tracoma de manera integrada con otras enfermedades infecciosas desatendidas (como la geohelmintiasis, la filariasis linfática, las ectoparasitosis, la lepra, la enfermedad de Chagas y el pian) y otras enfermedades oculares que causan ceguera (catarata madura y pterigión avanzado) para poblaciones en zonas de difícil acceso en la Amazonia.Este informe —disponible en español, inglés y portugués— presenta las recomendaciones de los participantes en la reunión en dos esferas de trabajo: 1) el mapeo integrado de las enfermedades y los factores de riesgo asociados y 2) las acciones integradas para el control y la eliminación de las enfermedades.


Assuntos
Tracoma , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Controle de Infecções , Ecossistema Amazônico , Cegueira
9.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 138-141, abr - jun. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118283

RESUMO

The Crimson Topaz, Topaza pella, is the least known of the two hummingbird species of this exclusively Amazonian trochilid genus, that also includes T. pyra. Most available information on T. pella nests, young and reproductive behavior is based on anecdotal observations from Guyana in the 1930s and 1950s. Here, we provide new data on nest description, eggs and parental care of T. pella, and the growth and development of two nestlings over a 22-day period. We studied four nests in areas of dense terra firme forest in the state of Amapá, Brazil. All nests were in forked branches of shrubs over water bodies, and had a cup-like form. One nest contained two elongated white eggs, and another, two nestlings, which had their development recorded until they left the nest. (AU)


Assuntos
Reprodução , Aves , Ecossistema Amazônico
10.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 133-137, abr - jun. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118280

RESUMO

Invasive species influence the structure and functioning of ecosystems, as they affect native species, significantly decreasing their diversity. Aquatic ecosystems harbor a great biodiversity, and invasive macrophytes significantly affect the native plant communities, causing a cascade effect on other trophic levels. Among invasive macrophytes, Urochloa arrecta is cause for concern in the Neotropics and is found in several regions of Brazil, specially in the southeastern and southern regions. So far the species had been recorded only in the northern state of Amazonas. We report the first record of the species in the state of Pará, in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We emphasize that identifying sites where this species is invasive is the best strategy to prevent its spread, aiming at the protection and conservation of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems. (AU)


Assuntos
Flora Aquática , Ecologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Ecossistema Amazônico
11.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 124-132, abr - jun. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118271

RESUMO

Shade-tolerant forest species are among the most susceptible to habitat loss in agricultural mosaics, where a variety of croplands is connected to forests at different levels of anthropogenic disturbance. We aimed to evaluate the community similarity of shade-tolerant species among different land use types across agricultural mosaics with different levels of disturbance. The study was conducted in three municipalities in southern and southeastern Pará state, in eastern Amazonia. A multiple-community similarity measure based on the Horn similarity index was used to compare land use types and assess the resilience of shade-tolerant species towards forest loss and disturbance at the landscape level. High shade-tolerant species similarity was found between mature forest fragments that underwent different levels of disturbance in all three agricultural mosaics, but secondary forests had lower similarity with mature forest in the most fragmented and altered mosaic. Shade-tolerant species showed very low density in croplands, but the same group of species seemed to colonize agricultural fields of annual crops and clean pasture, as they showed high community similarity. Another group of species was present in invaded pastures, probably due to the effects of time since land abandonment after woody species colonization. Mixed tree plantations were more similar to mature and secondary forests than other types of croplands. Shade-tolerant species similarity was higher among land use types inserted in agricultural landscapes that maintained conserved forest fragments. Our results suggest that the conservation of mature forests and landscape connectivity are crucial to the maintenance of shade-tolerant species in agricultural mosaics. (AU)


Assuntos
Usos do Solo , Pastagens , Florestas , Ecossistema Amazônico
12.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 119-123, abr - jun. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118269

RESUMO

Lophostoma carrikeri has been mostly recorded within the Amazon biome. There are scarce records in the northern Brazilian Amazon, but also records outside this biome, which were neglected in literature. The aim of this study was to update and extend the distribution of L. carrikeri. Seven new localities in Brazil were provided, including the first records for the states of Rondônia and Mato Grosso, filling a large gap in the species distribution, and three additional records for the state of Pará. Our results reinforce the notion that L. carrikeri is widely distributed in the Amazon, but is also present in other biomes in Brazil, such as Caatinga, Cerrado, and transitional areas. (AU)


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Ecossistema Amazônico , Pradaria , Floresta Úmida
13.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 142-148, abr - jun. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118376

RESUMO

This is the first study to investigate mercury (Hg) contamination in felid species in the Brazilian Amazon. We collected 26 fur samples from wild felids of four species (Puma concolor, Panthera onca, Leopardus pardalis and Leopardus wiedii) occurring in the Mamirauá and Amanã sustainable development reserves, in the state of Amazonas. Samples were from museum specimens, except for five P. onca samples collected from free-living individuals. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.12 to 48.1 µg g-1. Concentrations of Hg did not differ significantly between museum specimens and live individuals of P. onca, but varied significantly among species, with significantly higher concentrations for P. onca and L. pardalis, which could be related to factors such as diet and habitat. (AU)


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Bioacumulação , Mamíferos , Ecossistema Amazônico , Mercúrio/toxicidade
14.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 149-154, abr - jun. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118395

RESUMO

Although the number of recently described Tovomita species is relatively high, much more remains to be done, given that each new survey of representative Amazonian collections reveals many potentially undescribed taxa. In the treatment for Tovomita published in Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, at least six distinct morphotypes did not match any previously described species. Here we recognize morphotype "D" as a new endemic species from Cerro de la Neblina. Additionally, we provide an identification key to the Tovomita species in Venezuela. (AU)


Assuntos
Ecossistema Amazônico , Clusiaceae , Venezuela
15.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 155-158, abr - jun. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118403

RESUMO

Crypturellus duidae (Tinamidae) is a poor-soil specialist with isolated populations in Amazonia, and is considered restricted to white-sand forest habitats. We report the first record of C. duidae in a peatland forest in northern Peru, in the Putumayo River basin. Our record extends the known distribution of C. duidae between two disjoint areas of occurrence in Peru and Colombia, and shows its presence in peatland forest, another forest type on nutrient-poor soils. Additionally, we report the presence of other poor-soil specialist bird species that were previously registered in peatlands. Together with the new record of C. duidae, these bird records provide evidence of the diversity of poor-soil specialists in peatland forests. (AU)


Assuntos
Florestas , Ecossistema Amazônico , Condições do Solo , Áreas Alagadas
16.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 159-169, abr - jun. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118438

RESUMO

Studies on provenance of minerals in Amazonian rivers focus mostly on suspended sediments, while processes that control bottom-sediment production and distribution are still little known. We determined the provenance of the bottom sediments of Green Lake, a micro-basin draining into the Tapajós River, in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We used X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and, cathodoluminescence techniques to analyze clay, light and heavy minerals of 22 samples. The lake is L-shaped, with 5.5 m maximum depth, and predominance of mud over sand in the center. Quartz and feldspar were dominant in the light fraction, while zircon, tourmaline, kyanite, rutile, and staurolite were dominant in the heavy fraction. The clay fraction was dominated by kaolinite, with morphology and degree of crystallinity indicative of a detrital origin related to weathering. The Alter do Chão Formation (ACF) is suggested as the main source of sand sediments and heavy minerals, due to their mineralogical and percentage similarity. The provenance of kaolinite was mainly the ACF, with a minor contribution of the Amazon and Tapajós rivers. The primary origin of the heavy minerals in the ACF indicates the basement of the Amazonas Basin as source rock and this formation as a source of sediments for Green Lake through weathering and erosion processes under current tropical conditions. The presence of Aulacoseira granulata and Aulacoseira ambigua indicates the importance of current erosive processes on sediment production. (AU)


Assuntos
Sedimentos/análise , Ecossistema Amazônico , Minerais
17.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 170-182, abr - jun. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118439

RESUMO

Reliable environmental monitoring and evaluation require high-quality maps of land use and land cover. For the Amazon biome, the TerraClass and MapBiomas projects apply different methodologies to create these maps. We evaluated the agreement between land cover and land use maps generated by TerraClass and MapBiomas (Collections 2 and 3) for the Brazilian Amazon biome, from 2004 to 2014. Specifically, we: (1) described both project legends based on the LCCS (Land Cover Classification System); (2) analyzed the differences between their classes; and (3) compared the mapping differences among the Brazilian states that are totally or partially covered by the Amazon biome. We compared the classifications with a per-pixel approach and performed an evaluation based on agreement matrices. The overall agreement between the projects was 87.4% (TerraClass x MapBiomas 2) and 92.0% (TerraClass x MapBiomas 3). We analyzed methodological differences to explain the disagreements in class identification. We conclude that using these maps together without a properly adapted legend is not recommended for the analysis of land use and land cover change. Depending on the application, one mapping system may be more suitable than the other. (AU)


Assuntos
Usos do Solo , Ecossistema Amazônico , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Monitoramento Ambiental
19.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-fiocruz-SI | ID: lis-47132

RESUMO

Este podcast aborda uma questão importante atualmente. Com a suspensão das aulas, muitos estudantes irão retornar para suas comunidades. Com isso, liderança indígena Alessandra Korap, do povo Munduruku do médio Tapajós quer saber quais são as medidas que devem ser adotadas para evitar o coronavírus. Quem responde é Andrey Moreira Cardoso, médico, pesquisador da Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Ensp/Fiocruz), e do Grupo de Trabalho em Saúde Indígena da Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva (Abrasco).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Ecossistema Amazônico , Coronavirus , Saúde de Populações Indígenas , Sinais e Sintomas Respiratórios
20.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-fiocruz-SI | ID: lis-47133

RESUMO

Este podcast aborda uma questão importante atualmente. Com a suspensão das aulas, muitos estudantes irão retornar para suas comunidades. Com isso, liderança indígena Alessandra Korap, do povo Munduruku do médio Tapajós quer saber quais são as medidas que devem ser adotadas para evitar o coronavírus. Quem responde é Andrey Moreira Cardoso, médico, pesquisador da Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Ensp/Fiocruz), e do Grupo de Trabalho em Saúde Indígena da Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva (Abrasco).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Ecossistema Amazônico , Coronavirus , Saúde de Populações Indígenas , Sinais e Sintomas Respiratórios
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