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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 249: 1-27, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725190

RESUMO

Metals are major abiotic stressors of many organisms, but their toxicity in plants is not as studied as in microorganisms and animals. Likewise, research in plant responses to metal contamination is sketchy. Candidate genes associated with metal resistance in plants have been recently discovered and characterized. Some mechanisms of plant adaptation to metal stressors have been now decrypted. New knowledge on microbial reaction to metal contamination and the relationship between bacterial, archaeal, and fungal resistance to metals has broadened our understanding of metal homeostasis in living organisms. Recent reviews on metal toxicity and resistance mechanisms focused only on the role of transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics. This review is a critical analysis of key findings on physiological and genetic processes in plants and microorganisms in responses to soil metal contaminations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Metais/toxicidade , Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Fungos , Metais Pesados , Solo
2.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 249: 133-152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879139

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant that has been reported in many wildlife species worldwide. The organic form of Hg bioaccumulates in higher trophic levels, and thus, long-lived predators are at risk for higher Hg exposure. Although ecological risk assessments for contaminants such as Hg include pertinent receptor species, snakes are rarely considered, despite their high trophic status and potential to accumulate high levels of Hg. Our current knowledge of these reptiles suggests that snakes may be useful novel biomarkers to monitor contaminated environments. The few available studies show that snakes can bioaccumulate significant amounts of Hg. However, little is known about the role of snakes in Hg transport in the environment or the individual-level effects of Hg exposure in this group of reptiles. This is a major concern, as snakes often serve as important prey for a variety of taxa within ecosystems (including humans). In this review, we compiled and analyzed the results of over 30 studies to discuss the impact of Hg on snakes, specifically sources of exposure, bioaccumulation, health consequences, and specific scientific knowledge gaps regarding these moderate to high trophic predators.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Serpentes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Humanos
3.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1360-1367, out.-dez. 2019. il
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022105

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed at identifying the elements of the Ecological Model by analyzing scientific publications on social participation in health and the role of nursing. Methods: This integrative literature review was carried out in June 2017. The articles were selected using pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria, obtaining 19 studies for synthesis. Results: Individual, organizational and environmental elements of the Ecological Model were highlighted, allowing the identification of social participation in health and the role of nursing through ecological thinking, environmental and health awareness, and changes in behaviors and lifestyles. These actions were promoted by the community's involvement, health institutions, universities, and health professionals. Conclusion: Nursing professionals should encourage social participation, decision making towards the care service, and the implementation of public policies, then promoting public awareness


Objetivo: Estudo com objetivo de identificar os elementos do modelo ecológico na análise da produção científica acerca da participação social na saúde e o papel da enfermagem. Métodos: revisão integrativa realizada em junho de 2017, os artigos foram selecionados por meio de critérios de inclusão e exclusão pré-estabelecidos, obtendo-se 19 estudos para síntese. Resultados: evidenciaram-se elementos individuais, organizacionais e ambientais do Modelo Ecológico, possibilitando a identificação da participação social na saúde e o papel da enfermagem, por meio do pensamento ecológico, conscientização ambiental e de saúde, mudanças de comportamentos e estilos de vida, além do envolvimento da comunidade, instituições de saúde, universidades e profissionais de saúde nessa promoção. Conclusão: a Enfermagem deve incentivar a participação social, tomada de decisões de cuidados e implementação de políticas públicas, promovendo a conscientização


Objetivo: Estudio con el objetivo de identificar los elementos del modelo ecológico en el análisis de la producción científica acerca de la participación social en la salud y el papel de la enfermería. Métodos: la revisión integrativa realizada en junio de 2017, los artículos fueron seleccionados por medio de criterios de inclusión y exclusión preestablecidos, obteniéndose 19 estudios para síntesis. Resultados: se evidenciaron elementos individuales, organizacionales y ambientales del Modelo Ecológico, posibilitando la identificación de la participación social en la salud y el papel de la enfermería, por medio del pensamiento ecológico, concientización ambiental y de salud, cambios de comportamientos y estilos de vida, además de la participación de la comunidad, instituciones de salud, universidades y profesionales de la salud en esta promoción. Conclusión: la Enfermería debe incentivar la participación social, la toma de decisiones de cuidados y la implementación de políticas públicas, promoviendo la concientización


Assuntos
Humanos , Enfermagem/tendências , Ecossistema , Participação Social , Meio Ambiente , Política Ambiental
4.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 135(3): 251-255, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535620

RESUMO

The mass decline of amphibian populations poses a serious threat to global biodiversity and ecosystem stability. The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has contributed to the extirpation and extinction of hundreds of amphibian species worldwide. Bd produces potentially damaging metabolites during the host infection process that may affect amphibian growth and development, even in the absence of infection. In this experiment, Cuban tree frog Osteopilus septentrionalis tadpoles and adults were exposed once to either artificial spring water (ASW) or Bd metabolites (n = 31 tadpoles per treatment and n = 30 and 20 adults per treatment, respectively). Tadpoles exposed to Bd metabolites alone developed faster than those exposed to ASW; however, there was no difference in tadpole length, weight change, or mortality between treatments. Despite the faster developmental speed, metabolite exposure did not reduce tadpole weight or length (compared at Gosner stages 27, 29, and 31). There was no effect of treatment on adult size or mortality. These results indicate that both tadpole and adult O. septentrionalis do not appear to be negatively impacted by exposure to non-infectious Bd-contaminated water. In fact, tadpoles developed faster when exposed to metabolites and were of equal size as those in their stage cohort, implying a potential long-term benefit if faster development allows them to leave Bd-infected waters sooner.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Animais , Anuros , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Larva
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 244-250, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the integrated schistosomiasis control model in mountainous and hilly endemic regions, so as to provide insights into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. METHODS: Five hilly and mountainous areas endemic for schistosomiasis were selected as the integrated control demonstration areas in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2015. According to the epidemic characteristics, economic levels and overall development planning of the demonstration areas, the goals, strategies and measures were developed, and the effectiveness of schistosomiasis control was evaluated following implementation of the integrated control. RESULTS: The support system of the integrated schistosomiasis control model was built in the integrated control demonstration areas in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2015, and five ecological, industrialized and sustainable development models of integrated schistosomiasis control were developed, including integration of balancing rural and urban development, systematic ecological improvement, intensified ecological agriculture, scientific management and health education of schistosomiasis control and ecological ethnic circular economy. Since the implementation of the integrated schistosomiasis control model, the snail habitats were completely changed. Until 2015, 92.0% of all historical areas with snails were managed, the coverage of safe drinking water was 100.0%, and more than 95.0% of the livestock were fenced. The coverage of sanitary toilets increased by 93.0%, 96.8%, 78.8%, 87.1% and 82.0% from 2011 to 2015, respectively, and the farmers'mean yearly income increased by 32.7% in the demonstration areas. From 2011 to 2015, the seroprevalence of human Schistosoma japonicum infections reduced from 3.1% in 2011 to 1.6% in 2015 in the demonstration areas, and no egg-positives were identified. In addition, the number of fenced bovines reduced year by year, and no egg-positives were detected. The areas of snail habitats were 398.7, 108.2 hm2 and 52.9 hm2 in the demonstration areas from 2011 to 2013, with no infected snails found, and no snails were detected since 2014. The awareness of schistosomiasis control knowledge and percentage of correct behavior formation increased year by year among residents in the demonstration areas from 2011 to 2015. CONCLUSIONS: The five integrated schistosomiasis control models meet the needs of the current schistosomiasis control activities in mountainous and hilly endemic areas of Sichuan Province, and achieve the goals of controlling the sources of S. japonicum infections, economic development, social progress and improving the ecological environment, which provides new insights into schistosomiasis elimination in the country.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Esquistossomose , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/tendências , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Caramujos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 163-186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471797

RESUMO

There is growing evidence of the adverse effects of global environmental change on marine mammals, particularly in terms of changes in abundance, distribution, habitat use, migratory phenology, feeding habits, risk of infectious diseases, bioaccumulation of contaminants, declines in reproductive success, and reductions in genetic diversity. These anthropogenic stressors have led to an evident conservation crisis: a quarter of the extant marine mammal species that have been assessed and now considered at risk of extinction. However, we still know very little about the subtle, subclinical effects of environmental stressors on various aspects of physiology that could impacts their survival and long-term fertility, or that could impact the performance of future generations. This chapter argues for the need of considering physiological thresholds when examining how drivers of global environmental change can impact marine mammal populations. It also poses questions regarding our understanding of individual phenotypic plasticity and resilience of species in the face of environmental stressors, particularly under abrupt and unpredictable environmental changes. Specifically, I present evidence of how drivers of environmental change can exert effects at different levels of biological organization to influence the viability of individuals and populations, and discuss which aspects of environmental change could be the most likely to shift the physiological thresholds of different marine mammal species. Finally, the chapter identifies areas of further research in marine mammal conservation physiology in the current context of global environmental change.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Reprodução , Animais , Ecossistema , Fertilidade
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 545-550, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471809

RESUMO

While many of the traditional scientific disciplines have developed over centuries, animal conservation is a relative newcomer. It relies on multiple specialties with different levels of expertise that, eventually, generate vast amounts of data. More specifically, conservation physiology is an emerging area that can be defined as 'an integrative scientific discipline applying physiological concepts, tools, and knowledge to characterizing biological diversity and its ecological implications; understanding and predicting how organisms, populations, and ecosystems respond to environmental change and stressors; and solving conservation problems across the broad range of taxa, including microbes, plants, and animals' (Cooke et al. 2013). Reproductive biology is more focused, given that it mainly deals with the physiology underlying the production of gametes, embryos, and offspring, and the many associated processes that control these events. However, it is integrated into the different components of conservation physiology. In bringing together the various contributors for this book, the editors' purpose was to provide readers with a new perspective about the complexity behind reproduction and the role it plays in species conservation. Chapters highlight the diversity of reproductive mechanisms across taxa, and provide insight into how they may have evolved, and likely will continue to evolve in a changing environment. To conservation physiologists, the hope is that this information will be applied to sustain populations in both natural habitats and managed facilities. Ultimately, a major goal is to forecast and mitigate negative impacts of environmental change or anthropogenic pressures on animal fitness, which will only follow once we have acquired a solid understanding of reproductive processes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Reprodução , Animais
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 2892-2902, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529863

RESUMO

We analyzed the changes of net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of Quercus spp. forest and Robinia pseudoacacia plantation under different future climate scenarios in Shaanxi Province during 2015-2100, using the process-based dynamic vegetation model-LPJ-GUESS. The results showed that compared with the benchmark period (1961-1990), NPP of Quercus spp. forest and R. pseudoacacia plantation in northern Shaanxi would decrease by 4.9%-29.5% and 22.5%-56.2% respectively, while that in Guanzhong and southern Shaanxi would increase by 13.0%-49.0% and 21.3%-62.9% respectively in the future. The NPP of Quercus spp. forest and R. pseudoacacia plantation under the RCP8.5 scenario was the highest, followed by that under the RCP4.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios. Those two types of forest would be carbon sink in three subregions in the future. Quercus spp. forest would have stronger carbon sink function in nor-thern Shaanxi and Guanzhong, while R. pseudoacacia plantation would have stronger carbon sink function in Southern Shaanxi. Under different RCP scenarios, the NEP variation range of R. pseu-doacacia plantation was greater than that of Quercus spp. forest in three subregions.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Florestas , Sequestro de Carbono , China , Ecossistema
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 2923-2932, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529866

RESUMO

The increasing nitrogen deposition due to human activities has impacted forest ecosystems to a large extent. The organic carbon and nitrogen released from decomposing litters play an important role in the formation, stability and transformation of soil organic carbon and nitrogen. We collected soil samples from a subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest experiment with nitrogen deposition [control (0), LN (75 kg·hm-2·a-1), HN (150 kg·hm-2·a-1)] and litter control (litter retained and litter removal) for eight years. After extracted by solution of K2SO4, Na2B4O7, Na4P2O7, NaOH, H2SO4, Na2S2O4 and HF step by step, carbon and nitrogen in each extraction was analyzed. The results showed that overall most of soil carbon and nitrogen existed in the Humin fraction, accounting for 33.5% of the total carbon and 33.3% of the total nitrogen. The soluble total carbon and nitrogen extracted by Na2B4O7 solution was the highest, followed by NaOH and Na4P2O7 solution. The soluble total carbon, soluble total nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen of soil extracted by three reagents accounted for 46.2%, 47.9%, and 76.5% of the total extractions, respectively. In addition, nitrogen addition significantly increased carbon and nitrogen content in Na2S2O4 and Humin fractions. Litter removal reduced carbon content in Na2B4O7, H2SO4, Na2S2O4 and Humin fractions, and nitrogen content in NaOH, HF and Humin fractions. The nitrogen content in the K2SO4 extraction was significantly increased by both litter remained and nitrogen addition. Our results demonstrated that litter and nitrogen added could mutually affect carbon and nitrogen concentration of soil fractions with different chemical stability, with consequences on the process of soil carbon and nitrogen.


Assuntos
Carbono , Florestas , Nitrogênio , China , Ecossistema , Solo
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3010-3018, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529876

RESUMO

Frequent mowing and nitrogen enrichment can lead to the degradation of grassland ecosystem. It remains largely unknown that how the soil microbial characteristics, important bio-indicators of soil quality, respond to mowing and nitrogen enrichment. In this study, using a field experiment established in the meadow steppe in Hulunber, Inner Mongolia, we explored the responses of soil properties, microbial biomass, soil respiration, and soil enzyme activities to mowing and nitrogen addition during growing seasons. Mowing significantly reduced microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and soil respiration (basal respiration and substrate induced respiration), which might be caused by the moisture- and carbon-limitation. Mowing significantly reduced activities of the enzymes involved in nitrogen acquisition (N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase) and phosphorus acquisition (acidic phosphomonoesterases), which supports the resource allocation theory. Soil pH was significantly reduced by N addition. However, microbial biomass showed no significant response to nitrogen input, implying that soil acidification induced by nitrogen inputs was not profound enough to affect microbial biomass. Nitrogen addition did not affect soil respiration and microbial enzymatic activities, inconsistent with results from most of previous studies conducted in typical steppe. Combination of mowing and nitrogen addition reduced the activity of acidic phosphomonoesterases, which might be due to the increased phosphorus availability under the combined treatment. Combination of mowing and nitrogen addition reduced microbial biomass phosphorus, but increased soil available phosphorus, corresponding to the lowered activity of acidic phosphomonoesterases under the combined treatment. Microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and soil respiration peaked in July, which was associated with the high temperature and precipitation in summer. Soil enzymatic activities were higher in the spring and summer than in the late growing season. In summary, our results indicated that mowing would result in the imbalance of soil nutrients and intensify the risk of grassland degradation. In contrary, nitrogen addition exerted no effects on microbial biomass and activity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nitrogênio , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Biomassa , Carbono , China , Poaceae
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3019-3027, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529877

RESUMO

We examined the role of photosynthesis in regulating soil CO2 emission under nitrogen enrichment in Keerqin sandy grassland. Results showed that nitrogen (N) application could affect soil respiration rate by altering the allocation of photosynthetic products to the belowground. Gross ecosystem photosynthesis rate (GEP) was positively correlated with soil respiration rate (Rs). Nitrogen application reduced slope of the fitting function from 0.236 to 0.161, with the equation intercept difference (0.51 µmol·m-2·s-1) being similar to the nighttime soil respiration rate increment (0.52 µmol·m-2·s-1). From May to October, the difference of photosynthetic rate (differential ratio) caused by nitrogen application was significantly correlated with that of soil respiration (differential ratio). Results from partial correlation confirmed the essential role of photosynthetic rate difference (ΔGEP) in driving soil respiration rate difference (ΔRs) caused by nitrogen application. In the nighttime, soil respiration rate was affected by the aboveground vegetation activities in daytime. The daily mean GEP was an important factor affecting the nighttime soil respiration rate difference (ΔRs) (P<0.01). Photosynthesis, rather than soil temperature, was the main factor affecting soil respiration rate difference (ΔRs) under nitrogen application. Thus, the role of photosynthetic assimilation-regulating may provide a novel supplement for elucidating the responses of soil respiration to nitrogen enrichment.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Nitrogênio , Fotossíntese , Solo/química , Dióxido de Carbono , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3039-3045, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529879

RESUMO

This study aimed to understand the stoichiometric characteristics of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and soil nutrients in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils and to obtain information on the status of soil and microbial nutrient limitation in degraded alpine meadow. We collected soil samples from rhizosphere (0-2 mm) of dominant plant species and non-rhizosphere (0-10 cm) of the alpine meadow with four different degraded degrees in the Qilian Mountains. We measured the concentration of C, N and P and extractable C, N, P (Ext-C, Ext-N, Ext-P), the activity and proportion of extracellular enzymes (ß-1, 4-glucosidase, ß-1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminidase, leucine aminopeptidase and acid phosphatase) involved in C, N, P cycles, as well as soil microbial biomass (MBC, MBN, MBP). The results showed that nutrient concentrations in the rhizosphere of dominant species was higher than that in non-rhizosphere. With the increases of degradation degree, soil C:N:P changed significantly, and resulted in a serious imbalance of C:N and severe N limitation. In the degraded alpine meadows, the ratio of log-transformed rhizosphere C-, N- and P-extracellular enzymes deviated from the 1:1:1 of global ecosystem, indicating that nutrient supply was mainly restricted by N and followed by P. The contents of soil total nutrients in degraded alpine meadow was relatively high, but the contents of soil available nutrients were low, which would hinder plant growth.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Rizosfera , Solo , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3046-3056, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529880

RESUMO

This study evaluated the changes of spatial distribution of the constructive species Stipa breviflora in the desert steppe under different grazing intensities (control, light, moderate, and heavy grazing) in Siziwang, Inner Mongolia. The small-scale spatial distribution of S. breviflora was measured. Results showed that population density of S. breviflora was following the order: heavy grazing (27.81 individuals·m-2) > moderate grazing (22.17 individuals·m-2) > control (11.31 individuals·m-2) > light grazing (10.76 individuals·m-2). The moderate and heavy grazing significantly increased population density of S. breviflora. According to the model fitting by semi-variance function, the population density of S. breviflora under the control, light, moderate and heavy gra-zing treatments were consistent with the exponential model, spherical model, exponential model and spherical model, respectively. Results from spatial distribution pattern analysis showed that structural ratio of S. breviflora population was control (99.7%) > heavy grazing (94.7%) > light grazing (92.7%) > moderate grazing (87.9%). Such a result indicated that the spatial autocorrelation of the four treatments was high, which were mainly affected by structural factors. In comparison, S. breviflora population structure ratio under moderate grazing treatment was the smallest, and partly affected by random factors. Based on fractal dimension analysis, spatial structure of the four treatments was good with simple spatial distribution. With the increases of grazing intensity, the spatial distribution was simpler and more homogeneous. Combined with 2D and 3D views, both light and heavy grazing changed spatial distribution of S. breviflora population from gradient distribution to patch distribution and resulted in the reduction of spatial heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Herbivoria , Poaceae/fisiologia , China , Análise Espacial
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3057-3065, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529881

RESUMO

Vegetation patch is one of the most basic characteristics of natural grazing grassland. To explore the effects of vegetation patch on soil microbial community, the changes of soil microbial biomass and community structure under four different vegetation patches in Ningxia desert steppe were quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. The results showed that: 1) Soil microbial groups were abundant in vegetation patches, with the highest bacterial content, low fungal and actinomycete content, and the Gram-positive bacteria content being higher than that of Gram-negative bacteria in the patches of the four plant communities; 2) The total soil microbial biomass of Glycyrrhiza uralensis patch was significantly higher than that of Artemisia scoparia, Sophora alopecuroides, and Astragalus melilotoides patches; 3) Total PLFAs, Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, anaerobic bacteria and fungi/bacteria were significantly positively correlated with soil organic C, and significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, indicating that soil organic C and pH were important factors affecting the growth and development of soil microorganisms in desert steppe.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Bactérias , China , Clima Desértico , Fungos , Pradaria
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3108-3118, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529886

RESUMO

In landscape ecology, the target species ecological network is often constructed by the least-cost path model (hereafter LCPM) to improve landscape connectivity among discrete habitats and to mitigate the negative impacts of habitat fragmentation. Nevertheless, the traditional ecological network method based on LCRM has insufficient understanding of landscape structure changes and ecological processes of research site. We used landscape pattern index and connectivity probability index to quantitatively evaluate the landscape structure and connectivity characteristics of the research area before and after the construction of the ecological network. The ecological network of the habitat of Presbytis leucocephalus, located in Chongzuo, Guangxi Province, was used as an example to describe the optimization and application of this method in detail. We identified the habitat and stepping stone patches of the target species, classified land use types of the study area, set up different resistant values, and obtained 20 corridors of ecological network using LCPM. The results showed that LCRM could effectively improve habitat integrity and continuity, reduce overall fragmentation level, and improve habitat quality based on the structural and functional connectivity evaluation by landscape pattern index and connectivity probability index. Meanwhile, its construction could improve the structural connectivity and functional connectivity of the habitat landscape, with significant consistency of the connection degree changes in both aspects (R2=98.3%, P<0.01). However, the relationship between landscape structure changes and functional connectivity caused by the network was not strong, and their relationship was not as significant as the inherent relationship between the structure and function.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia , China , Ecossistema
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3119-3125, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529887

RESUMO

The impacts of global climate change and human disturbance on terrestrial ecosystems has been expanding in intensity and scope. However, there is a lack of evaluation methods for large-scale heterogeneous landscape systems during ecosystem integrity assessment. From the perspective of landscape ecology, this study chose the indicators of landscape structure and landscape stability to comprehensively evaluate regional landscape change characteristics and ecosystem integrity dynamics of Greater Hinggan Mountains area using land use data and NPP data of 2005, 2010 and 2015 with GIS data processing and analysis platform. The results showed that Greater Hinggan Mountains area was dominated by forest land. The dominance degree of forest land was stable at 64.9%, which was much higher than the grassland that with the second dominance. The landscape diversity index was 0.59 in all three periods, accounting for 42.4% of the maximum value of landscape diversity index. Such a result indicated that the landscape resistance was stable in this area. From the view of landscape biomass, farmland and residential land had increased year by year, while forest area had decreased year by year, indicating that the effects of human disturbance on Greater Hinggan Mountains area were increasing.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Mudança Climática , Florestas
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3203-3214, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529896

RESUMO

To investigate the traditional village living environment adaptability to desertification and topography, the suitability evaluation index system and weight of traditional Buyei traditional villages in the rocky desertification area human settlement were quantified using Delphi method and comprehensive weighting method. We calculated human settlements environment suitability value and threshold to comprehensively analyze the human settlements environment suitability. The results showed that 10% of the traditional Buyei traditional villages were located in the rocky desertification areas with high intensity and extremely high intensity and had the tradition of selecting the best environment. The index system of residential environment suitability was composed of five first-level indices (economy, historic culture, ecology, society, and building environment suitability) and 26 second-level indices. This index system was applicable to villages in karst regions. The comprehensive environmental suitability value (2.81-3.77), the economy value (0.77-1.17), the historic culture value (0.39-0.50), the ecology value (0.83-1.07), the social environment value (0.38-0.53) all decreased with the increasing intensity of rocky desertification, but the suitability value of building environment did not change, which ranged from 0.43 to 0.51. Rocky desertification had profound and synergistic impacts on economy, historic culture, ecology and social environment. The floor level of the human settlement suitability threshold was 2.93. If the threshold was lower than 2.93, it could be considered to move or take measures to improve its value. The suitability value (3.56) of traditional village living environment in mountain slope was higher than that in depression (3.42) and valley (3.16). The human settlement suitability of traditional villages in rocky desertification area was higher than that of ordinary villages, but was lower than that of normal landform, with the differences in economy and ecology being the main reasons. To improve the living environment of traditional villages in rocky desertification areas, we should strengthen the comprehensive control of rocky desertification and policy support, develop ecological economy and tourism, protect historic culture or choose ecological migration. This research could provide theoretical base for the planning and construction of village living environment protection in karst areas.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Secas , Ecologia , Humanos
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3233-3244, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529899

RESUMO

As the link among species, ecological environment, and ecosystem function, functional diversity can help us to better understand the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function. We analyzed functional diversity with thirteen functional traits reflecting the characteristics of food acquisition, locomotion, ecological adaptation, reproduction and population dynamics of fish species. The seasonal, interannual and spatial variations of functional diversity of fish communities were examined using functional richness index (FRic), functional evenness index (FEve), functional divergence index (FDiv) and community weighted mean index (CWM) based on the data from the bottom trawl surveys in spring and autumn from 2011 to 2017 (except 2012) in Haizhou Bay. The results showed that functional diversity indices were significantly different in spring and autumn, with FRic was significantly higher in autumn than that in spring and FDiv was significantly higher in spring than that in autumn. Migration might be the main reason for the seasonal change of functional diversity indices. CWM analysis showed that dominant fish species were cold-temperate or warm-temperate species, with higher trophic level, strong motion ability, and relatively high growth coefficient, resilience and vulnerability in spring. In autumn, the dominant species showed the opposite traits. In both spring and autumn, fish species with pelagic eggs dominated the fish communities. Inter-annual variations in functional diversity indices were observed in spring and autumn. The functional diversity indices showed an annual fluctuation during the study period in both spring and autumn, indicating the low stability of fish community in Haizhou Bay. Significant spatial changes in functional diversity of fish assemblages were observed, with FDiv being higher in the offshore coastal waters (>20 m) than that in the shallow waters (<20 m). The functional diversity showed obvious spatio-temporal variation. The ecological niches and resource utilization of fish species varied with season, year and space in Haizhou Bay.


Assuntos
Baías , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Peixes , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3252-3264, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529901

RESUMO

The continuous discharge of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) into aquatic environment and their potential threaten to ecological environment or human health has received more and more attention all over the world. Algae are primary producers in aquatic environment and play an important role in ecosystem balance and stabilization. In this review, the concentrations of PPCPs in natural waters from different countries and regions are introduced to demonstrate their characteristics of pollution in aquatic environment. Furthermore, we reviewed some progresses on the toxicity, bioaccumulation and ecological risk of PPCPs. We introduced the toxicity effect and mechanism of PPCPs to algae, the bioaccumulation of PPCPs in algae, as well as the ecological risks of PPCPs in surface water. The review will provide references for development of PPCPs related criteria and assessment of ecological risks in aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cosméticos/análise , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental , Água Doce , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190218, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411243

RESUMO

Amazonia has been a focus of interest since the early days of biogeography as an intrinsically complex and extremely diverse region. This region comprises an intricate mosaic that includes diverse types of forest formations, flooded environments and open vegetation. Increased knowledge about the distribution of species in Amazonia has led to the recognition of complex biogeographic patterns. The confrontation of these biogeographic patterns with information on the geological and climatic history of the region has generated several hypotheses dedicated to explain the origin of the biological diversity. Genomic information, coupled with knowledge of Earth's history, especially the evolution of the Amazonian landscape, presents fascinating possibilities for understanding the mechanisms that govern the origin and maintenance of diversity patterns in one of the most diverse regions of the world. For this we will increasingly need more intense and coordinated interactions between researchers studying biotic diversification and the evolution of landscapes. From the interaction between these two fields of knowledge that are in full development, an increasingly detailed understanding of the historical mechanisms related to the origin of the species will surely arise.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Aves/classificação , Filogeografia , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema
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