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1.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(1): 189-190, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891658

RESUMO

Plant traits, such as height or specific leaf area, are expressions of plant performance and are important indicators of ecosystem function. Here, the TRY plant database is highlighted as the most comprehensive archive of global plant data, with open access to the public.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Ecossistema , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta , Plantas
2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(1): 119-188, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891233

RESUMO

Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Plantas
3.
Ecol Lett ; 23(1): 2-15, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707763

RESUMO

Changing conditions may lead to sudden shifts in the state of ecosystems when critical thresholds are passed. Some well-studied drivers of such transitions lead to predictable outcomes such as a turbid lake or a degraded landscape. Many ecosystems are, however, complex systems of many interacting species. While detecting upcoming transitions in such systems is challenging, predicting what comes after a critical transition is terra incognita altogether. The problem is that complex ecosystems may shift to many different, alternative states. Whether an impending transition has minor, positive or catastrophic effects is thus unclear. Some systems may, however, behave more predictably than others. The dynamics of mutualistic communities can be expected to be relatively simple, because delayed negative feedbacks leading to oscillatory or other complex dynamics are weak. Here, we address the question of whether this relative simplicity allows us to foresee a community's future state. As a case study, we use a model of a bipartite mutualistic network and show that a network's post-transition state is indicated by the way in which a system recovers from minor disturbances. Similar results obtained with a unipartite model of facilitation suggest that our results are of relevance to a wide range of mutualistic systems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Previsões , Características de Residência , Simbiose
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134129, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499344

RESUMO

Forest health status is negatively influenced by climate change, air pollution and other disturbances. Extreme droughts reduce stand productivity, increase vulnerability to pests, and can even provoke mortality. Growth dynamics at tree and forest stand levels are considered the main indicators of stability and productivity in forest ecosystem structures. The main climate drivers for tree growth were identified using basal area increment (BAI) as a synthetic indicator. BAI chronologies were obtained from increment cores for 1960-2012 period. Six species were analysed in an attempt to identify their growth limiting factors. For the most important oak species in Romania, resilience components were computed in order to analyse their response to drought events. Moreover, growth dynamics were analysed for two species in mixed and monoculture forests. The results suggest that - in comparison to Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica, the sensitivity of Quercus spp. is much higher (0.3-0.47). Oakspecies situated in the most drought-affected areas are sensitive to rainfall values from the previous autumn, current spring, and early summer, with April monthly values having the most significant effect on BAI increment (r = 0.47*) The most sensitive species to drought is Q. cerris and Q. frainetto. Their BAI reduction during drought is >50% compared with the BAI values before the drought period. The recovery capacity of tree growth following drought events is lower for Q. robur and Q. petraea and higher for Q. cerris and Q. frainetto. The mixed forest stands have not showed a constant higher resistance to drought.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Árvores , Secas , Ecossistema , Fagus , Quercus , Romênia , Estações do Ano
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134323, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522044

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increased as a result of global climate and environmental changes, exerting increasing impacts on the aquatic ecosystem, coastal economy, and human health. Despite great research efforts, our understanding on the drivers of HABs is still limited in part because HAB species' physiology is difficult to probe in situ. Here, we used molecular ecological analyses to characterize a dinoflagellate bloom at Xiamen Harbor, China. Prorocentrum donghaiense was identified as the culprit, which nutrient bioassays showed were not nutrient-limited. Metatranscriptome profiling revealed that P. donghaiense highly expressed genes related to N- and P-nutrient uptake, phagotrophy, energy metabolism (photosynthesis, oxidative phophorylation, and rhodopsin) and carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle and pentose phosphate) during the bloom. Many genes in P. donghaiense were up-regulated at night, including phagotrophy and environmental communication genes, and showed active expression in mitosis. Eight microbial defense genes were up-regulated in the bloom compared with previously analyzed laboratory cultures. Furthermore, 76 P. donghaiense microRNA were identified from the bloom, and their target genes exhibited marked differences in amino acid metabolism between the bloom and cultures and the potential of up-regulated antibiotic and cell communication capabilities. These findings, consistent with and complementary to recent reports, reveal major metabolic processes in P. donghaiense potentially important for bloom formation and provide a gene repertoire for developing bloom markers in future research.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Ecossistema , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , MicroRNAs
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134301, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525544

RESUMO

The concentration, source and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems are associated with land use and hydrological connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic systems. However, direct evidence of the effects of rainfall and land use on the variability of DOM in aquatic ecosystems is very limited. In this study, chromophoric DOM (CDOM) absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to elucidate how rainfall and land use affect the variability of CDOM in the watershed of Lake Tianmu, a key drinking water reservoir in the Yangtze River Delta. The mean values of the fluorescence intensity (Fmax) of parallel factor analysis-derived humic-like components (C1, C3, C6) and tryptophan-like components C5 were higher in the southeastern inflowing river mouths than those downstream of the lake outlet regions. The upstream tributaries were mainly dominated by humic-like materials, while the lake was mainly dominated by protein-like materials. The Fmax values of four humic-like components and two tryptophan-like components all increased significantly as the %woodland decreased, but %anthropogenic land use (%cropland+%urban construction area) increased. The Fmax of the humic-like components at the inflowing tributaries and the lake increased with increasing rainfall during storm events, and the value was especially pronounced at the inflowing river mouths. We concluded that land use and hydrological conditions play an important role in influencing the CDOM source and optical composition, and these findings provide insights for the understanding of aquatic ecosystem metabolism and reservoir water quality management.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição da Água/análise , China , Ecossistema , Análise Fatorial , Fluorescência , Lagos/química , Chuva , Rios , Estações do Ano , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Água
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134281, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671307

RESUMO

Fish farms are increasingly situated in strong current sites above or near to mixed-bottom habitats that include organisms not normally considered in the context of organic enrichment. This study takes a holistic view of the benthic enrichment process by combining different survey techniques on complimentary spatial scales: conventional macrofaunal cores, larger-scale visual quantification of epibiota and environmental-DNA metabarcoding of microbial communities. A large tube forming polychaete (Arenicola marina), normally found intertidally and living too deep for conventional sampling, was observed occupying an opportunistic niche in areas of high deposition and in very close association with Capitellid worm complexes. The surface-dwelling brittlestar, Ophiocomina nigra, was abundant at distances of 250-1000 m from Farm-B, suggesting a positive response to enrichment, but was displaced where sedimentation exceed 5 g m2 d-1. A corresponding gradient was evident within the sediment microbial communities, supporting established theories about ecosystem engineering and multi-species synergies for organic waste assimilation. Many of the bacteria present in the near-farm sediments were linked to the farmed fish and fish health issues suggesting one or two-way inoculation pressures. These functionally different benthic organisms are intrinsically linked and the resulting synergy has the potential to assimilate significant quantities of anthropogenically produced organic waste contributing to environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos , Meio Ambiente , Pesqueiros
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 312: 108363, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669766

RESUMO

Several studies report the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in seawater either free or attached to planktonic organism. After considering the role played by plankton in the food chain of most aquatic ecosystems and the possible role that seafood products can assume in the transmission of H. pylori to humans, the aim of this study was to assess the survival of H. pylori in artificially contaminated Mytilus galloprovincialis (M. galloprovincialis). A traditional culture method and a reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) assay were employed to detect the mRNA of known virulence factor (VacA) which can be considered use a marker of bacterial viability. The obtained results clearly show that H. pylori is able to survive in artificially contaminated mussels for 6 days (2 days in a cultivable form and 4 days in a non-cultivable form).


Assuntos
Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Viabilidade Microbiana/genética , Mytilus/microbiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Ecossistema , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Alimentos Marinhos , Água do Mar/microbiologia
9.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124902, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563721

RESUMO

Eisenia fetida earthworm is an ecotoxicologically important test species to monitor various pollutants. However, there is a little knowledge about the effects of cadmium (Cd) on earthworms at the transcriptional level. Firstly, we exposed E. fetida to soils supplemented with different concentrations (10, 30, 60 mg/kg soil) of Cd. Moreover, we depicted the characterization of gene expressions with E. fetida using high-throughput profiling of gene expression. In addition, a comparison of the gene expression profiles between each Cd treatment group and the control group suggested that differential expressional genes (DEGs) mainly enriched in enzyme activity, metabolism, oxidative stress, regeneration and apoptosis pathways. 8 DEGs from these pathways had been selected randomly to confirm the data of RNA-seq. Among these DEGs, six genes (metallothionein-2, phytochelatin synthase 1a, CuZn superoxide dismutase, sex determining region Y-box 2, sex determining region Y-box 4b, TP53-regulated inhibitor of apoptosis 1-like) up-regulated and 2 genes (beta-1,4-endoglucanase, apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2-like) down-regulated in response to Cd exposure. The alteration of them indicated that earthworms could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in polluted soil ecosystems through different pathways. This work lays an important foundation for linking earthworm transcriptional level with the ecological risk of Cd in soil ecosystem.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Aminoaciltransferases , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/análise , Ecossistema , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metalotioneína/genética , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoquetos/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 260-271, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791499

RESUMO

An embedded reservoir that provides an efficient nutrient removal system protects drinking water. However, embedded reservoirs are rarely used in eutrophic shallow lakes because of their undetermined nutrient retention efficiency and unknown effects by the phytoplankton community. In this study, we aim to investigate the nutrient retention and algae succession in an embedded reservoir and adjacent wetland from April 2017 to September 2018 in the eastern part of Lake Taihu, China. More than 40% of total phosphorus (TP) and 45% of particulate phosphorous entering the reservoir were retained semi-annually, and the highest TP removal efficiency was achieved in the reservoir during autumn with an average value of 53.3% ±â€¯9.9%. The overall nitrogen retention efficiency (21.7% ±â€¯37.8%) was lower than that of TP (41.8% ±â€¯27.8%). Similar trends were obtained in the wetland area. An important pathway for phosphorus removal is through particulate matter retention. Our study revealed that nutrient retention mechanisms in the reservoir were primarily via macrophyte absorption, particulate substance sedimentation, and prolonged water residence time. Consequently, the phytoplankton biomass (Chl-a) in the reservoir decreased (from 48.0 to 25.2 µg/L) and water transparency improved, due to the decreased P level and transformation of the phytoplankton group into simple structures with good ecological status. Therefore, the combination of embedded reservoir and constructed wetland ecosystem can be used successfully to protect surface water. The results will be advantageous to groups seeking to preserve drinking water sources.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Monitoramento Ambiental , Áreas Alagadas , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Ecossistema , Lagos/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Fitoplâncton
11.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124576, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421462

RESUMO

This study assesses and compares the influence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) on the fatty acid composition, pigments, and growth indices of Chlorella vulgaris. Toxicity testing was carried at the estimated and/or above predicted environmental concentrations of AgNPs and AgNO3. AgNO3 treatments impaired the population growth of C. vulgaris about 2-183 times more than the respective AgNPs ones. The pigments displayed a concentration-dependent decrease in response to both forms of silver; however, AgNO3 displayed higher severity to the pigments than AgNPs. In exposure to 10 µg L-1 AgNO3, the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid, respectively, demonstrated a reduction of about 5, 3, 4, and 4 times when compared with the same respective concentration of AgNPs. Total amounts of saturated (∑SFA), monounsaturated (∑MUFA), and polyunsaturated (∑PUFA) fatty acids as well as the ratio of unsaturated to saturated ones (Unsat./Sat.) displayed somewhat similar-concentration responses. ∑SFA exhibited a hormesis response, and ∑MUFA, ∑PUFA, and Unsat./Sat. did a decreasing trend with increasing concentration of AgNPs and AgNO3. Myristoleic acid, nervonic acid, and eicosadienoic acid revealed the highest sensitivity. Pearson analysis illustrated the highest correlation among myristoleic acid, eicosenoic acid, and nervonic acid as well as among palmitic acid, stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, and oleic acid. Taken together, AgNPs and the released ions could disrupt physiological health state of microalgae through perturbation in the fatty acid composition (especially MUFAs and PUFAs) and other macromolecules. These types of bioperturbations could change the good health state of aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nitrato de Prata/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
12.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124560, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437632

RESUMO

Plastics are the most abundant marine debris globally dispersed in the oceans and its production is rising with documented negative impacts in marine ecosystems. However, the chemical-physical and biological interactions occurring between plastic and planktonic communities of different types of microorganisms are poorly understood. In these respects, it is of paramount importance to understand, on a molecular level on the surface, what happens to plastic fragments when dispersed in the ocean and directly interacting with phytoplankton assemblages. This study presents a computer-aided analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of selected spin probes able to enter the phyoplanktonic cell interface and interact with the plastic surface. Two different marine phytoplankton species were analyzed, such as the diatom Skeletonema marinoi and dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum, in absence and presence of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fragments in synthetic seawater (ASPM), in order to in-situ characterize the interactions occurring between the microalgal cells and plastic surfaces. The analysis was performed at increasing incubation times. The cellular growth and adhesion rates of microalgae in batch culture medium and on the plastic fragments were also evaluated. The data agreed with the EPR results, which showed a significant difference in terms of surface properties between the diatom and dinoflagellate species. Low-polar interactions of lipid aggregates with the plastic surface sites were mainly responsible for the cell-plastic adhesion by S. marinoi, which is exponentially growing on the plastic surface over the incubation time.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Polietilenotereftalatos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Microalgas/metabolismo , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/química , Resíduos/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124592, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442778

RESUMO

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a brominated flame retardant used in synthetic polymers and electronics, is present in the aquatic environment and recent evidence suggests it can be potentially biomagnified in the marine ecosystem. However, the toxicity of TBBPA in the marine biota has not been investigated in detail. In this study we aimed to understand the role of carboxylesterases (CEs) in xenobiotic metabolism under the exposure of marine organisms to a chemical of environmental concern, TBBPA. Specifically, we tested for in vitro inhibition of CE activity in a range of marine organisms covering different ecological niches, from species from low (mussels and copepods), medium (sardines and anchovies) and high trophic levels (tuna). The results revealed that the highest inhibition of CE activity to 100 µM TBBPA was recorded in mussels (66.5% inhibition) and tunids (36.3-76.4%), whereas copepods and small pelagic fish showed comparatively lower effects (respectively, 30% and 36.5-55.6%). Our results suggest that CE-mediated detoxification and physiological processes could be compromised in TBBPA-exposed organisms and could ultimately affect humans as many of them are market species.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes/metabolismo , Halogenação , Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos
14.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124574, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445332

RESUMO

Waste landfills represent a global problem, which is more pronounced in developing countries because of the lack of resources to implement procedures that include separation and waste processing. The aim of this research was to analyze leachate and ground waters samples at the site, upstream and downstream from the landfill during different year seasons on a registered non-hazardous waste dump and to conduct physico-chemical and biological assays to determine potential risk for the ecosystem. Potential cytotoxic, prooxidative and mutagenic effects of leachates and water samples were evaluated on human laryngeal cell line (HEp2). Leachates collected at landfill site caused genotoxic effect and had a higher pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and elevated concentrations of phosphorus, chloride, nitrogen compounds and sulphate. Genotoxicity of the leachate was increased in samples collected in dry and warm period of the year. These results are in accordance to the physico-chemical analysis which revealed that during summer period, because of intense degradation process at high temperatures increased concentrations of different chemicals can be found in leachate. Groundwater collected downstream and upstream from landfill did not show statistically significant (geno)toxic effect, irrespective of the sampling season. Chemical analysis revealed that all compounds in groundwater were below permitted values. Purification process at landfill is effective and compounds that reach groundwater do not represent a toxicological threat.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/química , Mutagênicos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Ecossistema
15.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124630, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473530

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) mining activities are an important anthropogenic source of atmospheric Hg. The Xunyang Hg mine located in Shaanxi Province is the largest active Hg producing centre in China. To understand the biogeochemical processes of atmospheric Hg through Hg mining activities, six groups of experimental pots were carefully designed to investigate the effect of Hg mining activities on Hg contamination from atmospheric deposition in the local surface soils. Based on the variations of Hg in the soil from the experimental pots, the deposition flux and loading of Hg in the Xunyang Hg mining district were investigated. The results showed that the average concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) as high as 193 ±â€¯122 ng m-3 was observed in the ambient air, which was orders of magnitude higher than that in remote areas. The average deposition flux and annual loading of atmospheric Hg were 72 mg m-2 y-1 and 10 t y-1, respectively. The dominant atmospheric Hg deposition is within a distance range of 6.0-12 km from the Hg retorting facility, accounting for approximately 85% of the total Hg loading. After 14 months of exposure, total mercury (THg) concentrations in the soil from the experimental pots increased 0.35-9.5 times, and the highest concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) (3.7 ±â€¯2.9 µg kg-1) in soil were observed in February. Concentrations as high as 643 µg kg-1 THg and 13 µg kg-1 MeHg in rice were observed in the second experimental year. Elevated concentrations of both THg and MeHg in rice indicated that the newly deposited atmospheric Hg was bioavailable, readily methylated, and taken up by rice, suggesting that the ongoing Hg mining activities cause serious Hg contamination in the soil-rice ecosystem and posed a threat to local residents in the Xunyang Hg mining area.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Atmosfera/química , China , Ecossistema , Mineração , Solo/química
16.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124629, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524607

RESUMO

Despite wastewater treatment, sewage sludge is often contaminated with multiple pollutants. Their impact on the phylogenetic composition and diversity of prokaryotic communities in sludge samples remains largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic structure of bacterial communities and diversity in sludge from six waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and linked this information with the pollutants identified in these samples: eight potentially toxic metals (PTMs) and four groups of organic pollutants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyromantic hydrocarbons (PAHs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)]. Alpha diversity measures and the distribution of dominant phyla varied among the samples, with the community from the thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)-stabilized sample from Prague being the least rich and the least diverse and containing on average 36% of 16S rRNA gene sequence reads of the thermotolerant genus Coprothermobacter of the class Clostridia (phylum Firmicutes). Using weighted UniFrac distance-based redundancy analysis (dbRDA), we found that a collection of 5 PTMs: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and a pair of BFRs: hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tribromodiphenyl ethers (triBDEs) were significantly associated with the bacterial community structure in mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD)-stabilized samples, whereas PCBs were observed to be marginally significant. Altogether, 85% of the variance in bacterial community structure could be ascribed to these pollutants. The data presented here contribute to a greater understanding of the ecological effects of combined pollution on the composition and diversity of bacterial communities, hence have the potential to aid in predicting ecosystem functions and/or disruptions associated with pollution.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Esgotos/química , Esgotos/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Ecossistema , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Filogenia , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134415, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629265

RESUMO

Bioclimatic indices combine atmospheric parameters to provide analytical indication of climatic features and their evolution in space and time that can directly relate with natural resource availability, distribution, and related bio-physical processes. The availability of bioclimatic information can provide natural resource managers with analytical means to assess the magnitude and temporal evolution of drought and climate change parameters that could affect the availability, demand and use of natural resources for various sectors. This paper presents a methodology to process bioclimatic data in the space and time domains for assessing the moisture/dryness level and water requirements of a region, and inform water resource planning and management decisions related to drought, climate variability and change. The methodology relies on a modular assembly of statistical tests and methods, and utilizes point scale measurements of meteorological data to perform the analysis of the spatial behavior of derived bioclimatic indicators at the continuous regional scale, and evaluate the significance of the temporal trends. Also, the article presents an application of the proposed methodology to a coastal area of southern Italy (the Apulia Region) that is characterized by recurring water supply limitations, involving the use of the popular De Martonne bioclimatic aridity index. The methodology allowed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information about the aridity level of the Apulia region, the identification of main bioclimatic zones, and the evaluation of spatial pattern and time evolution of aridity. The determination of bioclimatic zones showed that nearly 40% of the regional territory is characterized by dry sub-humid (Mediterranean) climate, about 30% by sub-humid climate, while nearly 10% and 20% are characterized by semi-arid and humid climates, respectively. The temporal analysis revealed that the Salento and the Ionian coastal zone are areas at risk of increasing aridity, with resulting impacts on the water supply and demand for irrigated agriculture.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mudança Climática , Secas , Ecossistema , Itália , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Estações do Ano , Abastecimento de Água
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134421, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693953

RESUMO

The elemental concentrations of both plants and soils are sensitive to variations in precipitation due to the limiting roles of water on soil processes and plant growth in karst ecosystems of Southwestern China; however, precipitation is predicted to increase in this region. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the elemental composition of soils and plants might respond to such increases in moisture. Particularly, how potassium (K) may behave as a key mediator in the regulation of the water potential of plants. For this study, the responses of the elemental composition of both soils and plants to the variable addition of water were investigated. Two grasses (Cymbopogon distans and Arundinella setosa) and two shrubs (Carissa spinarum and Bauhinia brachycarpa) were investigated under four levels of watering treatments 0%, +20%, +40%, and +60%, relative to the annual rainfall, respectively. Compared to the control (CK), the soil water content (SWC) increased to 3.75, 3.86, and 4.34 mg g-1 in T1, T2, and T3 groups, respectively (p < 0.05). Non-metal elements (C, H, N, S, and P, except for Si) in the soil were relatively stable with water addition; however, metal elements (Al, Na, Mg, Fe, and K, along with Si) increased significantly, whereas Zn and Ca decreased (p < 0.05). With water addition, leaf N and P remained unchanged in all four species, while K, Mg, and S decreased in both shrubs (higher C:K, N:K, and P:K). Increases in Fe, Si, and K were observed in both grasses (lower C:K, N:K, and P:K), which suggested that K played distinct roles for water regulation in shrubs and grasses. These findings implied that the elemental compositions of both soils and plants might be altered with increasing precipitation in the future, where different plant types may adopt distinct K-regulation strategies to cope with variable soil moisture.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plantas , Chuva , China , Poaceae
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134392, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704513

RESUMO

Estuaries worldwide are undergoing changes to patterns of aquatic productivity because of human activities that alter flow, impact sediment delivery and thus the light field, and contribute nutrients and contaminants like pesticides and metals. These changes can influence phytoplankton communities, which in turn can alter estuarine food webs. We used multiple approaches-including high-resolution water quality mapping, synoptic sampling, productivity and nitrogen uptake rates, Lagrangian parcel tracking, enclosure experiments and bottle incubations-over a short time period to take a "spatial snapshot" of conditions in the northern region of the San Francisco Estuary (California, USA) to examine how environmental drivers like light availability, nutrients, water residence time, and contaminants affect phytoplankton abundance and community attributes like size distribution, taxonomic structure, and nutrient uptake rates. Zones characterized by longer residence time (15-60 days) had higher chlorophyll-a concentrations (9 ±â€¯4 µg L-1) and were comprised primarily of small phytoplankton cells (<5 µm, 74 ±â€¯8%), lower ammonium concentrations (1 ±â€¯0.8 µM), higher nitrate uptake rates, and higher rates of potential carbon productivity. Conversely, zones characterized by shorter residence time (1-14 days) had higher ammonium concentration (13 ±â€¯5 µM) and lower chlorophyll-a concentration (5 ±â€¯1 µg L-1) with diatoms making up a larger percent contribution. Longer residence time, however, did not result in the accumulation of large (>5 µm) cells considered important to pelagic food webs. Rather, longer residence time zones had a phytoplankton community comprised primarily of small cells, particularly picocyanobacteria that made up 38 ±â€¯17% of the chlorophyll-a - nearly double the concentration seen in shorter residence time zones (22 ±â€¯7% picocyanobacterial of chlorophyll-a). Our results suggest that water residence time in estuaries may have an effect as large or larger than that experimentally demonstrated for light, contaminants, or nutrients.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Amônio , Clorofila A , Diatomáceas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Água Doce , Nitrogênio/análise , São Francisco , Qualidade da Água
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 295-300, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) bushes are periodically (at 3-4 year intervals) pruned (cut from top) to maintain vegetative growth stage and constant height. Plant residues (prunings litter) generated after pruning are generally left in the field as a potential source of organic matter in soil. Organic carbon (C) sequestration due to pruning litter incorporation is expected to increase microbial activity in soil. Being an evergreen plant, tea bushes assimilate atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) throughout the year; however, the relation between decomposition of pruning litters and net CO2 flux for tea plantation have not been studied before. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the relation between organic C accumulation and microbial respiration in pruning litters incorporated soil and its subsequent effect on the net CO2 flux from the atmosphere to tea plantation. RESULTS: Tea bushes assimilated 1878.2-2371.2 kg CO2 ha-1 from the atmosphere within December to November; however, pruned bushes assimilated 1451.7-1840.8 kg CO2 ha-1 within the same period. Decomposition of pruning litters added organic matter in soil, which was mostly accumulated in larger soil aggregates having 2.0-0.25 mm size. Such organic matter accumulation significantly increased microbial respiration in those aggregates, which in turn increased the overall rate of CO2 emission from soil to the atmosphere. CONCLUSION: Decomposition of pruning litters leads to emission of 426.5-530.4 kg CO2 ha-1 from soil. Hence, pruned areas recorded relatively lower (16.0-27.4%) net CO2 flux from the atmosphere to tea ecosystem as compared to unpruned tea bushes. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Biomassa , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Sequestro de Carbono , Produção Agrícola , Ecossistema , Solo/química
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