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1.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0304739, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985709

RESUMO

Ecotoxicological tests used for risk assessment of toxicants and its mixtures rely both on classical life-cycle endpoints and bioindicator organisms usually derived from long-term laboratory cultures. While these cultures are thought to be comparable among laboratories and more sensitive than field organisms, it is not well investigated whether this assumption is met. Therefore, we aimed to investigate differential life-cycle endpoints response of two different strains of C. riparius, one originally from Spain and the other from Germany, kept under the same laboratory conditions for more than five years. To highlight any possible differences, the two populations were challenged with exposure to cadmium (Cd), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microplastics and a co-exposure with both. Our results showed that significant differences between the strains became evident with the co-exposure of Cd and PVC MPs. The German strain showed attenuation of the deleterious Cd effects with microplastic co-exposure in survival and developmental time. Contrary to that, the Spanish strain showed no interaction between the substances. In conclusion, the toxicity-effects of contaminants may vary strongly among laboratory populations, which makes a universal risk assessment evaluation challenging.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Chironomidae , Ecotoxicologia , Microplásticos , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Chironomidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Chironomidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Polivinila , Espanha , Alemanha
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16427, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39013912

RESUMO

The ecotoxicological consequences of azoxystrobin on land snails have not yet been addressed. Therefore, the present study aims to provide novel data on the threat of a commercial grade azoxystrobin (AMISTAR) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (0.3 µg/ml) and tenfold (3 µg/ml) on the model species, Theba pisana by physiological, biochemical, and histopathological markers for 28 days. Our results showed a reduction in animal food consumption and growth due to exposure to both azoxystrobin concentrations. It also induced oxidative stress and led to a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels after 7 days of exposure, while the opposite effect occurred after 28 days. Except for the 7-day exposure, all treated snails had significantly reduced glutathione (GSH) content and increased catalase (CAT) activity at all-time intervals. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, and protein content (PC) were elevated in treated snails at all-time intervals. Moreover, alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity between a decrease and an increase were noticed. Additionally, azoxystrobin exerted changes in T. pisana hepatopancreas architecture. Our study suggests that azoxystrobin may have negative ecological consequences for T. pisana and highlights its potential risks to the natural environment.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Glutationa , Metacrilatos , Estresse Oxidativo , Pirimidinas , Caramujos , Estrobilurinas , Animais , Estrobilurinas/toxicidade , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Metacrilatos/toxicidade , Caramujos/efeitos dos fármacos , Caramujos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Ecotoxicologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(13)2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39000177

RESUMO

Combining commercial antibiotics with adjuvants to lower their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is vital in combating antimicrobial resistance. Evaluating the ecotoxicity of such compounds is crucial due to environmental and health risks. Here, eugenol was assessed as an adjuvant for 7 commercial antibiotics against 14 pathogenic bacteria in vitro, also examining its acute ecotoxicity on various soil and water organisms (microbiota, Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Eisenia foetida, and Allium cepa). Using microdilution methods, checkerboard assays, and kinetic studies, the MICs for eugenol were determined together with the nature of its combinations with antibiotics against bacteria, some unexposed to eugenol previously. The lethal dose for the non-target organisms was also determined, as well as the Average Well Color Development and the Community-Level Physiological Profiling for soil and water microbiota. Our findings indicate that eugenol significantly reduces MICs by 75 to 98%, which means that it could be a potent adjuvant. Ecotoxicological assessments showed eugenol to be less harmful to water and soil microbiota compared to studied antibiotics. While Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna were susceptible, Allium cepa and Eisenia foetida were minimally affected. Given that only 0.1% of eugenol is excreted by humans without metabolism, its environmental risk when used with antibiotics appears minimal.


Assuntos
Aliivibrio fischeri , Antibacterianos , Daphnia , Eugenol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Eugenol/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Animais , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecotoxicologia , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(32): 45177-45191, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961017

RESUMO

The intensification of livestock farming can pose risks to the environment due to the increased use of veterinary products and the generation of waste in confined areas. The quality of water bodies near livestock establishments (Areco River (A) and Doblado stream (D), San Antonio de Areco, Buenos Aires, Argentina) was studied by physicochemical parameters, metals, pesticides, emerging contaminants, and lethal and sublethal toxicity (neurotoxicity and oxidative stress) in larvae of the native amphibian Rhinella arenarum. Six sites were selected: upstream (S1A and S1D), at the level (S2A and S2D), and downstream (S3A and S3D) from the establishments. A low concentration of dissolved oxygen was observed in Doblado stream (< 2.34 mg/L). Cu, Mn, V, and Zn exceeded the limits for the protection of aquatic life at various sites. Between 24 and 34 pesticides were detected in all sites, with 2,4-D, atrazine, and metolachlor being the most recurrent. In water and sediment, the concentrations of ivermectin (S2A, 1.32 µg/L and 58.18 µg/kg; S2D, 0.8 µg/L and 85.22 µg/kg) and oxytetracycline (S2A, < 1 mg/L and < 1 mg/kg; S2D, 11.8 mg/L and 39 mg/kg) were higher at sites near the establishments. All sites caused between 30 and 38.3% of lethality and produced neurotoxicity and alterations in the reduced glutathione content. Moreover, larvae exposed to samples from all sites incorporated ivermectin. These results demonstrate the degradation of the studied sites in relation to the agricultural activities of the area, highlighting the need to take measures to protect and preserve aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Argentina , Bovinos , Praguicidas/toxicidade
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 944: 173985, 2024 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876354

RESUMO

Contaminants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be released from asphalt pavement and transported through stormwater runoff to nearby water bodies, leading to water pollution and potential harm to living aquatic animals. This study characterizes the heavy metal and PAH leaching from various asphalt paving materials and their potential ecotoxicological effects on zebrafish Danio rerio. Artificial runoffs were prepared in the laboratory concerning the effects of water, temperature, and traffic. The concentrations of heavy metals and PAHs in the leachates were quantified, while the toxicity assessment encompassed mortality, metal stress, PAH toxicity, inflammation, carcinogenicity, and oxidative damage. Gene expressions of related proteins or transcription factors were assessed, including metallothionines, aryl hydrocarbon receptors, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-10, nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, tumor suppressor p53, heat shock protein 70, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The findings demonstrate that leachates from asphalt pavements containing waste bottom ash, crumb rubber, or specific chemicals could induce notable stress and inflammation responses in zebrafish. In addition, potential carcinogenic effects and the elevation of ROS were identified within certain treatment groups. This study represents the first attempt to assess the ecotoxicity of pavement leachates employing a live fish model, thereby improving the current understanding of the environmental impact of asphalt pavements.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos , Metais Pesados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia , Materiais de Construção , Monitoramento Ambiental
6.
PeerJ ; 12: e17601, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38938608

RESUMO

Background: Tungsten (W) is an emerging heavy metal pollutant, yet research remains scarce on the biomonitor and sensitive biomarkers for W contamination. Methods: In this study, celery and pepper were chosen as study subjects and subjected to exposure cultivation in solutions with five different levels of W. The physiological and biochemical toxicities of W on these two plants were systematically analyzed. The feasibility of utilizing celery and pepper as biomonitor organisms for W contamination was explored and indicative biomarkers were screened. Results: The results indicated that W could inhibit plants' root length, shoot height, and fresh weight while concurrently promoting membrane lipid peroxidation. Additionally, W enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) to counteract oxidative damage. From a physiological perspective, pepper exhibited potential as a biomonitor for W contamination. Biochemical indicators suggested that SOD could serve as a sensitive biomarker for W in celery, while TAOC and POD were more suitable for the roots and leaves of pepper. In conclusion, our study investigated the toxic effects of W on celery and pepper, contributing to the understanding of W's environmental toxicity. Furthermore, it provided insights for selecting biomonitor organisms and sensitive biomarkers for W contamination.


Assuntos
Apium , Capsicum , Tungstênio , Apium/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/metabolismo , Tungstênio/toxicidade , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 475: 134828, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876015

RESUMO

The prediction of ecological toxicity plays an increasingly important role in modern society. However, the existing models often suffer from poor performance and limited predictive capabilities. In this study, we propose a novel approach for ecological toxicity assessment based on pre-trained models. By leveraging pre-training techniques and graph neural network models, we establish a highperformance predictive model. Furthermore, we incorporate a variational autoencoder to optimize the model, enabling simultaneous discrimination of toxicity to bees and molecular degradability. Additionally, despite the low similarity between the endogenous hormones in bees and the compounds in our dataset, our model confidently predicts that these hormones are non-toxic to bees, which further strengthens the credibility and accuracy of our model. We also discovered the negative correlation between the degradation and bee toxicity of compounds. In summary, this study presents an ecological toxicity assessment model with outstanding performance. The proposed model accurately predicts the toxicity of chemicals to bees and their degradability capabilities, offering valuable technical support to relevant fields.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ecotoxicologia , Testes de Toxicidade
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14260, 2024 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38902463

RESUMO

Sosnowski hogweed is an invasive weed in eastern-middle Europe that is dangerous to human health and the environment. The efficacy of its control using chemical and mechanical methods is limited. Electromagnetic radiation (microwaves) could be an environmentally friendly alternative for controlling this species. This study aims to: (1) Determine the effect of varying microwave treatment (MWT) durations on the control of S. hogweed using a device emitting microwaves at 2.45 GHz, 32.8 kW/m2; (2) Evaluate the impact of MWT on soil by an ecotoxicological bioassays; (3) Analyze biochemical changes occurring in the roots during the process. A field study was performed to assess the efficacy of S. hogweed control using MWT in times from 2.5 to 15 min. The MWT-treated soil was collected immediately after treatment (AT) and tested using bioassays (Phytotoxkit, Ostracodtoxkit, and Microtox). Fourteen days AT, the MWT hogweed roots were dug out, air-dried, and analyzed for the content and composition of essential oil, sugars, and fatty acids. According to the ecotoxicological biotests, the MWT soils were classified as non-toxic or low-toxic. The regeneration of hogweed was observed only in non-treated plants (control). Hogweed MWT for 2.5-15 min did not regenerate up to 14 days AT. The average weight of roots in hogweed MWT for 15.0 min was ca. two times smaller than the control plants. Those roots contained significantly higher amounts of sugars and saturated fatty acids than the control. We did not find a correlation between S. hogweed root essential oil content and composition and MWT time. The main compounds of essential oil were p­cymene and myristicin. No highly photosensitizing compounds were identified in the tested root oil. We conclude that MWT of S. hogweed could be an environmentally safe and prospective control method, but more studies are needed.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia , Heracleum , Micro-Ondas , Raízes de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Heracleum/química , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Solo/química , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos da radiação , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(29): 41953-41963, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856851

RESUMO

Various plant species can be selected for environmental testing, including pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br), a globally significant cereal crop. This study aims to assess millet's suitability as a species for ecotoxicological tests, examining (1) germination and initial development dynamics, (2) the minimum seed quantity for reliable sampling, (3) optimal experimental design with replication numbers, (4) suitability of positive control, and (5) the effectiveness of the protocol in evaluating toxic effects of environmental pollutants. Millet exhibited rapid and uniform germination as well as consistent initial seedling development. To establish the minimum number of seeds required for reliable experimentation, germination, and seedling growth were compared across plots containing 10, 25, and 50 seeds. Consequently, 10 seeds per plot were chosen for subsequent experiments to reduce labor and costs while maintaining reliability. To validate the selected experimental design, and to establish a positive control for assays, aluminum was used as a toxic element at concentrations ranging from 10-2 to 10-6 M. While aluminum did not affect the final percentage of germinated seeds, it did exhibit an impact on the Germination Speed Index (GSI). Significant differences in root and aerial growth, and with fresh weight, were observed. The 10-3M concentration was chosen as the positive control as the 10-2 concentration showed extreme toxicity. To assess the applicability of the established protocol in determining the toxic effects of environmental pollutants, millet roots were exposed to the toxic agents atrazine, cadmium, methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), and Spent pot liner (SPL). Millet demonstrated sensitivity and efficiency in response to these tests. In conclusion, millet proves to be an effective species for the toxicological risk assessment of environmental pollutants.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia , Germinação , Pennisetum , Pennisetum/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(29): 41964-41979, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856856

RESUMO

Potential toxicity of treated effluents of selected natural rubber processing industries was evaluated by integrating physicochemical analysis with Daphnia magna and Poecilia reticulata bioassays as ecotoxicity tools. Further, the efficacy of the constructed wetland treatments practiced by the industries for reducing the ecotoxicity of the final effluents reaching the receiving water course was assessed. Even after passing through the constructed wetlands, some of the measured physicochemical parameters of the final effluents did not comply with the stipulated rubber processing effluent regulatory limits. Acute toxicity data of treated effluents demonstrated greater susceptibility of D. magna compared to P. reticulata. Erythrocytic abnormality tests with P. reticulata revealed that rubber industry effluents contained cytogenotoxic contaminations which had not been completely eliminated by the treatment processes. Wetland treatment technique was not effective in reducing the cytogenotoxic effects of final effluents reaching the receiving water course. The use of ecotoxicity tools for optimization of rubber industry effluent treatment processes would help to reduce potential toxic/cytogenotoxic effects of effluent receiving waterbodies considering sustainable development goals focusing on ecosystem safety.


Assuntos
Daphnia , Borracha , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Áreas Alagadas , Resíduos Industriais , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poecilia , Ecotoxicologia
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 946: 174210, 2024 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38914323

RESUMO

Mud crab, one of the aquatic organisms found in estuary areas, has become a significant economic source of seafood for communities due to its delectable taste. However, they face the threat of heavy metal contamination, which may adversely affect their biological traits. This study explored the comparison of the mud crabs collected from Setiu Wetland as a reference site, while Kuala Sepetang is an area that contains a higher concentration of heavy metals than Setiu Wetlands. Heavy metal levels were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), while proteomes were assessed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics, respectively. Heavy metal contamination affects the proteome, metabolome, and putative molecular targets in mud crabs (Scylla olivacea), leading to oxidative stress. Mud crabs collected from the metal-polluted area of Kuala Sepetang in Perak had considerably elevated concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) in comparison to the reference site of Setiu Wetlands in Terengganu. The proteome analysis revealed an upregulation of the stress-response protein Hsp70, which triggered superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased arginine kinase expression (5.47 fold) in the muscle tissue, results in the alteration of metabolite regulation in the mud crab from Kuala Sepetang. Additionally, in the muscle tissues of mud crabs obtained from Kuala Sepetang, uncharacterized myosin-tail 1 domain proteins and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding proteins were downregulated. The metabolomic investigation identified changes in metabolites associated with energy metabolism and osmoregulation. Exploration of docking analysis suggests potential connections between methylarsonic acid and essential proteins in mud crabs. These findings suggest that the presence of heavy metals disrupts physiological processes and highlights potential molecular targets that warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Braquiúros/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/análise , Malásia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Medição de Risco , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ecotoxicologia , Proteoma
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 946: 174201, 2024 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38936709

RESUMO

Perfluorinated and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), encompassing a vast array of isomeric chemicals, are recognized as typical emerging contaminants with direct or potential impacts on human health and the ecological environment. With the complex and elusive toxicological profiles of PFASs, machine learning (ML) has been increasingly employed in their toxicity studies due to its proficiency in prediction and data analytics. This integration is poised to become a predominant trend in environmental toxicology, propelled by the swift advancements in computational technology. This review diligently examines the literature to encapsulate the varied objectives of employing ML in the toxicity studies of PFASs: (1) Utilizing ML to establish Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models for PFASs with diverse toxicity endpoints, facilitating the targeted toxicity prediction of unidentified PFASs; (2) Investigating and substantiating the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) through the synergy of ML and traditional toxicological methods, with this refining the toxicity assessment framework for PFASs; (3) Dissecting and elucidating the features of established ML models to advance Open Research into the toxicity of PFASs, with a primary focus on determinants and mechanisms. The discourse extends to an in-depth examination of ML studies, segregating findings based on their distinct application trajectories. Given that ML represents a nascent paradigm within PFASs research, this review delineates the collective challenges encountered in the ML-mediated study of PFAS toxicity and proffers strategic guidance for ensuing investigations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorocarbonos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Fluorocarbonos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Humanos , Ecotoxicologia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 946: 174092, 2024 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38942312

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) have found extensive application globally due to their low cost, flexibility and light weight. Microplastic pollution is a growing environmental concern that poses significant threats to aquatic ecosystems worldwide, including African freshwater systems. Nevertheless, although Africa houses some of the deepest and largest freshwater rivers and lakes in the world such as Lake Tanganyika and Victoria, River Congo and the Nile, there is limited information available regarding the presence of MPs in these inland waters. Selected published data on MPs in African freshwater systems, including sediments, biota, rivers, and lakes, were incorporated in this review. The study discovered that the sampling technique employed has a major impact on the morphological characteristics and abundance of MPs in African freshwater systems. Fibers and fragments were the most common shapes; black, white, and transparent were the most prevalent colors; and polyethene terephthalate, polystyrene, and polypropylene were the frequently dominant polymers. As the distance between the sampling sites increased geographically, the polymer similarities declined. MPs have been found to translocate into body cells and tissues where they are capable of causing genetic mutations, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. In Africa, MPs are poorly managed and monitored, and there has been insufficient research done on the possibility that they could be present in drinking water. Considering the fact that humans in the continent are exposed to freshwater and aquatic organisms, the risk assessment routes are currently unvalidated, therefore it was recommended that African nations should strengthen their capacity for plastic management and environmental monitoring. This review provides up to date information on the occurrence, prevalence, ecotoxicity and management of MPs across African freshwater systems.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Microplásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , África
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 281: 116652, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941657

RESUMO

Microalgal growth-based tests are international standards for ecotoxicity assessment; however, their long exposure times, large sample volumes, and reliance on a single growth-endpoint make them inadequate for rapid toxicity screening. Here, we aimed to develop a rapid and simple ecotoxicological test using the fast-growing green alga Mychonastes afer, with multiple endpoints-growth, lipid content, and photosynthesis. We exposed M. afer to two metals-silver and copper-and two herbicides-atrazine and diuron-for 24 h and identified the most sensitive and reliable endpoints for each toxicant: the maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax) for Ag, Cu and atrazine, and the lipid content for diuron. Lipid content was found to be both a sensitive and reliable biomarker, meeting the effluent limit guidelines in both the Republic of Korea and the USA. The sensitivity of M. afer to Ag and atrazine also closely matched the HC5 values derived from the species sensitivity distribution approach, confirming its reliability for setting regulatory concentrations of these contaminants. Our calculated predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) values were similar to established European Union PNECs for Ag, Cu, atrazine, and diuron, underlining the utility of these biological endpoints for ecological risk assessment and regulatory decision making. This method required lower sample volume (2 mL vs 100 mL) and exposure time (24 h vs 72-120 h) than conventional green algal tests, and eliminated the need for labour-intensive cell counting, expensive equipment, and chlorophyll fluorescence measurement expertise. Overall, this M. afer test can be a valuable tool for the rapid screening of wastewater for metals and herbicides, contributing to environmental protection and management practices.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Cobre , Diurona , Ecotoxicologia , Herbicidas , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Diurona/toxicidade , Atrazina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Cobre/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/toxicidade , República da Coreia , Haptófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Clorófitas/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Environ Res ; 257: 119394, 2024 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866313

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial blooms, a natural phenomenon in freshwater ecosystems, have increased in frequency and severity due to climate change and eutrophication. Some cyanobacteria are able to produce harmful substances called cyanotoxins. These metabolites possess different chemical structures and action mechanisms representing a serious concern for human health and the environment. The most studied cyanotoxins belong to the group of microcystins which are potent hepatotoxins. Anabaenopeptins are another class of cyclic peptides produced by certain species of cyanobacteria, including Planktothrix spp. Despite limited knowledge regarding individual effects of anabaenopeptins on freshwater organisms, reports have identified in vivo toxicity in representatives of freshwater zooplankton by cyanobacterial extracts or mixtures containing anabaenopeptins. This study focused on the isolation and toxicity evaluation of the cyanotoxins produced in the 2022 Planktothrix rubescens bloom in Averno lake, Italy. The three main cyclic peptides have been isolated and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (MS) and optical analyses as anabaenopeptins A and B, and oscillamide Y. Ecotoxicological tests on the aquatic model organisms Daphnia magna (crustacean), Raphidocelis subcapitata (algae), and Aliivibrio fischeri (bacterium) revealed that anabaenopeptins A and B do not generate significant toxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations, being also found a stimulatory effect on R. subcapitata in the case of anabaenopeptin A. By contrast, oscillamide Y displayed toxicity. Ecological implications based on ECOSAR predictions align with experimental data. Moreover, long-term exposure bioassays on different green unicellular algae species showed that R. subcapitata was not significantly affected, while Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris exhibited altered growth patterns. These results, together with the already-known background in literature, highlight the complexity of interactions between organisms and the tested compounds, which may be influenced by species-specific sensitivities, physiological differences, and modes of action, possibly affected by parameters like lipophilicity.


Assuntos
Daphnia , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Planktothrix , Peptídeos Cíclicos/toxicidade , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Animais , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Planktothrix/efeitos dos fármacos , Planktothrix/metabolismo , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Itália , Ecotoxicologia , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eutrofização
16.
Environ Res ; 257: 119403, 2024 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871274

RESUMO

Commonly utilized as a plasticizer in the food and chemical sectors, Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) poses threats to the environment and human well-being as it seeps or moves into the surroundings. Nevertheless, research on the harmfulness of DBP to aquatic organisms is limited, and its impact on stem cells and tissue regeneration remains unidentified. Planarians, recognized for their robust regenerative capabilities and sensitivity to aquatic pollutants, are emerging animal models in toxicology. This study investigated the comprehensive toxicity effects of environmentally relevant levels of DBP on planarians. It revealed potential toxicity mechanisms through the use of immunofluorescence, chromatin dispersion assay, Western blot, quantitative real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), chromatin behavioral and histological analyses, immunofluorescence, and terminal dUTP nickel-end labeling (TUNEL). Findings illustrated that DBP caused morphological and motor abnormalities, tissue damage, regenerative inhibition, and developmental neurotoxicity. Further research revealed increased apoptosis and suppressed stem cell proliferation and differentiation, disrupting a balance of cell proliferation and death, ultimately leading to morphological defects and functional abnormalities. This was attributed to oxidative stress and DNA damage caused by excessive release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This exploration furnishes fresh perspectives on evaluating the toxicity peril posed by DBP in aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato , Planárias , Regeneração , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Dibutilftalato/toxicidade , Planárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Planárias/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecotoxicologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 87(17): 687-700, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836411

RESUMO

The increasing use of UV filters, such as benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), has raised concerns regarding their ecotoxicological effects on the aquatic environment. The aim of the present study was to examine the embryo-larval toxicity attributed to BP-3 or TiO2 NPs, either alone or in a mixture, utilizing zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of these compounds. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to BP-3 (10, 100, or 1000 ng/L) or TiO2 NPs (1000 ng/L) alone or in a mixture (BP-3 10, 100, or 1000 ng/L plus 1000 ng/L of TiO2 NPs) under static conditions for 144 hr. After exposure, BP-3 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). BP-3 levels increased in the presence of TiO2 NPs, indicating that the BP-3 degradation decreased in the presence of the NPs. In addition, in the presence of zebrafish, BP-3 levels in water decreased, indicating that zebrafish embryos and larvae might absorb BP-3. Data demonstrated that, in general, environmentally relevant concentrations of BP-3 and TiO2 NPs, either alone or in a mixture, did not significantly induce changes in heart and spontaneous contractions frequencies, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), morphological and morphometric parameters as well as mortality rates during 144 hr exposure. However, the groups exposed to TiO2 NPs alone and in a mixture with BP-3 at 10 ng/L exhibited an earlier significant hatching rate than the controls. Altogether, the data indicates that a potential ecotoxicological impact on the aquatic environment exists.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas , Embrião não Mamífero , Protetores Solares , Titânio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Titânio/toxicidade , Titânio/química , Benzofenonas/toxicidade , Protetores Solares/toxicidade , Protetores Solares/química , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 473: 134479, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762985

RESUMO

Once in the marine environment, fishing nets and cables undergo weathering, breaking down into micro and nano-size particles and leaching plastic additives, which negatively affect marine biota. This study aims to unravel the ecotoxicological impact of different concentrations of leachate obtained from abandoned or lost fishing nets and cables in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis under long-term exposure (28 days). Biochemical biomarkers linked to antioxidant defense system, xenobiotic biotransformation, oxidative damage, genotoxicity, and neurotoxicity were evaluated in different mussel tissues. The chemical nature of the fishing nets and cables and the chemical composition of the leachate were assessed and metals, plasticizers, UV stabilizers, flame retardants, antioxidants, dyes, flavoring agents, preservatives, intermediates and photo initiators were detected. The leachate severely affected the antioxidant and biotransformation systems in mussels' tissues. Following exposure to 1 mg·L-1 of leachate, mussels' defense system was enhanced to prevent oxidative damage. In contrast, in mussels exposed to 10 and 100 mg·L-1 of leachate, defenses failed to overcome pro-oxidant molecules, resulting in genotoxicity and oxidative damage. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Weight of Evidence (WOE) evaluation confirmed that mussels were significantly affected by the leachate being the hazard of the leachate concentrations of 10 mg·L-1 ranked as major, while 1 and 100 mg·L-1 was moderate. These results highlighted that the leachate from fishing nets and cables can be a threat to the heath of the mussel M. galloprovincialis.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Mytilus/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ecotoxicologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Environ Pollut ; 355: 124233, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801877

RESUMO

The impact of leachates from micronized beached plastics of the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean on coastal marine ecosystems was investigated by using a multidisciplinary approach. Chemical analysis and ecotoxicological tests on phylogenetically distant species were performed on leachates from the following plastic categories: bottles, pellets, hard plastic (HP) containers, fishing nets (FN) and rapido trawling rubber (RTR). The bacteria Alivibrio fischeri, the nauplii of the crustaceans Amphibalanus amphitrite and Acartia tonsa, the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, the embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, the ephyrae of the jellyfish Aurelia sp. and the larvae of the medaka Oryzias latipes were exposed to different concentrations of leachates to evaluate lethal and sub-lethal effects. Thirty-one additives were identified in the plastic leachates; benzophenone, benzyl butyl phthalate and ethylparaben were present in all leachates. Ecotoxicity of leachates varied among plastic categories and areas, being RTR, HP and FN more toxic than plastic bottles and pellets to several marine invertebrates. The ecotoxicological results based on 13 endpoints were elaborated within a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE) model, providing a synthetic hazard index for each data typology, before their integrations in an environmental risk index. The WOE assigned a moderate and slight hazard to organisms exposed to leachates of FN and HP collected in the Mediterranean Sea respectively, and a moderate hazard to leachates of HP from the Atlantic Ocean. No hazard was found for pellet, bottles and RTR. These findings suggest that an integrated approach based on WOE on a large set of bioassays is recommended to get a more reliable assessment of the ecotoxicity of beached-plastic leachates. In addition, the additives leached from FN and HP should be further investigated to reduce high concentrations and additive types that could impact marine ecosystem health.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Invertebrados , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Mar Mediterrâneo , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceano Atlântico , Ecotoxicologia , Vertebrados , Oryzias , Paracentrotus/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 935: 173026, 2024 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750741

RESUMO

Among rising environmental concerns, emerging contaminants constitute a variety of different chemicals and biological agents. The composition, residence time in environmental media, chemical interactions, and toxicity of emerging contaminants are not fully known, and hence, their regulation becomes problematic. Some of the important groups of emerging contaminants are pesticides and pesticide transformation products (PTPs), which present a considerable obstacle to maintaining and preserving ecosystem health. This review article aims to thoroughly comprehend the occurrence, fate, and ecotoxicological importance of pesticide transformation products (PTPs). The paper provides an overview of pesticides and PTPs as contaminants of emerging concern and discusses the modes of degradation of pesticides, their properties and associated risks. The degradation of pesticides, however, does not lead to complete destruction but can instead lead to the generation of PTPs. The review discusses the properties and toxicity of PTPs and presents the methods available for their detection. Moreover, the present study examines the existing regulatory framework and suggests the need for the development of new technologies for easy, routine detection of PTPs to regulate them effectively in the environment.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia , Poluentes Ambientais , Praguicidas , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Biodegradação Ambiental
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