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1.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(9-10): 53, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549238

RESUMO

Sand swimming behaviour occurs in several lizard clades. Known ecological advantages of sand swimming include reduced predation risk and enhanced thermoregulation. We addressed whether, by way of sand abrasion, sand-swimming reduces ectoparasitism in the lizard Microlophus occipitalis, whose natural habitat includes sandy substrates (beach) and firm soil (dry forest). We hypothesised that, aside from habitat differences in infestation probability, ectoparasite prevalence and load would be lower in the beach than in the forest because of ectoparasite removal caused by sand-swimming. In an experiment with lizards confined in boxes with substrate from both habitats, lizards in beach boxes showed a greater decrease in ectoparasite load compared with lizards in forest boxes. Ectoparasite prevalence and load were much higher in the forest than in the beach across seasons. Larger lizards showed higher ectoparasite loads, and there were no sex differences in ectoparasite infestation. We provide evidence that sand swimming may confer another ecological advantage to lizards: reduced ectoparasitism.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Lagartos/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Areia , Natação , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Feminino , Lagartos/fisiologia , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Prevalência
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 346, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oestrosis, caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis, commonly known as sheep nose bot, is an obligatory cavitary myiasis of sheep and goats. Oestrus ovis is a widespread parasite, but little is known about the prevalence of oestrosis at the global and broad geographical levels. The present study aimed to explore the epidemiology of oestrosis at the global and regional level to estimate prevalences and their associated factors using a systematic approach. This is, to the author's knowledge, the first meta-analysis of oestrosis in sheep and goats. METHODS: Published articles were obtained from nine electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Web of Science, Scopus, UCB library, Medline, Biosis Citation Index, Indian journals and Google Scholar) reporting the prevalence of O. ovis in sheep and goats from 1970 to 2018. Pooled prevalences were estimated using a random effect meta-analysis model. RESULTS: Sixty-six studies were eligible, and data from 40,870 sheep and 18,216 goats were used for quantitative analysis. The random effect estimated prevalence of oestrosis at the global level in sheep was 51.15% (95% CI: 42.80-59.51%) and in goats was 42.19% (95% CI: 33.43-50.95%). The pooled prevalence estimates for Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas were 47.85% (95% CI: 36.04-59.66%), 44.48% (95% CI: 33.09-55.87%), 56.83% (95% CI: 48.92-64.74%) and 34.46% (95% CI: 19.90-49.01%), respectively. Heterogeneity (I2 > 80%) was detected in most pooled estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Oestrosis is highly prevalent in many geographical regions of the world, especially in Europe and Africa. Factors that contribute to the pooled prevalence estimate of oestrosis need to be emphasised in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of oestrosis. Furthermore, there is a need for immunisation or implementation of other preventive measures to reduce the burden of oestrosis in sheep and goats and to improve the health and welfare status.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Miíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Larva , Masculino , Miíase/epidemiologia , Nariz/parasitologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
3.
Acta Trop ; 196: 83-92, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082365

RESUMO

Human encroachment of natural habitats bears the threat of disease transmission between native and introduced species that had not come into contact before, thus promoting the spread of new diseases in both directions. This is a matter of concern especially in areas where human-wildlife contact has not been intense in the recent past. In southwest Madagascar, we collected ectoparasites from various mammalian hosts and chicken, and examined their host preferences and their prevalence in relation to season and habitat degradation. Field-work took place in the northern portion of Tsimanampetsotsa National Park and the adjacent coastal strip (littoral) in the dry and in the rainy season of 2016/2017. Endemic mammals were trapped with live traps placed in habitats of different degrees of degradation: 1) relatively pristine forest, 2) degraded forest, 3) cultivated and shrub land. Rats and mice were also trapped in 4) villages. We identified 17 species of ectoparasites (296 individuals of ticks [5 species], 535 lice [7 spp.], 389 fleas [4 spp.] and 13 mites [1 sp.]) collected from 15 host species. There was no indication for seasonal or habitat effects on parasite infection. A large portion of the parasites was host-specific. Some ectoparasite species were shared either by several endemic or by several introduced species, but apart from the introduced flea species Echidnophaga gallinacea (collected from six different hosts including the endemic carnivore Galidictis grandidieri) no other ectoparasite species was shared between endemic and introduced host species.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Artrópodes/classificação , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Animais , Ecossistema , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(6): 1391-1400, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938281

RESUMO

Rickettsia and Leptospira spp. are under-recognized causes of acute febrile disease worldwide. Rickettsia species are often placed into the spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR). We explored the antibody prevalence among humans for these two groups of rickettsiae in four regions of Peru (Lima, Cusco, Puerto Maldonado, and Tumbes) and for Leptospira spp. in Puerto Maldonado and Tumbes. We also assessed risk factors for seropositivity and collected serum samples and ectoparasites from peri-domestic animals from households in sites with high human seroprevalence. In total, we tested 2,165 human sera for antibodies (IgG) against SFGR and TGR by ELISA and for antibodies against Leptospira by a microscopic agglutination test. Overall, human antibody prevalence across the four sites was 10.6% for SFGR (ranging from 6.2% to 14.0%, highest in Tumbes) and 3.3% for TGR (ranging from 2.6% to 6.4%, highest in Puerto Maldonado). Factors associated with seroreactivity against SFGR were male gender, older age, contact with backyard birds, and working in agriculture or with livestock. However, exposure to any kind of animal within the household decreased the odds ratio by half. Age was the only variable associated with higher TGR seroprevalence. The prevalence of Leptospira was 11.3% in Puerto Maldonado and 5.8% in Tumbes, with a borderline association with keeping animals in the household. We tested animal sera for Leptospira and conducted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Rickettsia species among ectoparasites collected from domestic animals in 63 households of seropositive participants and controls. We did not find any association between animal infection and human serostatus.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Ecossistema , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Animais de Estimação , Rickettsia/imunologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses
5.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 15: 100263, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929940

RESUMO

A total of 200 dogs and 137 cats were examined for the presence of fleas, ticks and lice in Bishoftu, central Oromia, Ethiopia from September 2009 through April 2010. At least one ectoparasite species was found on 97% (194/200) of the dogs and 90.5% (124/137) of the cats. On dogs, fleas (Ctenocephalides felis (95%), Pulex irritans (20.5%), Echidnophaga gallinacea (9%) and Xenopsylla cheopis (0.5%)), ticks (Haemaphysalis leachi (17.5%), Amblyomma variegatum (8.5%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (8%), Rhipicephalus pulchellus (5.5%) and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (2.5%)) and lice (Heterodoxus spiniger (5%), Linognathus setosus (1.5%) and Trichodectes canis (0.5%)) were identified. On cats, fleas (C. felis (61.7%), E. gallinacea (24.1%), P. irritans (1.5%) and X. cheopis (0.7%)) and ticks (Ha. leachi (10.9%), Am. variegatum (1.5%) and Rh. sanguineus (0.7%)) were identified. C. felis was identified as the predominant ectoparasite on both dogs and cats. The overall frequency and count of ectoparasites was higher on dogs than on cats. Significantly higher overall frequency of fleas on young versus adult cats (p = .01) was recorded. However, ticks were significantly higher on adult cats than on young cats (p = .01). In conclusion, this study demonstrated great species diversity and high frequency of ectoparasites on dogs and cats in the study area. Further studies are required to investigate the role of these ectoparasites in transmission of zoonotic pathogens to humans and animals in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Ctenocephalides , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Ixodidae , Masculino , Rhipicephalus , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
6.
J Fish Dis ; 42(5): 739-749, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972838

RESUMO

Back Bay is an oligohaline, coastal bay in southeast Virginia, USA. Since 2004, leeches have been observed in the oral cavities of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in this body of water. Leeches (Myzobdella lugubris) have previously been documented in the oral cavities of largemouth bass in the Currituck Sound, which is confluent with Back Bay on its southern border. Supplemental stocking of largemouth bass in Back Bay since 2009 has resulted in an increasing population; however, concern exists that leech infestation may be negatively affecting health of larger fish, which are still less abundant than expected. Despite the wide distribution of this leech, there is little available literature regarding its health impacts on hosts. In this study, we examine potential impacts of oral leech infestations on stress markers and haematological parameters of largemouth bass in Back Bay. No significant changes in plasma glucose or cortisol were observed between leech-infested and uninfested fish, and haematological parameters were not significantly different between the groups. Further, there was no evidence of systemic infections associated with leech infestation.


Assuntos
Bass , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Boca/parasitologia , Prevalência , Virginia/epidemiologia
7.
Parasite ; 26: 22, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963996

RESUMO

Due to the rarity of human cases and the nonspecific clinical symptoms of dioctophymiasis, Dioctophyma renale infection is not well recognized and is easily neglected or misdiagnosed. Recently, we diagnosed a human case of dioctophymiasis accompanied by renal cancer. To enhance the understanding of human dioctophymiasis, this case is presented here, and a retrospective study of this disease was conducted based on relevant papers screened from PubMed and three Chinese databases. In the end, 32 papers describing 37 human cases of dioctophymiasis were assessed. These cases were distributed in ten countries of Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania, with the highest number in China (n = 22). The majority of the cases occurred in adults (91.9%, 34/37) and involved the kidneys (83.8%, 31/37). Ectopic parasitism mainly occurred in subcutaneous tissue (83.3%, 5/6). A proportion of 45.9% (17/37) of individuals had a history of eating raw or undercooked fish or frogs. The main clinical manifestations of human dioctophymiasis were loin pain (59.5%) and hematuria (59.5%). All the cases were diagnosed based on the morphological characteristics of eggs or adults in urine or tissue sections. Currently, there is no strictly defined therapeutic approach. This is the first retrospective analysis of human cases of dioctophymiasis. These review data will deepen our understanding of dioctophymiasis and help avoid misdiagnosis in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enoplida/complicações , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Dioctophymatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/urina , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Peixes/parasitologia , Humanos , Rim/parasitologia , Rim/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(13): 6473-6481, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833386

RESUMO

Bed bugs have reemerged in the United States and worldwide over recent decades, presenting a major challenge to both public health practitioners and housing authorities. A number of municipalities have proposed or initiated policies to stem the bed bug epidemic, but little guidance is available to evaluate them. One contentious policy is disclosure, whereby landlords are obligated to notify potential tenants of current or prior bed bug infestations. Aimed to protect tenants from leasing an infested rental unit, disclosure also creates a kind of quarantine, partially and temporarily removing infested units from the market. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the spread of bed bugs in a generalized rental market, calibrate it to parameters of bed bug dispersion and housing turnover, and use it to evaluate the costs and benefits of disclosure policies to landlords. We find disclosure to be an effective control policy to curb infestation prevalence. Over the short term (within 5 years), disclosure policies result in modest increases in cost to landlords, while over the long term, reductions of infestation prevalence lead, on average, to savings. These results are insensitive to different assumptions regarding the prevalence of infestation, rate of introduction of bed bugs from other municipalities, and the strength of the quarantine effect created by disclosure. Beyond its application to bed bugs, our model offers a framework to evaluate policies to curtail the spread of household pests and is appropriate for systems in which spillover effects result in highly nonlinear cost-benefit relationships.


Assuntos
Percevejos-de-Cama , Revelação , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Controle de Insetos/normas , Políticas , Animais , Percevejos-de-Cama/patogenicidade , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Características da Família , Habitação , Humanos , Renda , Controle de Insetos/economia , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência , Quarentena , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Parasitol Res ; 118(3): 913-926, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737672

RESUMO

Ectoparasites such as hematophagous leeches and monogeneans are common in chelonians, occupying different parts of the body. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and describe the fauna of ectoparasites that infest Phrynops geoffroanus and Mesoclemmys tuberculata to evaluate the effect of host conditions and seasonality (dry and rainy season) on the abundance and composition of ectoparasites. We verified the presence of ectoparasites in 73.2% of the examined turtles, with four species of leeches belonging to Glossiphoniidae, Haementeria brasiliensis sensu Cordero, 1937, Helobdella cf. adiastola, Haementeria sp1., and Haementeria sp2., and one monogenean Polystomatidae, Polystomoides brasiliensis. For both chelonians, we observed a significant difference in the abundance of ectoparasites in relation to sex, biome, and season, which was unrelated to length and mass. Leeches were more frequent in the cavities of the hind limbs in P. geoffroanus, and the anterior limbs of M. tuberculata. The general spatial niche overlap of ectoparasites was high, except for that of the monogenean P. brasiliensis, which did not overlap with those of other leech species. The present study is the first report of the presence of H. brasiliensis and P. brasiliensis parasitizing M. tuberculata, and Helobdella cf. adiastola in a phoretic relationship with P. geoffroanus and M. tuberculata. Finally, the differences in infestation levels may reflect ecological factors, differences in behavioral patterns of the hosts, and different anthropic alterations suffered in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Sanguessugas/classificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Trematódeos/classificação
11.
Parasitology ; 146(2): 234-240, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066668

RESUMO

Host range and parasite specificity determine key epidemiological, ecological and evolutionary aspects of host-parasite interactions. Parasites are usually classified as generalists or specialists based on the number of hosts they feed on. Yet, the requirements of the various stages of a parasite may influence the suitability of a given host species. Here, we investigate the generalist nature of three common ectoparasites (the dipteran Carnus hemapterus and two species of louse flies, Pseudolynchia canariensis and Ornithophila metallica), exploiting two avian host species (the European roller Coracias garrulus and the Rock pigeon Columba livia), that frequently occupy the same breeding sites. We explore the prevalence and abundance of both the infective and the puparial stages of the ectoparasites in both host species. Strong preferences of Pseudolynchia canariensis for pigeons and of Carnus hemapterus for rollers were found. Moderate prevalence of Ornithophila metallica was found in rollers but this louse fly avoided pigeons. In some cases, the infestation patterns observed for imagoes and puparia were consistent whereas in other cases host preferences inferred from imagoes differed from the ones suggested by puparia. We propose that the adult stages of these ectoparasites are more specialist than reported and that the requirements of non-infective stages can restrict the effective host range of some parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Columbidae/parasitologia , Dípteros/fisiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 31(1): 75-87, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566268

RESUMO

The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, a type of sea lice (family Caligidae), is enzootic in marine waters of British Columbia and poses a health risk to both farmed Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar and wild Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. At the adult stage, sea lice infections can often result in severe cutaneous lesions in their salmonid hosts. To evaluate and compare the physiological consequences of adult L. salmonis infections, smolts of Atlantic Salmon and Sockeye Salmon O. nerka were exposed to 2 (low), 6 (medium), or 10 (high) adult female lice/fish. Mean lice abundance decreased over time in all groups. Skin disruption due to parasite infection was observed in both species. Plasma samples were collected from infected fish and uninfected controls at 1, 3, 5, and 7 d postinfection and measured for indicators of osmoregulatory function and stress. Sockeye Salmon, regardless of L. salmonis exposure level, showed a rapid onset of elevated osmolality and sodium and chloride ion concentrations which were sustained until 7 d postinfection when values returned to levels comparable with the unexposed controls. Conversely, these effects were not measured in Atlantic Salmon. Additionally, differential host effects in blood glucose levels were observed, with Sockeye Salmon displaying immediate elevation in glucose. Relative to Atlantic Salmon, infection with L. salmonis caused a profound physiological impact to Sockeye Salmon characterized by loss of osmoregulatory integrity and a stress response. This work provides the first comprehensive report of the physiological consequences of infections with adult L. salmonis in Sockeye Salmon smolts and helps to further define the mechanisms of susceptibility in this species.


Assuntos
Copépodes/fisiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Salmo salar , Salmão , Animais , Aquicultura , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Prevalência
13.
Parasite ; 25: 56, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474597

RESUMO

The Siamese shield leech Placobdelloides siamensis (Oka, 1917) Sawyer, 1986 (Euhirudinea: Glossiphoniidae) was collected from five new host species, Southeastern Asian Box Turtle (Cuora amboinensis), Yellow-headed Temple Turtle (Heosemys annandalii), Malayan Snail-eating Turtle (Malayemys macrocephala), Mekong Snail-eating Turtle (M. subtrijuga), and Khorat Snail-eating Turtle (M. khoratensis) and was found for the first time in Udon Thani, Thailand. Examination of live leeches provided, for the first time, data on coloration and the combination of parental care behavior, both carrying cocoons and attaching cocoons to the substrate. This species was separated from its congeners based on the following characters: one pair of eyes; spines at proboscis subterminal; mouth terminal on oral sucker; absent plaque in neck region; gonopores located in furrow and separated by two annuli; distinctly triannulated mid-body segments; crop with seven pairs and branched caeca; caudal sucker slightly over half of maximum body width; and strongly dorsal papillae. Phylogenetic relationships based on the COI and ND1 genes were clarified and demonstrated that the species is distinct from others. The original description was amended and the taxonomic history is discussed.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Sanguessugas/anatomia & histologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Sanguessugas/classificação , Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Sanguessugas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Filogenia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
14.
Parasite ; 25: 58, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474599

RESUMO

Peniculus hokutoae n. sp. is described on the basis of an ovigerous adult female parasitizing the caudal fin of the myctophid fish Symbolophorus evermanni (Gilbert, 1905), collected from Suruga Bay, Japan. This is the first record of parasitism by this genus on mesopelagic myctophid fish. The new species is easily distinguished from other congeners in: (1) the presence of a conical process anterior to the rostrum; (2) the secondary elongation of the first pedigerous somite; (3) the incorporation of the third and fourth pedigerous somites into the trunk; (4) the unilobate maxillule bearing two unequal apical setae; (5) the lack of any processes on the first segment of the maxilla. Four morphological patterns of the cephalothorax, neck and anterior parts of the trunk can be found in the genus. We infer that initial colonization of a mesopelagic myctophid fish as host is likely to have occurred when the diurnally-migrating myctophid host was feeding in near-surface waters at night and was exposed to infective stages of Peniculus.


Assuntos
Copépodes/fisiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Copépodes/anatomia & histologia , Copépodes/genética , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes , Japão/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Especificidade da Espécie , Simbiose
15.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 131(2): 133-142, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460919

RESUMO

Amberjacks, Seriola spp., are a group of carangid fishes of economic importance for fisheries and aquaculture worldwide. A survey of the parasites of greater amberjack S. dumerili and almaco jack or longfin yellowtail S. rivoliana from the Madeira archipelago (including the Madeira and Selvagens Islands) was carried out. This work is the first parasitological study of these 2 species in the Eastern Atlantic. A total of 14 parasite taxa were detected in the 47 fish analysed: Allencotyla mcintoshi, Stephanostomum petimba, Rhadinorhynchus sp. and Caligus aesopus (in both Seriola spp.); Dionchus agassizi, Zeuxapta seriolae, Tormopsolus orientalis, Didymocystis sp. and Anisakis sp. (in S. rivoliana); Tetrochetus coryphaenae, Stephanostomum sp., S. ditrematis, Oncophora melanocephala and Hysterothylacium seriolae (in Seriola dumerili). The monogenean Dionchus agassizi and the nematode O. melanocephala constitute new host records for the genus Seriola, and the species Allencotyla mcintoshi, Z. seriolae, Tormopsolus orientalis, H. seriolae, and C. aesopus are reported in the region of Madeira for the first time. Some of the parasites detected, in particular Z. seriolae and C. aesopus, could constitute a threat to amberjack aquaculture, and measures should be taken to prevent their introduction into sea cages.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Portugal
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 263: 5-9, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389024

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most important ectoparasites in cattle breeding worldwide, causing direct and indirect losses to animals and producers. Chemical acaricides are utilized in the control of cattle tick and the increase in the development of resistance by ectoparasites makes new alternative necessary. Therefore, research studies have been carried out using bioactive molecules that are quickly degraded and that reduce poisoning to appliers and non-target organisms, environmental contamination and development of resistance. Thus, this study aimed to isolate piperovatine from the roots of Piper corcovadensis, a native species to Brazil, and to evaluate the larvicidal activity against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus by larval packet test and in ex situ in an open environment. Piperovatine was isolated by classical column chromatography, and identified by 1H and 13C NMR. The lethal concentration (LC) of piperovatine that killed 50% (LC50) and 99% (LC99) of the larvae was determined by Probit analysis. The results indicated LC50 5.17 and LC99 25.41 µg/mL. LC99 was tested in ex situ in an open environment, and an efficiency of 96.63% was found, indicating that piperovatine kept the larvicidal action determined in in vitro test and in open environment. Therefore, this study shows new perspectives to develop products that can be applied in natural conditions to control this ectoparasite.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Sórbico/análogos & derivados , Acaricidas/química , Acaricidas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Feminino , Piper/anatomia & histologia , Piper/química , Ácido Sórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Sórbico/química , Ácido Sórbico/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carrapatos/fisiologia
17.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 26: 1-13, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390925

RESUMO

Synthetic pyrethroids have been widely used in Chile to control the sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi, a major ectoparasite of farmed salmon. Although resistance of C. rogercresseyi to pyrethroids has been reported in Chile, there is no information regarding the geographic extent of this problem. In this study we explored the spatial and temporal variation of C. rogercresseyi's response to pyrethroids in Chile from 2012 to 2013. We modeled lice abundance one week after treatment with a linear mixed-effects regression, and then we performed spatial and spatio-temporal cluster analyses on farm-level effects and on treatment-level residuals, respectively. Results indicate there were two areas where the post-treatment lice counts were significantly higher than in the rest of the study area. These spatial clusters remained even once we adjusted for environmental and management predictors, suggesting unmeasured factors (e.g. resistance) were causing the clustering. Further investigation should be carried out to confirm this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Salmo salar/parasitologia , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Aquicultura , Chile/epidemiologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Análise Espaço-Temporal
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 546, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks are important ectoparasites of horses that can affect animal welfare and vector several infectious, including zoonotic, diseases. In order to investigate the species distribution, epidemiology and seasonal dynamics of ticks infesting horses in Israel, 3267 ticks were collected from 396 horses in 24 farms across the country from July 2014 to June 2015. RESULTS: Ticks were found on 50% of the farms and on 25% of the horses, with Hyalomma being the most prevalent genus (70% of ticks). Pasture was the most prominent risk factor for tick infestation (99% of ticks, P < 0.001), and is represented here by two areas with a Mediterranean climate that differ in their environmental characteristics: the Golan Heights (GH, 74% of ticks); and the Carmel mountain ridge (CMR, 24%). Although these two sites are less than 100 km apart, the composition of the tick populations infesting horses differed significantly between them. In GH the most abundant tick species was Hyalomma excavatum (P < 0.001), while in CMR it was Hyalomma marginatum (P < 0.001). The GH also hosted a more diverse tick fauna than the CMR, including Haemaphysalis parva (peaking in the autumn, P < 0.001) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (peaking in the spring, P < 0.001), which were not found at the other sites. A few Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma rufipes and Hyalomma turanicum were also found on horses. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings can be used in epidemiological studies assessing the risk of tick-borne equine diseases in the area. Further analysis is needed to determine the specific distribution and habitat preferences of each tick species.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Clima , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Cavalos/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Fazendas , Israel/epidemiologia , Rhipicephalus/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia
19.
Acta Vet Hung ; 66(3): 426-443, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264623

RESUMO

A new Henneguya species, H. jaczoi sp. n., is described from perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Balaton, Hungary. This species infects the palatal region of the fish, forming large plasmodia in the thickened caudal part of the buccal cavity and at the dorsal ends of the cartilaginous gill arches. The species differs from the gill-dwelling Henneguya species of perch and pike (Esox lucius) both morphologically and in molecular aspects. The authors conclude that the type species H. psorospermica Thélohan is a specific parasite of pike, while the species forming plasmodia in the gills of perch corresponds to H. texta Cohn, which was hitherto regarded as a synonym of H. psorospermica. Besides the above-mentioned species, H. creplini was frequently found in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) and Volga pikeperch (Sander volgensis), but no Henneguya infection has been recorded in ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua), which is a common percid fish of the lake and is known to be the type host species for H. creplini.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/anatomia & histologia , Percas/parasitologia , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Hungria/epidemiologia , Lagos , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/genética , Filogenia
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