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1.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3459-3467, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677002

RESUMO

Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) was considered as a specific host of Placobdella costata (Fr. Mûller, 1846). However, since the parasite was recorded from outside the distribution area of its host, some authors suggested a possible relationship with other hosts. Although two accidental associations were found with another turtle, Mauremys leprosa (Schweigger, 1812), the obtained data remain insufficient to better understand this discovered host-parasite ecological system. In this context, the present study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the Mediterranean pond turtle, M. leprosa, and the freshwater rhynchobdellid leech, P. costata (Hirudinida: Glossiphoniidae), in aquatic ecosystems of Morocco. During the period from April to June 2018, we found leeches attached to turtles in five out of 30 populations sampled with a prevalence of infection significantly higher in adult than that in juvenile turtles. Moreover, the males are the most infested with 51% of the total, followed by females (33.3%) and juveniles (15.7%). The obtained results indicated that 51 turtles were infested by 139 leeches with a mean intensity of infestation of 4.17 ± 0.47 leeches/turtle (up to 10 leeches/turtle). It was higher in males than that in females in almost all sites. The posterior limbs are the most preferred attachment site, and the body condition of turtles was not affected by the intensity of infestation but it is rather a function of altitude. Our findings proved that M. leprosa-P. costata association is more than accidental and that M. leprosa is rather the main host of P. costata in aquatic ecosystems of Morocco.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Feminino , Água Doce/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência
2.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 70: 101450, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126432

RESUMO

Bartonella are blood-borne and vector-transmitted bacteria, some of which are zoonotic. B. bovis and B. chomelii have been reported in cattle. However, no information has yet been provided on Bartonella infection in cattle in Algeria. Therefore, 313 cattle from 45 dairy farms were surveyed in Kabylia, Algeria, in order to identify Bartonella species infecting cattle using serological and molecular tests. In addition, 277 ticks and 33 Hippoboscidae flies were collected. Bartonella bovis and B. chomelii were identified as the two species infecting cattle. Bartonella DNA was also amplified from 6.8 % (n = 19) of ticks and 78.8 % (n = 26) of flies. Prevalence of B. bovis DNA in dairy cattle was associated both with age and altitude. This study is the first one to report of bovine bartonellosis in Algeria, both in dairy cattle and in potential Bartonella vectors, with the detection of B. bovis DNA in tick samples and B. chomelii in fly samples.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Dípteros/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Argélia/epidemiologia , Altitude , Animais , Vetores Artrópodes/microbiologia , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência
3.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 198-200, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097104

RESUMO

Salmincola californiensis (Dana, 1853) (Subclass Copepoda: Family Lernaeopodidae) is known to parasitize salmonids of the genus Oncorhynchus including Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon), and Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon). These 3 salmonids have been introduced to the Great Lakes intermittently since the mid-1800s. As we demonstrate here, the introduction of these salmonids to the Great Lakes was followed, at some point, by the introduction of their parasitic gill copepod, S. californiensis. Given anecdotal accounts of S. californiensis in introduced salmonids in Lake Ontario since 2012, we chose to conduct a survey to formally document the occurrence of this introduced species. Our survey took place during spring, summer, and fall of 2018 and during spring of 2019 at the south-eastern side of Lake Ontario. Prevalence of S. californiensis was 69, with a mean intensity of 2.7 in 61 rainbow trout examined in 2018. In 2019, prevalence of S. californiensis was 71, with a mean intensity of 3.6 in 59 rainbow trout examined. The prevalence of S. californiensis was 39, with a mean intensity of 1.6 in 223 chinook salmon examined in 2018. No specimens of S. californiensis were found in the 100 coho salmon examined in 2018. The prevalence of S. californiensis in rainbow trout is of great concern considering that it is double that found in rainbow trout in the native range (69 [in 2018] and 71 [in 2019] vs. 35). This is the first formal documentation of the invasion of S. californiensis in Lake Ontario. Future fisheries management decisions in Lake Ontario and its tributaries should take into account these data.


Assuntos
Copépodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Truta/parasitologia , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Pesqueiros , Brânquias/parasitologia , Lagos , New York/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
J Parasitol ; 105(5): 760-768, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625812

RESUMO

The flow regime of a river is an important driver of many ecosystem components. However, few studies explore how differences in flow rates and water chemistry can influence communities of parasites and their hosts. Here, we investigate the impact of dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, water temperature, and river flow on the abundance and prevalence of cymothoid isopod parasitism (Lironeca ovalis) of the Bay Anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) in the Alafia and Hillsborough rivers of Tampa Bay (Florida). We also explore seasonality by comparing monthly samples preserved throughout 2005-2007. Although both the Alafia and Hillsborough rivers had similar average water temperatures and salinity, and similar wet and dry season cycles, the upstream damming of the Hillsborough River had numerous negative effects on water flow rate, dissolved oxygen content, and acidity. This disruption in water quality corresponded with a lower abundance of anchovy hosts, fewer free-swimming cymothoids, and low prevalence of anchovy parasitism. Anchovies were much more abundant in the Alafia River, but flow negatively affected abundance-a negative effect that could be mitigated by positive changes in water temperature, salinity, and pH. Flow rates also negatively affected free-swimming cymothoid abundance; however, water flow was less important in predicting their parasitism of anchovies. In Alafia, fewer anchovies were parasitized when dissolved oxygen was high and water acidity was low, but more were parasitized during the wet season. These findings corroborate predictions that flow can moderate habitat stability and complexity which, in turn, can impact opportunities for parasitism of host communities.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Isópodes/fisiologia , Rios/química , Movimentos da Água , Animais , Distribuição Binomial , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brânquias/parasitologia , Brânquias/patologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares , Oxigênio/análise , Oxigênio/química , Prevalência , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Qualidade da Água
5.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(9-10): 53, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549238

RESUMO

Sand swimming behaviour occurs in several lizard clades. Known ecological advantages of sand swimming include reduced predation risk and enhanced thermoregulation. We addressed whether, by way of sand abrasion, sand-swimming reduces ectoparasitism in the lizard Microlophus occipitalis, whose natural habitat includes sandy substrates (beach) and firm soil (dry forest). We hypothesised that, aside from habitat differences in infestation probability, ectoparasite prevalence and load would be lower in the beach than in the forest because of ectoparasite removal caused by sand-swimming. In an experiment with lizards confined in boxes with substrate from both habitats, lizards in beach boxes showed a greater decrease in ectoparasite load compared with lizards in forest boxes. Ectoparasite prevalence and load were much higher in the forest than in the beach across seasons. Larger lizards showed higher ectoparasite loads, and there were no sex differences in ectoparasite infestation. We provide evidence that sand swimming may confer another ecological advantage to lizards: reduced ectoparasitism.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Lagartos/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Areia , Natação , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Feminino , Lagartos/fisiologia , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Prevalência
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 346, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oestrosis, caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis, commonly known as sheep nose bot, is an obligatory cavitary myiasis of sheep and goats. Oestrus ovis is a widespread parasite, but little is known about the prevalence of oestrosis at the global and broad geographical levels. The present study aimed to explore the epidemiology of oestrosis at the global and regional level to estimate prevalences and their associated factors using a systematic approach. This is, to the author's knowledge, the first meta-analysis of oestrosis in sheep and goats. METHODS: Published articles were obtained from nine electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Web of Science, Scopus, UCB library, Medline, Biosis Citation Index, Indian journals and Google Scholar) reporting the prevalence of O. ovis in sheep and goats from 1970 to 2018. Pooled prevalences were estimated using a random effect meta-analysis model. RESULTS: Sixty-six studies were eligible, and data from 40,870 sheep and 18,216 goats were used for quantitative analysis. The random effect estimated prevalence of oestrosis at the global level in sheep was 51.15% (95% CI: 42.80-59.51%) and in goats was 42.19% (95% CI: 33.43-50.95%). The pooled prevalence estimates for Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas were 47.85% (95% CI: 36.04-59.66%), 44.48% (95% CI: 33.09-55.87%), 56.83% (95% CI: 48.92-64.74%) and 34.46% (95% CI: 19.90-49.01%), respectively. Heterogeneity (I2 > 80%) was detected in most pooled estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Oestrosis is highly prevalent in many geographical regions of the world, especially in Europe and Africa. Factors that contribute to the pooled prevalence estimate of oestrosis need to be emphasised in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of oestrosis. Furthermore, there is a need for immunisation or implementation of other preventive measures to reduce the burden of oestrosis in sheep and goats and to improve the health and welfare status.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Miíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Larva , Masculino , Miíase/epidemiologia , Nariz/parasitologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
7.
Parasitology ; 146(11): 1462-1466, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142391

RESUMO

For parasites in natural systems, the most common pattern of spatial distribution is aggregation among hosts. The main causes of such aggregation are variable exposure of hosts to parasites and heterogeneity in host susceptibility. The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in the aggregation pattern of two species of ectoparasitic flies between the Pantanal and Cerrado regions of Brazil on the bat Artibeus planirostris. We collected the ectoparasites from bats captured between 2002 and 2017 with mist nets in 21 sites in the Pantanal and 15 sites in the surrounding plateaus. The results showed that the aggregation of ectoparasitic flies in Pantanal was more pronounced than in Cerrado. The discrepancy aggregation index (D) of the bat fly Megistopoda aranea was 0.877 in Pantanal and 0.724 in Cerrado. The D values of Aspidoptera phyllostomatis was even higher, with 0.916 and 0.848 in the Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively. Differences in the shelters used may be the main factor shaping variation in aggregation, since the Pantanal does not have rock formations, with only foliage, crowns and hollow tree trunks. These differences likely affect host exposure to the parasites, leading to an increase in parasite aggregation.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Dípteros/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia
8.
Int J Parasitol ; 49(8): 625-634, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121168

RESUMO

The increased rate of outbreaks of infectious diseases in ecosystems is a dramatic consequence of global change, particularly when outbreaks affect important resources such as freshwater fish. However, the links between disease-inducing epizootics and widespread human impacts, including nutrient pollution and high water conductivity, in freshwater organisms are largely unexplored. We used data from extensive surveys in northeastern Spain (99,700 km2, 15 river catchments, n = 530 sites) to explore the environmental factors that singly, or in combination, are likely to influence the occurrence of the invasive parasite, Lernaea cyprinacea, after accounting for host fish characteristics. Smaller fish, lower altitudes, higher water conductivity and nutrient pollution were associated with higher probabilities of infection in 19 endemic and widely distributed fish species. We found no evidence that interactive effects among riverine stressors related to water and physical habitat quality better explained the probability of occurrence of L. cyprinacea in fish than did additive-stressor combinations. Nutrient pollution and high water conductivity were two of the major factors contributing to the increased occurrence of L. cyprinacea. Therefore, the improvement of wastewater treatment processes and agricultural practices probably would help to reduce the occurrence of this parasite among native fish.


Assuntos
Copépodes/fisiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Meio Ambiente , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes , Água Doce , Prevalência , Rios , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Acta Trop ; 196: 83-92, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082365

RESUMO

Human encroachment of natural habitats bears the threat of disease transmission between native and introduced species that had not come into contact before, thus promoting the spread of new diseases in both directions. This is a matter of concern especially in areas where human-wildlife contact has not been intense in the recent past. In southwest Madagascar, we collected ectoparasites from various mammalian hosts and chicken, and examined their host preferences and their prevalence in relation to season and habitat degradation. Field-work took place in the northern portion of Tsimanampetsotsa National Park and the adjacent coastal strip (littoral) in the dry and in the rainy season of 2016/2017. Endemic mammals were trapped with live traps placed in habitats of different degrees of degradation: 1) relatively pristine forest, 2) degraded forest, 3) cultivated and shrub land. Rats and mice were also trapped in 4) villages. We identified 17 species of ectoparasites (296 individuals of ticks [5 species], 535 lice [7 spp.], 389 fleas [4 spp.] and 13 mites [1 sp.]) collected from 15 host species. There was no indication for seasonal or habitat effects on parasite infection. A large portion of the parasites was host-specific. Some ectoparasite species were shared either by several endemic or by several introduced species, but apart from the introduced flea species Echidnophaga gallinacea (collected from six different hosts including the endemic carnivore Galidictis grandidieri) no other ectoparasite species was shared between endemic and introduced host species.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Artrópodes/classificação , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Animais , Ecossistema , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
10.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 15: 100263, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929940

RESUMO

A total of 200 dogs and 137 cats were examined for the presence of fleas, ticks and lice in Bishoftu, central Oromia, Ethiopia from September 2009 through April 2010. At least one ectoparasite species was found on 97% (194/200) of the dogs and 90.5% (124/137) of the cats. On dogs, fleas (Ctenocephalides felis (95%), Pulex irritans (20.5%), Echidnophaga gallinacea (9%) and Xenopsylla cheopis (0.5%)), ticks (Haemaphysalis leachi (17.5%), Amblyomma variegatum (8.5%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (8%), Rhipicephalus pulchellus (5.5%) and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (2.5%)) and lice (Heterodoxus spiniger (5%), Linognathus setosus (1.5%) and Trichodectes canis (0.5%)) were identified. On cats, fleas (C. felis (61.7%), E. gallinacea (24.1%), P. irritans (1.5%) and X. cheopis (0.7%)) and ticks (Ha. leachi (10.9%), Am. variegatum (1.5%) and Rh. sanguineus (0.7%)) were identified. C. felis was identified as the predominant ectoparasite on both dogs and cats. The overall frequency and count of ectoparasites was higher on dogs than on cats. Significantly higher overall frequency of fleas on young versus adult cats (p = .01) was recorded. However, ticks were significantly higher on adult cats than on young cats (p = .01). In conclusion, this study demonstrated great species diversity and high frequency of ectoparasites on dogs and cats in the study area. Further studies are required to investigate the role of these ectoparasites in transmission of zoonotic pathogens to humans and animals in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Ctenocephalides , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Ixodidae , Masculino , Rhipicephalus , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(6): 1391-1400, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938281

RESUMO

Rickettsia and Leptospira spp. are under-recognized causes of acute febrile disease worldwide. Rickettsia species are often placed into the spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR). We explored the antibody prevalence among humans for these two groups of rickettsiae in four regions of Peru (Lima, Cusco, Puerto Maldonado, and Tumbes) and for Leptospira spp. in Puerto Maldonado and Tumbes. We also assessed risk factors for seropositivity and collected serum samples and ectoparasites from peri-domestic animals from households in sites with high human seroprevalence. In total, we tested 2,165 human sera for antibodies (IgG) against SFGR and TGR by ELISA and for antibodies against Leptospira by a microscopic agglutination test. Overall, human antibody prevalence across the four sites was 10.6% for SFGR (ranging from 6.2% to 14.0%, highest in Tumbes) and 3.3% for TGR (ranging from 2.6% to 6.4%, highest in Puerto Maldonado). Factors associated with seroreactivity against SFGR were male gender, older age, contact with backyard birds, and working in agriculture or with livestock. However, exposure to any kind of animal within the household decreased the odds ratio by half. Age was the only variable associated with higher TGR seroprevalence. The prevalence of Leptospira was 11.3% in Puerto Maldonado and 5.8% in Tumbes, with a borderline association with keeping animals in the household. We tested animal sera for Leptospira and conducted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Rickettsia species among ectoparasites collected from domestic animals in 63 households of seropositive participants and controls. We did not find any association between animal infection and human serostatus.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Ecossistema , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Animais de Estimação , Rickettsia/imunologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses
12.
J Fish Dis ; 42(5): 739-749, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972838

RESUMO

Back Bay is an oligohaline, coastal bay in southeast Virginia, USA. Since 2004, leeches have been observed in the oral cavities of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in this body of water. Leeches (Myzobdella lugubris) have previously been documented in the oral cavities of largemouth bass in the Currituck Sound, which is confluent with Back Bay on its southern border. Supplemental stocking of largemouth bass in Back Bay since 2009 has resulted in an increasing population; however, concern exists that leech infestation may be negatively affecting health of larger fish, which are still less abundant than expected. Despite the wide distribution of this leech, there is little available literature regarding its health impacts on hosts. In this study, we examine potential impacts of oral leech infestations on stress markers and haematological parameters of largemouth bass in Back Bay. No significant changes in plasma glucose or cortisol were observed between leech-infested and uninfested fish, and haematological parameters were not significantly different between the groups. Further, there was no evidence of systemic infections associated with leech infestation.


Assuntos
Bass , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Boca/parasitologia , Prevalência , Virginia/epidemiologia
13.
J Med Primatol ; 48(4): 207-210, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coconut is an important commodity in Kelantan, and pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) have been traditionally used for coconut-plucking for over a century. Most of these animals were sourced from the wild population, and the parasitic status of these macaques is unknown, plus the impacts caused by these parasites are usually underestimated by the owners. METHODS: A total of 30 macaques were sampled for blood, faeces and hair plucks to detect parasite. RESULTS: Out of 21 faecal samples examined, 11 (52%) were determined positive for one or more gastrointestinal parasites, namely Trichostrongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Anatrichosoma spp., Capillaria spp., Trichuris spp. and Paramphisotomum spp. Filaria was detected in one (3%) of the blood samples. For ectoparasites, only lice, Pedicinus sp., were found in 9 (30%) macaques. CONCLUSIONS: It is imperative that the parasitic status of these animals be determined so that necessary actions and preventive measures can be implemented to prevent zoonotic transmissions.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Macaca nemestrina , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Animais , Sangue/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Cabelo/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Prevalência
14.
Parasite ; 26: 22, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963996

RESUMO

Due to the rarity of human cases and the nonspecific clinical symptoms of dioctophymiasis, Dioctophyma renale infection is not well recognized and is easily neglected or misdiagnosed. Recently, we diagnosed a human case of dioctophymiasis accompanied by renal cancer. To enhance the understanding of human dioctophymiasis, this case is presented here, and a retrospective study of this disease was conducted based on relevant papers screened from PubMed and three Chinese databases. In the end, 32 papers describing 37 human cases of dioctophymiasis were assessed. These cases were distributed in ten countries of Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania, with the highest number in China (n = 22). The majority of the cases occurred in adults (91.9%, 34/37) and involved the kidneys (83.8%, 31/37). Ectopic parasitism mainly occurred in subcutaneous tissue (83.3%, 5/6). A proportion of 45.9% (17/37) of individuals had a history of eating raw or undercooked fish or frogs. The main clinical manifestations of human dioctophymiasis were loin pain (59.5%) and hematuria (59.5%). All the cases were diagnosed based on the morphological characteristics of eggs or adults in urine or tissue sections. Currently, there is no strictly defined therapeutic approach. This is the first retrospective analysis of human cases of dioctophymiasis. These review data will deepen our understanding of dioctophymiasis and help avoid misdiagnosis in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enoplida/complicações , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Dioctophymatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/urina , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Peixes/parasitologia , Humanos , Rim/parasitologia , Rim/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(13): 6473-6481, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833386

RESUMO

Bed bugs have reemerged in the United States and worldwide over recent decades, presenting a major challenge to both public health practitioners and housing authorities. A number of municipalities have proposed or initiated policies to stem the bed bug epidemic, but little guidance is available to evaluate them. One contentious policy is disclosure, whereby landlords are obligated to notify potential tenants of current or prior bed bug infestations. Aimed to protect tenants from leasing an infested rental unit, disclosure also creates a kind of quarantine, partially and temporarily removing infested units from the market. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the spread of bed bugs in a generalized rental market, calibrate it to parameters of bed bug dispersion and housing turnover, and use it to evaluate the costs and benefits of disclosure policies to landlords. We find disclosure to be an effective control policy to curb infestation prevalence. Over the short term (within 5 years), disclosure policies result in modest increases in cost to landlords, while over the long term, reductions of infestation prevalence lead, on average, to savings. These results are insensitive to different assumptions regarding the prevalence of infestation, rate of introduction of bed bugs from other municipalities, and the strength of the quarantine effect created by disclosure. Beyond its application to bed bugs, our model offers a framework to evaluate policies to curtail the spread of household pests and is appropriate for systems in which spillover effects result in highly nonlinear cost-benefit relationships.


Assuntos
Percevejos-de-Cama , Revelação , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Controle de Insetos/normas , Políticas , Animais , Percevejos-de-Cama/patogenicidade , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Características da Família , Habitação , Humanos , Renda , Controle de Insetos/economia , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência , Quarentena , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Parasitol Res ; 118(3): 913-926, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737672

RESUMO

Ectoparasites such as hematophagous leeches and monogeneans are common in chelonians, occupying different parts of the body. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and describe the fauna of ectoparasites that infest Phrynops geoffroanus and Mesoclemmys tuberculata to evaluate the effect of host conditions and seasonality (dry and rainy season) on the abundance and composition of ectoparasites. We verified the presence of ectoparasites in 73.2% of the examined turtles, with four species of leeches belonging to Glossiphoniidae, Haementeria brasiliensis sensu Cordero, 1937, Helobdella cf. adiastola, Haementeria sp1., and Haementeria sp2., and one monogenean Polystomatidae, Polystomoides brasiliensis. For both chelonians, we observed a significant difference in the abundance of ectoparasites in relation to sex, biome, and season, which was unrelated to length and mass. Leeches were more frequent in the cavities of the hind limbs in P. geoffroanus, and the anterior limbs of M. tuberculata. The general spatial niche overlap of ectoparasites was high, except for that of the monogenean P. brasiliensis, which did not overlap with those of other leech species. The present study is the first report of the presence of H. brasiliensis and P. brasiliensis parasitizing M. tuberculata, and Helobdella cf. adiastola in a phoretic relationship with P. geoffroanus and M. tuberculata. Finally, the differences in infestation levels may reflect ecological factors, differences in behavioral patterns of the hosts, and different anthropic alterations suffered in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Sanguessugas/classificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Trematódeos/classificação
18.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 31(1): 75-87, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566268

RESUMO

The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, a type of sea lice (family Caligidae), is enzootic in marine waters of British Columbia and poses a health risk to both farmed Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar and wild Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. At the adult stage, sea lice infections can often result in severe cutaneous lesions in their salmonid hosts. To evaluate and compare the physiological consequences of adult L. salmonis infections, smolts of Atlantic Salmon and Sockeye Salmon O. nerka were exposed to 2 (low), 6 (medium), or 10 (high) adult female lice/fish. Mean lice abundance decreased over time in all groups. Skin disruption due to parasite infection was observed in both species. Plasma samples were collected from infected fish and uninfected controls at 1, 3, 5, and 7 d postinfection and measured for indicators of osmoregulatory function and stress. Sockeye Salmon, regardless of L. salmonis exposure level, showed a rapid onset of elevated osmolality and sodium and chloride ion concentrations which were sustained until 7 d postinfection when values returned to levels comparable with the unexposed controls. Conversely, these effects were not measured in Atlantic Salmon. Additionally, differential host effects in blood glucose levels were observed, with Sockeye Salmon displaying immediate elevation in glucose. Relative to Atlantic Salmon, infection with L. salmonis caused a profound physiological impact to Sockeye Salmon characterized by loss of osmoregulatory integrity and a stress response. This work provides the first comprehensive report of the physiological consequences of infections with adult L. salmonis in Sockeye Salmon smolts and helps to further define the mechanisms of susceptibility in this species.


Assuntos
Copépodes/fisiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Salmo salar , Salmão , Animais , Aquicultura , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Prevalência
19.
Parasitology ; 146(2): 234-240, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066668

RESUMO

Host range and parasite specificity determine key epidemiological, ecological and evolutionary aspects of host-parasite interactions. Parasites are usually classified as generalists or specialists based on the number of hosts they feed on. Yet, the requirements of the various stages of a parasite may influence the suitability of a given host species. Here, we investigate the generalist nature of three common ectoparasites (the dipteran Carnus hemapterus and two species of louse flies, Pseudolynchia canariensis and Ornithophila metallica), exploiting two avian host species (the European roller Coracias garrulus and the Rock pigeon Columba livia), that frequently occupy the same breeding sites. We explore the prevalence and abundance of both the infective and the puparial stages of the ectoparasites in both host species. Strong preferences of Pseudolynchia canariensis for pigeons and of Carnus hemapterus for rollers were found. Moderate prevalence of Ornithophila metallica was found in rollers but this louse fly avoided pigeons. In some cases, the infestation patterns observed for imagoes and puparia were consistent whereas in other cases host preferences inferred from imagoes differed from the ones suggested by puparia. We propose that the adult stages of these ectoparasites are more specialist than reported and that the requirements of non-infective stages can restrict the effective host range of some parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Columbidae/parasitologia , Dípteros/fisiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 263: 5-9, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389024

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most important ectoparasites in cattle breeding worldwide, causing direct and indirect losses to animals and producers. Chemical acaricides are utilized in the control of cattle tick and the increase in the development of resistance by ectoparasites makes new alternative necessary. Therefore, research studies have been carried out using bioactive molecules that are quickly degraded and that reduce poisoning to appliers and non-target organisms, environmental contamination and development of resistance. Thus, this study aimed to isolate piperovatine from the roots of Piper corcovadensis, a native species to Brazil, and to evaluate the larvicidal activity against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus by larval packet test and in ex situ in an open environment. Piperovatine was isolated by classical column chromatography, and identified by 1H and 13C NMR. The lethal concentration (LC) of piperovatine that killed 50% (LC50) and 99% (LC99) of the larvae was determined by Probit analysis. The results indicated LC50 5.17 and LC99 25.41 µg/mL. LC99 was tested in ex situ in an open environment, and an efficiency of 96.63% was found, indicating that piperovatine kept the larvicidal action determined in in vitro test and in open environment. Therefore, this study shows new perspectives to develop products that can be applied in natural conditions to control this ectoparasite.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Sórbico/análogos & derivados , Acaricidas/química , Acaricidas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Feminino , Piper/anatomia & histologia , Piper/química , Ácido Sórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Sórbico/química , Ácido Sórbico/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carrapatos/fisiologia
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