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1.
Ophthalmologe ; 117(2): 169-188, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002621

RESUMO

Even in the era of intravitreal injection therapy (intravitreal operative injection of medication, IVOM) for the treatment of macular and retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) as well as proliferative stages and/or macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO), conventional retinal laser treatment is still of importance. It can be focally performed on an on-label basis for DME and macular edema due to branch RVO (BRVO) and its use as panretinal treatment for proliferative stages in retinal diseases as well as for the treatment of retinal holes is undisputed. The spectrum is extended by the treatment of less common diseases, such as retinal hemangioblastoma, macroaneurysms and subhyaloid macular hemorrhage. There is cause for concern that knowledge about the correct performance of retinal laser application might be shifted into the background due to an increase of IVOM treatment, which could lead to an increase in unnecessary errors. The aim of this manuscript is to increase awareness for the correct indications and execution of retinal laser treatment based on case examples of flawed or insufficient treatment.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética , Edema Macular , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Fotocoagulação a Laser , Retina
4.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(1): 3-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688227

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to cover the preoperative planning, intraoperative considerations, and postoperative management that aids in successful outcomes of patients with cataract and uveitis. Disease-specific management and pediatric management will also be addressed. RECENT FINDINGS: Dexamethasone implants appear to be a safe and effective addition to standard steroid treatment in decreasing the incidence of postoperative cystoid macular edema (CME). Intravitreal steroids and topical difluprednate have shown utility in CME treatment. SUMMARY: Cataract surgery in eyes with uveitis is generally safe and effective if inflammation is well controlled; however, complication rates are still higher than in eyes without uveitis. Future investigations should delineate outcomes for eyes with different etiologies of uveitis, and further research is needed to adequately control inflammation and avoid postoperative complications.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata/complicações , Uveíte/complicações , Administração Oftálmica , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Implantes de Medicamento , Fluprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Fluprednisolona/análogos & derivados , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18333, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860985

RESUMO

To determine characteristics of diabetic macular edema patients with serous retinal detachment (SRD).We classified naïve diabetic macular edema (DME) patients with or without SRD, and compared their baseline characteristics; intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) responsiveness; aqueous concentrations of IL (interleukin)-1ß, -2, -8, -10, -17, placental growth factor (PlGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In addition, factors associated with the existence of SRD were identified.Of the 64 DME patients, 14 had SRD. The average levels of aqueous VEGF and PlGF were significantly higher in the SRD group than in the control group (P = .022 and P = .041, respectively). The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central subfield thickness (CST) did not differ significantly between the 2 groups at baseline or after 3 consecutive monthly IVBs. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the level of aqueous VEGF was the only factor associated with the existence of SRD (odds ratio: 1.03; P = .038).Rather than aqueous inflammatory cytokines, levels of aqueous VEGFs were associated with the occurrence of SRD in DME patients. In terms of prognosis, the existence of SRD was not related with BCVA or CST changes.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Descolamento Retiniano/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Retina/patologia , Descolamento Retiniano/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 45(12): 1848-1849, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857010
8.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 45(12): 1850, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857013
9.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 135(5. Vyp. 2): 129-134, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691650

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the dynamics of morphometric changes in the macular zone using optical coherence tomography (OCT) data in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) after phacoemulsification (PE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled 93 patients (95 eyes) requiring PE; they were divided into 2 groups. The first (control) group consisted of 30 patients (32 eyes) without concomitant eye pathology. The second group included 63 patients (64 eyes) with POAG and IOP stabilized by eye drops. In the 2A subgroup (32 eyes) patients used prostaglandin analogues, in the 2B subgroup (31 eye) - carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. OCT was used to analyze retinal thickness and volume. OCT was performed before PE, after 1 week, after 1, 3, and 6 months. RESULTS: In the control group, the volume and thickness of the retina varied within the normal range. In the 2A subgroup, signs of macular edema (ME) in the early post-operative period were noted in 6.2% of patients. In the late post-operative period, changes in the macular zone were noted in 18.7% of cases. After the treatment, ME regressed completely in 4 patients (12.5% of all cases). One patient with retinal thickness of more than 500 µm required parabulbar and intravenous injections of glucocorticoids, which resulted in ME decrease. Another patient developed epiretinal fibrosis with tractions after ME. Among the patients of subgroup 2B, a trend for increase in the volume and thickness of the macular zone was observed in 3 cases; the values stayed within the normal range, and later returned to the initial level. CONCLUSION: Patients with POAG develop ME after PE in 1-3 months. The use of topical prostaglandin analogues may be the reason of ME development.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Edema Macular , Facoemulsificação , Humanos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
10.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 135(5. Vyp. 2): 241-247, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691667

RESUMO

Cataract is one of the common causes of reversible vision loss in people older than 50 years. Currently, the only way to treat it effectively is phacoemulsification with simultaneous implantation of an intraocular lens - a method that minimizes the amount of surgical trauma and the number of intra- and postoperative complications. Nevertheless, the problem of prevention and timely diagnosis of pathological changes in the retina, which may develop after extraction of cataracts, and in particular - macular edema, remains relevant. This problem becomes especially important when it comes to patients with concomitant cataract and glaucoma who use local antihypertensive drugs - in particular, prostaglandin analogues - for a long time. Having common properties with inflammatory mediators, in some cases they can cause vasodilation, increase vascular permeability and contribute to the development of exudative processes. Drugs of this group can cause impairment of the hematophthalmic and hematoretinal barriers provoking the development of cystoid macular edema, including in the early postoperative period after cataract extraction. As described by S. Irvine in 1953, macular edema is related to late postoperative complications and remains one of the main causes of visual impairment after lens removal. The review provides information about some studies concerning the effect of prostaglandin derivatives on the postoperative period after phacoemulsification. At this time, there is no consensus on this matter.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Glaucoma , Edema Macular , Facoemulsificação , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
11.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 135(5. Vyp. 2): 272-277, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691672

RESUMO

The article analyses current state of the problem of diabetic retinopathy classifications based on the data from Russian and foreign literature on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, results of multicenter studies on treatment and prognosis of the disease. Every existing classification was found to be limited in applications; attempts had been made to unify and complement them with the aim of achieving more complete and better-detailed description of the processes of diagnostics and determination of treatment algorithms. In conclusion, none of the existing classifications can be considered consistent in both clinical and practical aspects with respect to diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética , Edema Macular , Humanos , Prognóstico , Federação Russa
12.
Korean J Ophthalmol ; 33(5): 399-405, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612649

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the present study, the volume of hard exudates (HEs) was quantitatively measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the agreement and correlation with area of HEs in fundus photography were analyzed. METHODS: The medical records of patients with diabetic macular edema who underwent focal laser treatment and were followed up more than 3 months were retrospectively evaluated. An automated customized program designed for measuring HE volume was used. The HEs in each OCT B-scan binary image were measured using 512 × 128 pixels, 6 mm × 6 mm OCT cube scans. The volume was measured by summing the segmented HEs in each 128 B-scan image. The area was measured in 6 mm x 6 mm fundus photography. The volume and area were measured before and 3 months after the treatment. The agreement of increase and decrease in HEs, and the correlation of volume and area of HEs were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients (39 eyes) were included in the study. The volume was significantly reduced from 0.07978 to 0.02565 mm³ at 3 months (p < 0.001). The area was also significantly reduced from 15.35 to 8.60 mm² at 3 months (p < 0.001). The volume was decreased in 34 eyes and increased in 5 eyes. The area was decreased in 37 eyes and increased in 2 eyes. A significant correlation between volume and area was found (p < 0.001) as well as agreement between increase and decrease in volume and area. CONCLUSIONS: In the 3-dimensional quantitative volumetric analysis, the volume and area of HEs were correlated and the direction of increase and decrease was concordant. Considering the distribution of HEs in multiple layers of the retina, volumetric analysis could be considered a substitute for the analysis of HE area.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Macula Lutea/patologia , Edema Macular/diagnóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Exsudatos e Transudatos/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Edema Macular/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(13): 4310-4318, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622467

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate whether retinal capillary nonperfusion is found predominantly adjacent to arteries or veins in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: Sixty-three eyes from 44 patients with proliferative DR (PDR) or non-PDR (NPDR) were included. Images (12 × 12-mm) foveal-centered optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) images were taken using the Zeiss Plex Elite 9000. In 37 eyes, widefield montages with five fixation points were also obtained. A semiautomatic algorithm that detects nonperfusion in full-retina OCT slabs was developed, and the percentages of capillary nonperfusion within the total image area were calculated. Retinal arteries and veins were manually traced. Based on the shortest distance, nonperfusion pixels were labeled as either arterial-side or venous-side. Arterial-adjacent and venous-adjacent nonperfusion and the A/V ratio (arterial-adjacent nonperfusion divided by venous-adjacent nonperfusion) were quantified. Results: Twenty-two eyes with moderate NPDR, 16 eyes with severe NPDR, and 25 eyes with PDR were scanned. Total nonperfusion area in PDR (median: 8.93%) was greater than in moderate NPDR (3.49%, P < 0.01). Arterial-adjacent nonperfusion was greater than venous-adjacent nonperfusion for all stages of DR (P < 0.001). The median A/V ratios were 1.93 in moderate NPDR, 1.84 in severe NPDR, and 1.78 in PDR. The A/V ratio was negatively correlated with the total nonperfusion area (r = -0.600, P < 0.0001). The results from the widefield montages showed similar patterns. Conclusions: OCTA images with arteries and veins traced allowed us to estimate the nonperfusion distribution. In DR, smaller nonperfusion tends to be arterial-adjacent, while larger nonperfusion tends toward veins.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Artéria Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Veia Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Capilares/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Macular/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Macular/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Retiniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Retiniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17496, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular edema is a further complication of diabetes. It is an important type of diabetic eye disease and the main cause of blindness of diabetic patients. Qiming granule is a Chinese patent medicine widely used in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. There are some reports about this medicine for macular edema. At present, there is only 1 systematic review on qiming granule in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. However, there are many defects in this article, so it is necessary to re-summarize and evaluate the existing evidence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Three English database and 4 Chinese databases other sources will be searched. Two methodological trained researchers will read the title, abstract and full texts, and independently select the qualified literature according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. After assessment of the risk of bias and data extraction, we will conduct meta-analyses for outcomes including central macular thickness, optimum corrected vision, overall effect rates, and adverse effects. The heterogeneity of data will be investigated by Cochrane χ and I tests. We build 3 hypotheses for subgroup analysis according to the guidance for a credible subgroup effect: Disease status at baseline, duration of intervention, type of concomitant medication. Sensitivity analysis will be conducted to evaluate the stability of the results. Then publication bias assessment will be conducted by funnel plot analysis and Egger test. Finally, we will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluate system to evaluate the quality of evidence. RESULTS: The results of our research will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: In our study, the evidence of qiming granule in the treatment of macular edema was comprehensively summarized and carefully evaluated. It will provide more options for clinical treatment of the disease. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018108626.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Edema Macular/etiologia , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 135(4): 121-127, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573567

RESUMO

Retinal damage in diabetes is known to manifest in two main ways: diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. The most effective anti-inflammatory drugs today are glucocorticoids, a classic representative of which is dexamethasone. Two things that should be considered by ophthalmologists in the therapy of macular edema are the switching point to dexamethasone implant when the effectiveness of anti-vasoproliferative drugs is unsatisfactory, and the identification of the main predictors of diabetic macular edema that make glucocorticoids the drugs of first choice. The data from real clinical practice was used to develop the indications for intravitreal administration of a glucocorticoid as the therapy of first choice for diabetic macular edema. Glucocorticoids are prescribed to patients diagnosed with diabetic macular edema who has a history of acute cerebrovascular events, myocardial infarction or other cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, as well as patients with a very high risk of a vascular catastrophe. Intravitreal glucocorticoids can be prescribed to patients who cannot follow the schedule of frequent visits and/or are not able to visit the hospital during the first 6 months after the administration of the drug. Considering the local character of its ophthalmic action, the method can be recommended for treating patients with pseudophakic eyes, persistent diabetic macular edema, or patients who underwent vitrectomy.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Retinopatia Diabética , Edema Macular , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Implantes de Medicamento , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Acuidade Visual
16.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 135(4): 128-139, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573568

RESUMO

Currently there is a significant increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus all over the world, and Russia is not an exception. With the increase in patients with diabetic retinopathy, also rises the incidence of diabetic macular edema, which can lead to persistent loss of vision and disability dramatically affecting the quality of life. Antiangiogenic therapy that is effectively used all over world has specific features for clinical practice in Russia because of its high cost, insufficient public funding, low patient compliance, remoteness of patients from the places of medical care, and low awareness of both patients and doctors about the treatment effectiveness and required regimen. All these problems slow the adoption of this progressive treatment method. Analyzing the causes of low adoption of antiangiogenic therapy and proposing new ways to solve these problems can help reduce the rate of blindness and disability caused by eye complications of diabetes mellitus in Russian Federation, particularly in young and working population.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética , Edema Macular , Inibidores da Angiogênese , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Federação Russa
18.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 29(10): 761-767, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540558

RESUMO

Introduction: Macular degeneration (MD) and macular edema (ME) are ophthalmologic diseases affecting an increasing number of the aging population. Until recently, there were few therapeutic options for both conditions but the last two decades saw important advances. Areas covered: This review summarizes the agents used for the treatment of age-related MD (AMD), which include verteporfin, for photodynamic therapy, and anti-VEGF agents, the aptamer pegaptanib, the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) ranibizumab (Lucentis®) and bevacizumab (Avastin®) and the fusion protein aflibercept (Eylea®). All these drugs are effective only for the wet form of AMD, whereas for the dry form there is no treatment available. ME is, on the other hand, treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors. Recently, MAbs such as ranibizumab and bevacizumab were also shown to be effective for the management of the cystoid and diabetic ME. Expert opinion: There are important advances made in the field in the last years but longer-acting anti-VEGF agents or drugs with less ocular side effects are needed. Many such agents are in clinical development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/fisiopatologia , Degeneração Macular/prevenção & controle , Edema Macular/fisiopatologia , Edema Macular/prevenção & controle , Patentes como Assunto , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos
19.
Acta Diabetol ; 56(12): 1341-1350, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541334

RESUMO

AIMS: To provide 2-year follow-up data on eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) that were non-responsive after three initial anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections, comparing functional and anatomical outcomes under continued anti-VEGF therapy versus dexamethasone (DEX) implant. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective chart review comparing eyes with treatment-naïve DME and a suboptimal response to a loading phase of anti-VEGF therapy (3 injections given monthly) which were then treated with (a) further anti-VEGF (n = 72) or (b) initially switched to DEX implant (n = 38). Main outcome measures were change in visual acuity (VA) and central subfield thickness (CST) from the end of the loading phase to 24 months. RESULTS: In 79% of the 12-month study population (87/110 eyes), 24-month data were available. One quarter of eyes in each group switched treatments during the second year. Eyes that were switched early to DEX implant maintained the functional and anatomical improvements at 24 months which were seen in the first year (from month 3: + 8.9 letters, - 214 µm). Eyes that were switched from anti-VEGF therapy to steroids in the second year improved VA and reduced CST at 24 months (from month 12: + 6.8 letters, p = 0.023; - 226 µm, p = 0.004). In eyes continued on anti-VEGF therapy, VA and CST were stable at 24 months (from month 3: + 2.8 letters, p = 0.254; - 24 µm, p = 0.243). Eyes that were non-responsive to anti-VEGF therapy for 12 months had similar chances to experience a VA gain from further therapy as eyes that were non-responsive for 3 months only (23.8 vs. 31.0%, p = 0.344). CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effect of an early switch to DEX implant in DME non-responders seen at month 12 was maintained during the second year. A later switch from anti-VEGF to steroids still provided significant improvement. Eyes continued on anti-VEGF over a period of 24 months maintained vision. A quarter of eyes, which had not improved vision at 12 months, exhibited a delayed response to treatment.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Esquema de Medicação , Implantes de Medicamento , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Substituição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 28(10): 861-869, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513439

RESUMO

Introduction: The Tie-2/Angiopoietin pathway is a therapeutic target for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME). Activation of Tie-2 receptor via Ang-1 maintains vascular stability to limit exudation. Ang-2, a competitive antagonist to Ang-1, and VE-PTP, an endothelial-specific phosphatase, interfere with the Tie-2-Ang-1 axis, resulting in vascular leakage. Areas covered: Faricimab, a bispecific antibody that inhibits VEGF-A and Ang-2, is in phase 3 trials for nAMD and DME. Nesvacumab is an Ang-2 inhibitor; when coformulated with aflibercept, it failed to show benefit over aflibercept monotherapy in achieving visual gains in phase 2 studies of nAMD and DME. ARP-1536 is an intravitreally administered VE-PTP inhibitor undergoing preclinical studies. AKB-9778 is a subcutaneously administered VE-PTP inhibitor that, when combined with monthly ranibizumab, reduced DME more effectively than ranibizumab monotherapy in a phase 2 study. AKB-9778 monotherapy did not reduce diabetic retinopathy severity score compared to placebo. AXT107, currently in the preclinical phase, promotes conversion of Ang-2 into a Tie-2 agonist and blocks signaling through VEGFR2 and other receptor tyrosine-kinases. Expert opinion: Tie-2/Angiopoietin pathway modulators show promise to reduce treatment burden and improve visual outcomes in nAMD and DME, with potential to treat cases refractory to current treatment modalities.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Angiopoietina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Angiopoietina-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/fisiopatologia , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Macular/fisiopatologia , Receptor TIE-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor TIE-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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