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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 614-622, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lonicera japonica Thunb is a common herb in East Asia. The flower buds are usually regarded as the traditional medicinal part, while leaves and stems are considered less valuable and receive little attention. This study compared the chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory effects of the different tissues in L. japonica Thunb for the first time. RESULTS: Thirty compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode detector-quadrupole / time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS/MS) analysis. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, and iridoids were identified as the major components. The flower buds (FLJ), leaves (LLJ), and stems (SLJ) of L. japonica Thunb showed strong similarities in chemical components. The LLJ contained higher levels of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids than the FLJ and SLJ. Furthermore, FLJ, LLJ, and SLJ exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema assays in mice. Moreover, FLJ, LLJ, and SLJ showed a cytoprotective effect on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Lipopolysaccharide-induced increases in nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were suppressed by treatments of FLJ, LLJ, and SLJ, respectively. The LLJ possessed a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than the FLJ. CONCLUSION: Leaves and stems of L. japonica Thunb have chemical components and anti-inflammatory properties similar to flower buds, and may become alternative or supplementary sources of flower buds. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Lonicera/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Carragenina/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/genética , Edema/imunologia , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/química , Flores/química , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Camundongos , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180526, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508780

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Crotalus envenomations cause serious complications and can be fatal without appropriate treatment. Venom isoforms present and inter/intraspecific variations in the venom composition can result in different symptoms presented by bites by snakes from the same species but from different geographical regions. We comparatively evaluated the local and systemic effects caused by Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), C.d. collilineatus (Cdcolli), and C.d. cascavella (Cdcasc) envenomation. METHODS: Venom chromatography was performed. Proteolytic, phospholipase, and LAAO activities were analyzed. Edema, myotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and coagulation alterations were evaluated. RESULTS: The venom SDS-PAGE analyses found the presence of convulxin, gyroxin, crotoxin, and crotamine in Cdt and Cdcolli venoms. Crotamine was not present in the Cdcasc venom. Cdt, Cdcollli, and Cdcasc venoms had no proteolytic activity. Only Cdcasc and Cdt venoms had phospholipase activity. LAAO activity was observed in Cdcolli and Cdcasc venoms. Cdcolli and Cdcasc venoms caused 36.7% and 13.3% edema increases, respectively. Cdt venom caused a 10% edema induction compared to those by other venoms. All venoms increased TOTAL-CK, MB-CK, and LDH levels (indicating muscle injury) and ALT, AST, GGT, and ALP levels (markers of liver damage) and were able to induce a neuromuscular blockade. Urea and creatinine levels were also altered in both plasma and urine, indicating kidney damage. Only Cdcolli and Cdcasc venoms increased TAPP and TAP. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results allow us to draw a distinction between local and systemic effects caused by Crotalus subspecies, highlighting the clinical and biochemical effects produced by their respective venoms.


Assuntos
Venenos de Crotalídeos/toxicidade , Crotalus/classificação , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Creatina Quinase/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatinina/sangue , Edema/patologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Rim/patologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Transaminases/sangue , Transaminases/efeitos dos fármacos , Ureia/sangue
3.
J Med Food ; 22(10): 1078-1086, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549890

RESUMO

This study evaluated to determine the phenolic and flavonoids contents, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activity of the hydromethanolic extracts of the leaves, pulp, and seeds of Annona cacans. The isolation and structural identification of the constituent acetogenin, phenolic acid, and flavonoids were also reported. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and ß-carotene/linoleic acid methods. Cell proliferation was determined by spectrophotometric quantification of the cellular protein content using a sulforhodamine B assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in paw edema model, to myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity induced by carrageenan in mice. Fractionation resulted in the isolation of one acetogenin (annoreticuin-9-one), two flavonoids (quercetin-3-O-ß-glucoside-6-O-α-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-O-ß-glucoside), and one phenolic acid (p-coumaric acid). The pulp extract presented potent antioxidant activities by the DPPH (IC50 = 44.08 µg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 = 39.32 µg/mL) methods, as well as high contents of phenols (618.95 mg GA/g) and flavonoids (477.35 mg QE/g). The bioguided fractionation demonstrated that the ethyl acetate fraction of the pulp extract and annoreticuin-9-one showed potent antiproliferative activity against ovarian cancer (GI50 = 6.4 µg/mL). The anti-inflammatory activity demonstrated significant inhibition of edema compared to the control group in 2 and 4 h; in addition, the extracts inhibited the increase in MPO activity after 6 h, when compared to the DEX and control groups. For the first time, this study demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activity, as well as compounds isolated, suggesting that A. cacans could also be potential sources for prevention of cancer and other diseases associated with oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Annona/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Acetogeninas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Carragenina , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Sementes/química
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 214, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study evaluated the antinociceptive effect of the bark of Artocarpus lacucha, which is used for the treatment of stomachache, headache and boils in the traditional system of medicine. METHODS: The antinociceptive activity was investigated by the tail immersion, hot plate, acetic acid- & formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests using a hydro-methanolic extract of A. lacucha bark. The plant extract was found to contain a substantial amount of phenolic compounds according to the total phenolic and flavonoid content assay. A phenolic metabolite, (+)-catechin, has been isolated using different chromatographic techniques. The compound was characterized with 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. (+)-catechin, isolated from A. lacucha was assessed for antinociceptive effects swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the possible involvement of opioid receptors and ATP-sensitive K+ channel for the effect of the plant extract and (+)-catechin has been justified using naloxone and glibenclamide, respectively. RESULTS: Oral administration (p.o) of the plant extract (50-200 mg/Kg b.w.) resulted in significant thermal pain protection in the hot plate and tail immersion tests. The action of the plant extract was significantly antagonized by naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist, in the hot plate and tail immersion tests, which supports the involvement of opioid receptors. Both the plant extract and (+)-catechin, (50-200 mg/Kg b.w., p.o.) significantly diminished the acetic acid- & formalin-induced nociception, and carrageenan-induced paw edema. Glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker, significantly reversed their effect in the acetic acid-induced writhing test which indicates the participation of ATP-sensitive K+ channel system. CONCLUSIONS: The investigation revealed potential central and peripheral antinociceptive effects of A. lacucha bark supports its applications in the traditional system of medicine.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Artocarpus/química , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Carragenina/efeitos adversos , Catequina/análise , Catequina/isolamento & purificação , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6135-6150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447556

RESUMO

Background: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are emerging as attractive drug carriers in transdermal drug delivery. The surface modification of NLCs with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can enhance the skin permeation of drugs. Purpose: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the ability of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) polyarginine to translocate NLCs loaded with lornoxicam (LN) into the skin layers and to evaluate its anti-inflammatory effect. Methods: The NLCs were prepared using an emulsion evaporation and low temperature solidification technique using glyceryl monostearates, triglycerides, DOGS-NTA-Ni lipids and surfactants, and then six histidine-tagged polyarginine containing 11 arginine (R11) peptides was modified on the surface of NLCs. Results: The developed NLCs formulated with LN and R11 (LN-NLC-R11) were incorporated into 2% HPMC gels. NLCs were prepared with a particle size of (121.81±3.61)-(145.72±4.78) nm, and the zeta potential decreased from (-30.30±2.07) to (-14.66±0.74) mV after the modification of R11 peptides. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were (74.61±1.13) % and (7.92±0.33) %, respectively, regardless of the surface modification. Cellular uptake assays using HaCaT cells suggested that the NLC modified with R11 (0.02%, w/w) significantly enhanced the cell internalization of nanoparticles relative to unmodified NLCs (P<0.05 or P<0.01). An in vitro skin permeation study showed better permeation-enhancing ability of R11 (0.02%, w/w) than that of other content (0.01% or 0.04%). In carrageenan-induced rat paw edema models, LN-NLC-R11 gels inhibited rat paw edema and the production of inflammatory cytokines compared with LN-NLC gels and LN gels (P<0.01). Conclusion: In our investigation, it was strongly demonstrated that the surface modification of NLC with R11 enhanced the translocation of LN across the skin, thereby alleviating inflammation.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Piroxicam/análogos & derivados , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Carragenina , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Penetradores de Células/farmacologia , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/metabolismo , Emulsões/química , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Géis/química , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Piroxicam/administração & dosagem , Piroxicam/farmacologia , Piroxicam/uso terapêutico , Coelhos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Irritação da Pele
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 182: 111601, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445233

RESUMO

The cyclic enaminone moiety has been identified as a new scaffold for selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The designed cyclic enaminones have been synthesized conveniently through the development of a new catalyst-free methodology and evaluated for cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitory activities. Three compounds 7d, 8, and 9 predominantly inhibited COX-2 with selectivity index of 74.09, 19.45 and 108.68, respectively, and were assessed for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema assay. The anti-inflammatory activity of 7d was comparable to that of celecoxib at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg. However, the compounds 8 and 9 were more/equally effective as anti-inflammatory agent compared to celecoxib at the doses of 12.5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg and also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity comparable to that of diclofenac. The therapeutic potential of the most active compound 9 was further assessed by performing in vivo thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia tests using various models that revealed its analgesic activity. The in vivo non-ulcerogenicity of 9 revealed the gastrointestinal safety as compared to the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin. The in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo experiments on heart rate and blood pressure provided the cardiovascular safety profile of 9. The molecular docking studies rationalize the COX-2 selectivity of the newly found anti-inflammatory compounds 7d, 8, and 9.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/síntese química , Analgésicos/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , Carragenina , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/síntese química , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos/síntese química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Humanos , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
G Ital Nefrol ; 36(4)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373469

RESUMO

Differentiation syndrome (DS), previously known as retinoic acid syndrome or ATRA (all-trans retinoic acid) or ATO (arsenic trioxide) syndrome, is a life-threatening complication of the therapy with differentiating agents in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The latter is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukemia and represents a hematological emergency. The clinical manifestations of DS, after induction therapy with differentiating agents, include unexplained fever, acute respiratory distress with interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, unexplained hypotension, peripheral edema, congestive heart failure and acute renal failure. The therapy is based on early intravenous administration of high-dose dexamethasone, in order to counteract the cytokine storm responsible for the DS. Among the supportive measures for the management of DS, furosemide (in 87% of patients) and dialysis (12% of patients) are used to manage acute renal failure, peripheral and pulmonary edema. We describe a case of acute renal failure, treated with haemodialysis, in a young patient with APL and an early and severe DS after induction therapy. This is a rare condition, not well known among nephrologists, where early recognition and treatment are crucial for the prognosis.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Trióxido de Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Tretinoína/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Febre de Causa Desconhecida/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Diálise Renal , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome
8.
J Toxicol Sci ; 44(8): 559-563, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378767

RESUMO

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol, APAP) has been widely used for many decades as an analgesic and antipyretic agent but APAP overdose often causes acute adverse reactions, particularly liver damage. The metabolically oxidized form of APAP, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), is chemically reactive and binds covalently to proteins. Therefore, NAPQI is believed to be the key metabolite that causes hepatotoxicity, especially under conditions of glutathione depletion. Other APAP-induced adverse reactions, such as skin damage, are rare and remain poorly studied. Here, we report a case study of a male patient who presented with an acute swelling skin rash (without hepatotoxicity) caused by therapeutic doses of APAP. Plasma samples were collected at 17 hr after dosing (during the manifestation of symptoms) and at one month (after recovery) and were subjected to LC-MS analysis of NAPQI-adducts. A significant concentration of NAPQI-cysteine adduct (33 pmol/mL) was found together with low concentrations of NAPQI-N-acetylcysteine adduct (2.0 pmol/mL) and NAPQI-glutathione adduct (0.13 pmol/mL). However, the NAPQI-albumin adduct was below the detection limit (below 0.001% modification on albumin) despite a previous report of high concentrations of NAPQI-albumin adduct following acute liver injury. Therefore, the observed APAP-induced skin damage may have had a different cause from APAP-induced liver injury.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Acetilcisteína/sangue , Benzoquinonas/efeitos adversos , Benzoquinonas/sangue , Cisteína/sangue , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Glutationa/sangue , Iminas/efeitos adversos , Iminas/sangue , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Acetilcisteína/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Cromatografia Líquida , Cisteína/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Iminas/metabolismo , Masculino , Ligação Proteica , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 37(7): 474-485, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365139

RESUMO

The effect of quercetin was assessed in rats induced with complete Freund adjuvant (CFA). Arthritis scores, paw oedema, latency, activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO), ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), and ectoadenosine deaminase (E-ADA) in lymphocytes were determined. Furthermore, nucleotide and nucleoside levels as well as the secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Animals were treated with saline and quercetin in doses of 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg for 45 days. The result revealed that quercetin (50 mg/kg) reduced arthritis score and paw oedema, and increased the latency in the thermal hyperalgesia test. Histopathological analysis showed that all the doses of quercetin reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. MPO activity was increased in the arthritis group; however, quercetin reduced this activity. E-NTPDase activity was increased in lymphocytes of arthritis rats, and treatment with quercetin reversed this increase. However, E-ADA activity was reduced in the arthritis group, and treatment with quercetin modulated the activity of this enzyme in arthritis rat groups. Serum adenosine levels were increased in arthritis, and the levels were lowered with quercetin treatment. Quercetin treatment in arthritis groups decreased the elevated levels of cytokines in the arthritis control group. Thus, quercetin demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect, and this flavonoid may be a promising natural compound for the treatment of arthritis. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Quercetin may represent a potential therapeutic compound in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Findings from this study indicate that quercetin suppresses swelling and attenuates the underlying inflammatory responses. This is the first report where quercetin was shown to modulate the immune response to arthritis via attenuation of the purinergic system (E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities) and the levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4. Thus, this work is relevant to basic research and may be translated into clinical practice.


Assuntos
AMP Desaminase/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenosina Trifosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , AMP Desaminase/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/metabolismo , Feminino , Adjuvante de Freund , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Complement Ther Med ; 45: 254-261, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331571

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the systemic anti-inflammatory activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Licania rigida Benth (EHFLR) on models of systemic inflammation in mice. METHODS: The quantitative chemical profiles of phenolic acids and flavonoids were performed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Systemic anti-inflammatory activity was determined from carrageenan and dextran-induced paw edema models and the animals were orally treated (p.o.) with EHFLR at doses of 25, 50, 100 mg/kg, indomethacin (10 mg/kg) for carrageenan-induced paw edema and promethazine (6 mg/kg) for dextran-induced paw edema. The possible mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of the extract were evaluated by the paw edema models induced by histamine and arachidonic acid, and by the model of carrageenan-induced peritonitis, where vascular permeability and leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity were evaluated. RESULTS: The results of the HPLC identified the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, with chlorogenic acid (1.16%) and Caempferol (0.81%) as the main constituents. From the results, it was concluded that the extract has an LD50 ≥5000 mg/kg when administered orally in mice as this dose did not trigger deaths in any of the observed groups. EHFLR (25 mg/kg) showed a significant antiderematogenic effect on histamine and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema at the third hour of the tests, with a percentage of inhibition of 46.64% and 18.33%, respectively. The extract (25 mg/kg, p.o.) also significantly reduced vascular permeability and leukocyte migration in the peritoneal cavity. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that EHFLR exerts a systemic anti-inflammatory action, which seems to depend, at least in part, on the inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism and the action of vasoactive amines. In addition, the extract reduced the leukocyte migration in the peritoneal cavity, indicating that its action may be linked to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Chrysobalanaceae/química , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Carragenina/farmacologia , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Peritonite/induzido quimicamente , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química
11.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 3041438, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263381

RESUMO

Despite the usefulness of glucocorticoids, they may cause hazardous side effects that limit their use. Searching for compounds that are as equally efficient as glucocorticoids, but with less side effects, the current study compared plant steroids, namely, glycyrrhetinic acid, guggulsterone, boswellic acid, withaferin A, and diosgenin with the classical glucocorticoid, fluticasone. This was approached both in silico using molecular docking against glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and in vivo in two different animal models. All tested compounds interacted with GR, but only boswellic acid and withaferin A showed docking results comparable to fluticasone, as well as similar in vivo anti-inflammatory effects, by significantly decreasing serum levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, both compounds significantly decreased the percent of change in ear weight in croton oil-induced ear edema in mice and the granuloma weight in cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats, to levels comparable to that of fluticasone. Both boswellic acid and withaferin A had no effect on adrenal index, but only withaferin A significantly increased the thymus index. In conclusion, boswellic acid may have comparable anti-inflammatory effects to fluticasone with fewer side effects.


Assuntos
Otopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Otopatias/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Óleo de Cróton/toxicidade , Diosgenina/uso terapêutico , Otopatias/sangue , Otopatias/induzido quimicamente , Edema/sangue , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Ácido Glicirretínico/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pregnenodionas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Software , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/metabolismo , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Vitanolídeos/uso terapêutico
12.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(7): 1120-1127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257288

RESUMO

Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a simple phenol compound present in olive oil. In a previous in vitro study, we showed that HT downregulated lipopolysaccharide-mediated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-1ß, resulting in reduced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether HT suppresses COX-2-induced inflammation in a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. Additionally, we compared its activity with those of the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib for a comparative control, and a representative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), indomethacin for a positive control. HT, celecoxib, and indomethacin significantly suppressed swelling in carrageenan-injected rat paws. Although HT was less effective than celecoxib and indomethacin, it had a delayed onset of action. Moreover, we evaluated whether HT aggravates gastric damage, which is a typical adverse effect associated with NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors under low dose aspirin (LDA) treatment, in an aspirin-induced gastric damage rat model. Unlike celecoxib and indomethacin, HT did not cause gastric damage when co-administered with aspirin. Our results indicate that HT exerts a delayed but sustained anti-inflammatory effect against COX-2-mediated inflammation. Finally, the combination of short-acting conventional anti-inflammatory drugs and long-acting HT can be considered a new, safe, and effective anti-inflammatory treatment modality even when continuously administered for a long period under LDA treatment.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aspirina , Carragenina , Celecoxib , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Indometacina , Masculino , Olea , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Álcool Feniletílico/uso terapêutico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estômago/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo
13.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 38(11): 1296-1301, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315458

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between anti-inflammatory effects of the natural polyphenolic compound tannic acid (CAS number: 1401-55-4) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme activity in paw edema model. Thirty-five female rats were divided into five groups. The paws of rats were injected subcutaneously in the plantar surface with formalin except for the control group. Indomethacin and tannic acid were intraperitoneally administered 1 h after formalin injection. The paws volume was measured by using vernier caliper. MPO enzyme activity was determined using 4-aminoantipyrine-phenol solution as the substrate for MPO-mediated oxidation by H2O2. About 17% and 13% edema inhibition has detected in the indomethacin-applied group, at the measurements run every other hour right after the treatment. An inhibition of 16% was found at the group treated with 25 mg/kg tannic acid. However, in the group treated with 50 mg/kg tannic acid, 15% and 7% of the edema inhibition was observed. Serum and paw tissue MPO activities were decreased in treated groups with indomethacin and tannic acid according to formalin control group. Our study results suggest that tannic acid may contribute to the treatment of inflammation by decreasing MPO enzyme activity, but the molecular mechanism is still not clear.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Taninos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/metabolismo , Feminino , , Formaldeído , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Taninos/farmacologia
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 242: 112052, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265886

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Combretum aculeatum Vent was traditionally used in Sudan, Eretria and Ethiopia as anti-inflammatory in case of skin inflammation, catarrh, wounds, scorpion stings and snake bites. Nevertheless, there is no scientific information regarding this activity. AIM OF STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the scientific basis for the traditional use of Combretum aculeatum Vent through studying its anti-inflammatory properties for the first time to illustrate the putative mechanisms behind this bioactivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the ethanolic extract was partitioned by petroleum ether, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol saturated with water. The petroleum ether fraction was saponified and the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions were analyzed on GC/MS. The different fractions were subjected to phytochemical investigation to isolate pure compounds. In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract was evaluated using carrageenan induced rat paws edema method at doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg and proved based on histopathological and biochemical parameters. RESULTS: Five known compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of Combretum aculeatum Vent: quercetin, vitexin, isorhamnetin 3-O-ß-glucoside, isovitexin and rutin, in addition to two previously isolated ones: ß-sitosterol and its glucoside. The ethanolic extract evidenced in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity by oral intake of 400 mg/kg of the ethanolic extract significantly (P ≥ 0.05) decreased the paw edema (only 32±1.9% increase in paw weight after 4 h) compared to indomethacin (28.6±2.5%). Moreover, it significantly suppressed the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) and increased the GSH to be 11.76±0.85, 5.13±0.62 µmol/mL and 5.66±0.28 µM/mL, respectively. It diminished the serum cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß levels to be 39.1±1.2, 32.6±1.1 and 37.5±1.2 pg/mL, respectively. Results are accompanied by histopathological examination. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results herein presented significant anti-inflammatory properties traditionally ascribed to Combretum aculeatum Vent. Moreover, the biochemical mechanisms associated to this action were highlighted, introducing new prospects for the development of effective anti-inflammatory herbal medicinal products.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Combretum , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Carragenina , Citocinas/imunologia , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/imunologia , Edema/patologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Sudão
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 132: 110658, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299295

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effect of T-2 toxin on the transcriptome of the glandular stomach in chicks using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Four groups of 1-day-old Cobb male broilers (n = 4 cages/group, 6 chicks/cage) were fed a corn-soybean-based diet (control) and control supplemented with T-2 toxin at 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/kg, respectively, for 2 weeks. The histological results showed that dietary supplementation of T-2 toxin at 3.0 and 6.0 mg/kg induced glandular gastric injury including serious inflammation, increased inflammatory cells, mucosal edema, and necrosis and desquamation of the epithelial cells in the glandular stomach of chicks. RNA-Seq analysis revealed that there were 671, 1393, and 1394 genes displayed ≥2 (P < 0.05) differential expression in the dietary supplemental T-2 toxin at 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/kg, respectively, compared with the control group. Notably, 204 differently expressed genes had shared similar changes among these three doses of T-2 toxin. GO and KEGG pathway analysis results showed that many genes involved in oxidation-reduction process, inflammation, wound healing/bleeding, and apoptosis/carcinogenesis were affected by T-2 toxin exposure. In conclusion, this study systematically elucidated toxic mechanisms of T-2 toxin on the glandular stomach, which might provide novel ideas to prevent adverse effects of T-2 toxin in chicks.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxina T-2/toxicidade , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Galinhas , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Toxina T-2/administração & dosagem , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16581, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348293

RESUMO

RATIONALE: A number of medicines are associated with edema. However, only 2 cases of edema of both lower legs, associated with levofloxacin, have been reported. PATIENT: We report the case of levofloxacin-associated bilateral leg edema in an 81-year-old male. The patient was referred to the Division of Nephrology due to edema limited to both lower legs, which had developed 1 day before. He had undergone supraglottic laryngectomy due to supraglottic cancer in our institution 6 months ago. He had been admitted to the Department of Otolaryngology due to persistent aspiration and general weakness 5 days ago. DIAGNOSIS: The patient had no underlying diseases that could result in edema. No abnormalities were detected in several diagnostic tests. He strongly denied using other medications including herbal or traditional remedies, recreational drugs, or drugs of abuse. The patient had been intravenously administered levofloxacin at 750 mg per day 5 days earlier; on this basis levofloxacin-induced edema was suspected. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: Levofloxacin was immediately withdrawn and conservative management (salt restriction and withdrawal of intravenous fluid) was initiated. His edema was completely restored within 3 weeks after withdrawal of levofloxacin. OUTCOMES: The patient stopped taking levofloxacin and he did not have any recurrent edema until his death due to uncontrolled pneumonia. LESSONS: Levofloxacin should be added to the list of drugs associated with the development of bilateral leg edema. This might obviate the need for time-consuming studies for diagnostic purposes and application of ineffective or harmful treatments.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Levofloxacino/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Levofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Masculino
17.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 181: 295-304, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154140

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize the physicochemical properties of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM)-loaded nanocapsules (NCs) as well as the antinociceptive effect using distinct animal models (hot plate test, formalin-induced nociception and complete Freud's adjuvant induced paw inflammation). The DIM-loaded NCs (composed by primula oil and ethylcellulose) were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The physicochemical characterization demonstrated that DIM could be molecularly dispersed into the NCs, whose size was nanometric with a spherical shape. An improvement in DIM thermal stability was achieved by its encapsulation and there were no interactions among the formula components. For the nociceptive evaluation, male adult Swiss mice were pretreated with the NCs or free DIM by the intragastric route at the dose of 10 mg/Kg (time-response curve), 5 or 2.5 mg/Kg (dose-response curve). The behavioral tests were performed over an experimental period of 0.5-8 h. Both free and nanoencapsulated DIM reduced the mechanical hypernociception induced by CFA, mitigated nociceptive behavior of formalin-induced neurogenic and inflammatory pain and increased paw withdrawal latency assessed by the hot-plate test. Importantly, the DIM nanoencapsulation promoted a rapid initiation and prolonged the bioactive antinociceptive action (up to 8 h) as well as reduced the effective dose in comparison to its free form. In summary, this study reported that the NCs had adequate nanometric size, increased DIM stability and its antinociceptive action in different animal models, suggesting that the formulation may be a possible therapeutic alternative to the management of pain and inflammatory-related pathologies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Nanocápsulas/química , Analgésicos/química , Animais , Química Física , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Formaldeído , Adjuvante de Freund , Indóis/química , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Medição da Dor , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
J Biosci ; 44(2)2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180043

RESUMO

In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were synthesized using the extract of Hyssops officinalis L. via green method and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy techniques. In the in vivo section, the anti-angiogenesis and antiinflammatory properties of the NPs were evaluated by the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and mouse paw edema test (induced by carrageenan), respectively. In the in vitro section, changes in the expression of angiogenesis genes (VEGF and VEGFR) and inflammatory genes (IL-1B and IL-10) were investigated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique. In order to evaluate the cytotoxicity of ZnO-NPs, 3-5, 4-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -5, 2-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test was used on MDA-MB231 breast adenocarcinoma cell line. The results of the CAM assay showed that the ZnO-NPs significantly reduced the number and length of blood vessels, as well as the size and weight of the embryos. Evaluation of mouse paw edema showed that the NPs are able to decrease inflammation. Changes in the expression pattern of VEGF and VEGFR genes in MCF7 cells showed that the NPs have inhibitory effect on the expression of both genes. Expression levels of IL-10 and IL-1B genes also increased and decreased, respectively. The MTT test showed that the NP have the ability to decrease breast cancer cells. In conclusion, our results confirm that the ZnO-NPs synthesized by green method have promising anti-cancer properties.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Citotoxinas/síntese química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Hyssopus/química , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Carragenina/administração & dosagem , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide/irrigação sanguínea , Membrana Corioalantoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/fisiopatologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Membro Posterior , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/química
19.
Phytochemistry ; 164: 228-235, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181354

RESUMO

Terminthia paniculata (Sanyeqi) is widely used for treating inflammation and rheumatic arthritis in the folk areas of Yunnan province, China. Its total extract was first revealed with xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity in vitro and anti-hyperuricemic effect in vivo. Bioassay-guided separation on Fr. A5 yielded six chalcone-flavonone heterodimers, termipaniculatones A-F. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses involving HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR and [α]D, and the absolute configuration of termipaniculatone F was verified by ECD calculation. Termipaniculatones A and E showed obvious XO inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 55.6 and 89.5 µM, respectively, which took effects via a mix-type mode. A molecular modeling study revealed that termipaniculatone A was well located into the active site of XO by interacting with Glu802, Arg880, Thr1010 and Val1011 residues. Termipaniculatone A showed anti-hyperuricemic effects by decreasing serum uric acid levels and inhibiting XO activity in both serum and liver on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemia mice, and anti-inflammatory activity through alleviating paw swelling on monosodium urate (MSU)-induced mice, at the concentration of 20 mg/kg. This is the first time to reveal the anti-hyperuricemic and anti-acute gouty arthritis potency of T. paniculata and the characteristic biflavonoids as active constituents, which provides valuable information for searching new XO inhibitors from natural sources.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Artrite Gotosa/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Artrite Gotosa/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Gotosa/metabolismo , Chalcona/química , Chalcona/isolamento & purificação , Chalcona/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Flavanonas/química , Flavanonas/isolamento & purificação , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperuricemia/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Estrutura Molecular , Ácido Oxônico/antagonistas & inibidores , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ácido Úrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
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