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3.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (47): 43-54, nov. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184865

RESUMO

En este trabajo se plantean algunas reflexiones respecto de la edición genética y su impacto en la responsabilidad. Me centraré en la investigación y en las prácticas que se realizan en línea germinal, ya que son las que más preocupan a nuestra sociedad. Aunque estas tecnologías no generan problemas realmente novedosos, cuestionan el alcance de nuestra noción tradicional de responsabilidad y nos plantean nuevos desafíos respecto de cómo afrontarlas. Podemos pensar la responsabilidad de manera individual, en tanto progenitores, a la hora de decidir respecto de nuestra descendencia. Pero también se puede plantear una responsabilidad colectiva: por ejemplo, en tanto científicos a la hora de regular la ciencia, o en tanto sociedad. En este último sentido pareciera que deberíamos considerar cómo estas tecnologías puedan afectar el sistema público de acceso al cuidado de la salud así como también tener en cuenta si determinados grupos de pacientes corren el riesgo de ser postergados sin olvidar cuál pueda ser el impacto en las futuras generaciones


En aquest treball es plantegen algunes reflexions respecte de l'edició genètica i el seu impacte en la responsabilitat. Em centraré en la recerca i en les pràctiques que es realitzen en la línia germinal, ja que són les que més preocupen la nostra societat. Encara que aquestes tecnologies no generen problemes realment nous, qüestionen l'abast de la nostra noció tradicional de responsabilitat i ens plantegen nous desafiaments respecte de com afrontar-les. Podem pensar la responsabilitat de manera individual, en tant progenitors, a l'hora de decidir respecte de la nostra descendència. Però també es pot plantejar una responsabilitat col•lectiva: per exemple, en tant que científics a l'hora de regular la ciència, o en tant que societat. En aquest últim sentit hauríem de considerar com aquestes tecnologies poden afectar el sistema públic d'accés a la salut així com també tenir en compte si determinats grups de pacients corren el risc de ser postergats sense oblidar quin pugui ser l'impacte en les futures generacions


In this article I would like to examine gene editing and its impact on responsibility. I will focus on germ line’ research and practice. Though these technologies do not raise novel issues, they make us re-think the scope of traditional responsibility. I will examine responsibility from an individual perspective: for example our role as parents and the impact of our decisions on our descendants. I will also examine responsibility from a collective perspective: scientists should examine how to regulate these technologies. In addition, as a society we should address how these technologies may affect public access to health care, or if groups of patients might be overlooked. We should also think the impact gene editing may have on future generations


Assuntos
Humanos , Edição de Genes/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Células Germinativas , Sistemas de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistemas de Saúde/organização & administração , Tecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência
4.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (47): 55-75, nov. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184866

RESUMO

La modificación genética de la línea germinal humana presenta grandes problemas de carácter ético y jurídico. El Comité de Bioética de España ha publicado una Declaración ofreciendo una respuesta a estos retos. Este artículo analiza críticamente su postura, subrayando la escasa consistencia de cualquier argumento que pretenda censurar cualquier forma de mejora en la salud humana. Con tal fin, se exponen cuestiones como la relación entre dignidad humana y modificación genética o la inconsistencia de la apelación al argumento de la pendiente resbaladiza en este contexto. Asimismo, se afirma la necesidad de trazar distinciones entre las intervenciones que afectan a bienes absolutos, como la salud, y los que no lo son


La modificació genètica de la línia germinal humana presenta enormes problemes de caràcter ètic i jurídic. El Comitè de Bioètica d'Espanya ha publicat una Declaració oferint una resposta a aquests reptes. Aquest article analitza críticament la seva postura, subratllant l'escassa consistència de qualsevol argument que pretengui censurar qualsevol forma de millora en la salut humana. Amb tal fi, s'exposen qüestions com la relació entre dignitat humana i modificació genètica o la inconsistència de l'apel•lació a l'argument del pendent relliscós en aquest context. Així mateix, s'afirma la necessitat de traçar distincions entre les intervencions que afecten béns absoluts, com la salut, i els que no ho són


Genetic modification of the human germline presents major ethical and legal problems. The Spanish Bioethics Committee has published a Declaration offering a response to these challenges. This article critically analyzes its position, underlining the scarce consistency of any argument that attempts to censor any form of improvement in human health. To this end, questions such as the relationship between human dignity and genetic modification or the inconsistency of the appeal to the argument of the slippery slope in this context are raised. At the same time, this paper highlights the need to draw distinctions between interventions that affect absolute goods, such as health, and those that are not


Assuntos
Humanos , Edição de Genes/ética , Genoma Humano , Projeto Genoma Humano/ética , Bioética , Comissão de Ética/normas , Comissão de Ética/ética , Comissão de Ética/organização & administração , Comitês de Ética Clínica/ética , Espanha , Pesquisas com Embriões/ética , Criação de Embriões para Pesquisa/ética , Engenharia Genética/ética , Terapia Genética/ética
6.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(9): 1033-1045, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597825

RESUMO

As genome editing techniques are developed, they have been applied to somatic cells in clinical use. Regarding the adaptation of these techniques in human zygotes, advances in single-cell analysis technology are expected to enhance knowledge at the molecular level, even in human preimplantation embryo development, and the application of genome editing technology for molecular functional analysis is expected. However, the use of genetic modification techniques on germlines, including zygotes, spreads to all cells of an individual and is subsequently passed down through generations. Here we explore the possibilities and challenges of applying genome editing techniques to better understand the scientific aspects of the human germline.


Assuntos
Pesquisas com Embriões/ética , Edição de Genes/ética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Humanos
7.
Cuad. bioét ; 30(99): 171-185, mayo-ago. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185233

RESUMO

La adaptación del sistema CRISPR como herramienta de edición genética ha supuesto una revolución en numerosos campos de aplicación, pues esta técnica resulta considerablemente más rápida, fácil de realizar y eficaz que las técnicas predecesoras. Sin embargo, algunas de estas aplicaciones suscitan objetivas cuestiones éticas que deben ser abordadas. En este trabajo discutimos, en base a los datos más recientes, las distintas cuestiones relacionadas con las aplicaciones de CRISPR sobre la línea germinal, su introducción en ensayos clínicos, la edición genética de animales y plantas para consumo humano y el novedoso gene drive


The adaptation of the CRISPR system as a genetic editing tool has led to a revolution in many fields of application, as this technique is considerably faster, easier to perform and more efficient than predecessor techniques. However, some of these applications raise objective ethical issues that must be addressed. In this paper we discuss, based on the most recent data, the different issues related to CRISPR applications on the germ line, its introduction in clinical trials, the genetic edition of animals and plants for human consumption and the novel gene drive


Assuntos
Humanos , Edição de Genes/ética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Endonucleases/genética , Engenharia Genética/ética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Engenharia Genética/métodos
8.
Am J Bioeth ; 19(7): 6-15, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237503

RESUMO

Despite the advent of CRISPR, safe and effective gene editing for human enhancement remains well beyond our current technological capabilities. For the discussion about enhancing human beings to be worth having, then, we must assume that gene-editing technology will improve rapidly. However, rapid progress in the development and application of any technology comes at a price: obsolescence. If the genetic enhancements we can provide children get better and better each year, then the enhancements granted to children born in any given year will rapidly go out of date. Sooner or later, every modified child will find him- or herself to be "yesterday's child." The impacts of such obsolescence on our individual, social, and philosophical self-understanding constitute an underexplored set of considerations relevant to the ethics of genome editing.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/ética , Melhoramento Genético/ética , Criança , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Humanos
9.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 29(2): 020202, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223254

RESUMO

The rapid and exponential growth of genome editing has posed many challenges for bioethics. This article briefly explains the nature of the technique and the particularly rapid development of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) technology. The international and, specifically, European-level systems for assessing the ethical issues consequent on these developments are outlined and discussed. The challenges posed by cases in China are summarized to raise concerns about how a more shared, universally consistent appraisal of bioethical issues can be promoted.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes/ética , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos
10.
Cuad Bioet ; 30(99): 171-185, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206297

RESUMO

The adaptation of the CRISPR system as a genetic editing tool has led to a revolution in many fields of application, as this technique is considerably faster, easier to perform and more efficient than predecessor techniques. However, some of these applications raise objective ethical issues that must be addressed. In this paper we discuss, based on the most recent data, the different issues related to CRISPR applications on the germ line, its introduction in clinical trials, the genetic edition of animals and plants for human consumption and the novel gene drive.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Edição de Genes/ética , Animais , Humanos , Plantas/genética
12.
PLoS Biol ; 17(4): e3000223, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039143

RESUMO

The announcement of He Jiankui's germline editing of human embryos has been followed by a torrent of almost universal criticism of the claim on scientific and ethical grounds. That criticism is warranted. There is little room for anything other than vociferous condemnation of He's announcement. Presenting the results of groundbreaking work by press conference and YouTube is not science. The issue now is not whether the work supporting the claims reported from China was done in an ethical manner. It was not. What is required to move forward is a justification for doing germline editing in humans. Many think there is none, and prohibitions abound. If such work is justifiable, a serious, rigorous framework must be imposed that insures that such research is done following the highest ethical standards that both protect human subjects and insure public trust and support.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/ética , Terapia Genética/ética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/ética , China , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Terapia Genética/legislação & jurisprudência , Células Germinativas , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Confiança
13.
PLoS Biol ; 17(4): e3000224, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039144

RESUMO

During the second World Summit of Human Gene Editing, Jiankui He presented the gene-editing project that led to the birth of two baby girls with man-made C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) mutations. This extremely irresponsible behavior violated the ethical consensus of scientists all over the world. His presentation revealed a troubling lack not only of basic medical ethics but also of the requisite understanding of genetics and gene editing. Here, we review the rationale and design of his experiment along with the presented data, and provide our scientific criticism of this misconduct.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/ética , Terapia Genética/ética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/ética , China , Terapia Genética/legislação & jurisprudência , Células Germinativas , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Receptores CCR5/genética , Confiança
15.
New Bioeth ; 25(2): 137-152, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130112

RESUMO

With recent reports that a Chinese scientist used CRISPR-Cas9 to heritably edit the genomes of human embryos (i.e., germline editing) brought to term, discussions regarding the ethics of the technology are urgently needed. Although certain applications of germline editing have been endorsed by both the National Academy of Sciences (US) and the Nuffield Council (UK), this paper explores the ethical concerns related even to such therapeutic uses of the technology. Additionally, this paper questions whether the technology could ever feasibly be contained to the therapeutic realm. Consequently, this paper necessarily considers the ethical concerns related to enhancement uses of the technology even if only therapeutic applications are initially considered. In light of the concomitant risks, this paper assesses the technology's countervailing benefits to conclude they do not prevail given that similar outcomes can largely be achieved with existing technologies. Consequently, this paper recommends an international ban on germline editing.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Pesquisas com Embriões/ética , Edição de Genes/ética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/ética , Análise Ética , Humanos
16.
New Bioeth ; 25(2): 121-136, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130115

RESUMO

The advantages and risks of a number of new genome modifying procedures seeking to create healthy or enhanced individuals, such as Maternal Spindle Transfer, Pronuclear Transfer, Cytoplasmic Transfer and Genome Editing, are currently being assessed from an ethical perspective, by national and international policy organizations. One important aspect being examined concerns the effects of these procedures on different kinds of identity. In other words, whether or not a procedure only modifies the qualities or properties of an existing human being, meaning that merely the qualitative identity of this single individual is affected, or whether a procedure results in the creation of a new individual, meaning that a numerically distinct human being would have come into existence. In this article, the different identity arguments proposed, so far, are presented with respect to these novel reproductive procedures. An alternative view is then developed using the Origin Essentialism argument to indicate that any change in the creative conditions of an individual such as in his or her biology but also the moment in time, and the three dimensions of space, will have a numerical identity effect and bring into existence a new individual who would not, otherwise, have existed. Because of this, it is concluded that a form of selection may have taken place in which a preference was expressed for one new possible individual instead of another, based on some frame of reference. This may then mean that a selection between persons has occured  contravening the European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights which was ratified in 2000.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/ética , Terapia de Substituição Mitocondrial/ética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Melhoramento Genético/ética , Perfil Genético , Terapia Genética/ética , Humanos
19.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 35(3): 266-270, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931913

RESUMO

Analysing the data recently presented by Jiankui He and assuming that it is authentic shows that the goal of abolishing the expression of CCR5 may have been reached for one of the resulting twins, although this remains to be proven. However, the canonical delta32 mutation has not been achieved. The various preliminary experiments and controls give some confidence that major off-target modifications have not occurred; again, this is difficult to exclude. Clearly, the requirements of perfect technical mastery of the process have not been met, to say nothing of the requirements for complete transparency and full societal approval.


Assuntos
Bioética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Pesquisas com Embriões , Edição de Genes/ética , Má Conduta Científica , Bioética/tendências , China , Clonagem de Organismos/ética , Clonagem de Organismos/métodos , Congressos como Assunto , Resistência à Doença/genética , Pesquisas com Embriões/ética , Deleção de Genes , HIV , Infecções por HIV/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Invenções/ética , Mutação , Receptores CCR5/genética , Má Conduta Científica/ética
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