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1.
J Nurs Educ ; 60(9): 526-528, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to the development of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies and noting lower standardized test scores, nursing faculty at a midwestern United States university developed three safety and quality labs throughout a traditional baccalaureate curriculum. METHOD: These labs intentionally integrated the QSEN competencies and occurred over three semesters of the nursing program. Students' learning activities aligned with the QSEN competencies and were leveled across the labs. RESULTS: Throughout all the labs, all six QSEN competencies provided a framework for students to learn the knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential to the profession of nursing. Students spent most of their time in the labs learning the QSEN competency of safety, followed by teamwork and collaboration, quality improvement, patient-centered care, informatics, and evidenced-based practice. CONCLUSION: The QSEN competencies provided a framework to teach pre-licensure nursing students the knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential in the profession of nursing. Safety and Quality I focused on foundational skills and individual patient safety. Safety and Quality II introduced intermediate skills with an emphasis on safety. The third and final lab introduced students to advanced quality improvement, teamwork and collaboration, and system safety. After the completion of the labs, the students stated they had gained knowledge and confidence in the application of all six QSEN competencies. [J Nurs Educ. 2021;60(9):526-528.].


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Educação Baseada em Competências , Currículo , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade
2.
Med Teach ; 43(7): 751-757, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410891

RESUMO

The ongoing adoption of competency-based medical education (CBME) across health professions training draws focus to learner-centred educational design and the importance of fostering a growth mindset in learners, teachers, and educational programs. An emerging body of literature addresses the instructional practices and features of learning environments that foster the skills and strategies necessary for trainees to be partners in their own learning and progression to competence and to develop skills for lifelong learning. Aligned with this emerging area is an interest in Dweck's self theory and the concept of the growth mindset. The growth mindset is an implicit belief held by an individual that intelligence and abilities are changeable, rather than fixed and immutable. In this paper, we present an overview of the growth mindset and how it aligns with the goals of CBME. We describe the challenges associated with shifting away from the fixed mindset of most traditional medical education assumptions and practices and discuss potential solutions and strategies at the individual, relational, and systems levels. Finally, we present future directions for research to better understand the growth mindset in the context of CBME.


Assuntos
Educação Baseada em Competências , Educação Médica , Ocupações em Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizagem
3.
MedEdPORTAL ; 17: 11169, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368437

RESUMO

Introduction: Since the introduction of competency-based frameworks into postgraduate medical curricula, educators have struggled to implement robust assessment tools that document the progression of necessary skills. The global movement towards competency-based medical education demands validated assessment tools. Our objective was to provide validity evidence for the Ottawa CanMEDS Competency Assessment Tool (OCCAT), designed to assess clinical performance in the communicator, professional, and health advocate CanMEDS roles. Methods: We developed the OCCAT, a 29-item questionnaire informed by specialty-specific Entrustable Professional Activities and consultation with stakeholders, including patients. Our sample included nine neonatal-perinatal medicine and maternal fetal medicine fellows rotating through antenatal high-risk clinics at the Ottawa Hospital. Following 70 unique encounters, the OCCAT was completed by patients and learners. Generalizability theory was used to determine overall reliability of scores. Differences in self and patient ratings were assessed using analyses of variance. Results: Generalizability analysis demonstrated that both questionnaires produced reliable scores (G-coefficient > 0.9). Self-scores were significantly lower than patient scores across all competencies, F(1, 6) = 13.9, p = .007. Variability analysis demonstrated that trainee scores varied across all competencies, suggesting both groups were able to recognize competencies as distinct and discriminate favorable behaviors belonging to each. Discussion: Our findings lend support to the movement to integrate self-assessment and patient feedback in formal evaluations for the purpose of enriched learner experiences and improved patient outcomes. We anticipate that the OCCAT will facilitate bridging to competency-based medical education.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoavaliação (Psicologia)
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047923, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Training strategies regarding entrustable professional activities (EPAs) vary from country to country; one such strategy is for residents. However, there are no reports of EPAs developed for residents who rotate to the nephrology departments. We aimed to construct such EPAs, which could be generalised to other institutions. DESIGN: Purposive design and a modified Delphi method to build consensus. SETTING: The department of nephrology in a university hospital in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Based on the attainment goals used in our department, an initial list was developed within the research group. The expert panel included 25 nephrologists from our affiliate hospital. Responses were based on a 5-point method and agreement was reached if both (A) and (B) were met: (A) mean≥4 with a SD <1; (B) more than 75% of respondents rated the item 4 or more. With agreement, the item was left for the next round. This round was repeated. RESULTS: An initial list of 11 items was developed; after three Delphi rounds and revisions, eight items remained that were then established as the final EPAs. These items can serve as a list of goals to be reached by residents who rotate to the department of nephrology. The results indicated that most of the experts believed residents should be able to perform tasks deemed necessary or urgent for all physicians, such as those that deal with hyperkalaemia and heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of EPAs enabled us to develop goals and evaluation criteria for residents' training in nephrology. This study can serve as a springboard for future discussions and contribute to the development of resident education in nephrology.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Nefrologia , Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências , Técnica Delfos , Hospitais , Humanos , Japão
5.
Med Teach ; 43(sup2): S7-S16, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291715

RESUMO

In 2010, several key works in medical education predicted the changes necessary to train modern physicians to meet current and future challenges in health care, including the standardization of learning outcomes paired with individualized learning processes. The reframing of a medical expert as a flexible, adaptive team member and change agent, effective within a larger system and responsive to the community's needs, requires a new approach to education: competency-based medical education (CBME). CBME is an outcomes-based developmental approach to ensuring each trainee's readiness to advance through stages of training and continue to grow in unsupervised practice. Implementation of CBME with fidelity is a complex and challenging endeavor, demanding a fundamental shift in organizational culture and investment in appropriate infrastructure. This paper outlines how member schools of the American Medical Association Accelerating Change in Medical Education Consortium developed and implemented CBME, including common challenges and successes. Critical supporting factors include adoption of the master adaptive learner construct, longitudinal views of learner development, coaching, and a supportive learning environment.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação Médica , Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências , Cultura Organizacional
6.
Med Teach ; 43(7): 758-764, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061700

RESUMO

Programmatic assessment as a concept is still novel for many in clinical education, and there may be a disconnect between the academics who publish about programmatic assessment and the front-line clinical educators who must put theory into practice. In this paper, we clearly define programmatic assessment and present high-level guidelines about its implementation in competency-based medical education (CBME) programs. The guidelines are informed by literature and by lessons learned from established programmatic assessment approaches. We articulate five steps to consider when implementing programmatic assessment in CBME contexts: articulate the purpose of the program of assessment, determine what must be assessed, choose tools fit for purpose, consider the stakes of assessments, and define processes for interpreting assessment data. In the process, we seek to offer a helpful guide or template for front-line clinical educators. We dispel some myths about programmatic assessment to help training programs as they look to design-or redesign-programs of assessment. In particular, we highlight the notion that programmatic assessment is not 'one size fits all'; rather, it is a system of assessment that results when shared common principles are considered and applied by individual programs as they plan and design their own bespoke model of programmatic assessment for CBME in their unique context.


Assuntos
Educação Baseada em Competências , Educação Médica , Humanos
9.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S6-S8, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183595

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 exposed the reactive nature of the medical education community in response to a disruption that, at one time, may have seemed preposterous. In this article, the author reflected on the impact of an unpredictable plight on a system of medical education that (1) is continuous but doesn't function as a continuum and (2) requires adaptation but is steeped in a fixed mindset and structure that resists change. As a result, innovations which were previously considered impossible, such as time variable education and training, were forced into being. Inspired by the changes brought about by the pandemic, the ensuing decade is explored through a lens of possible futures to envision a path forward based on resilience rather than reactivity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação Baseada em Competências/organização & administração , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Modelos Educacionais , Inovação Organizacional , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Criatividade , Educação Médica/métodos , Humanos , Resiliência Psicológica , Análise de Sistemas , Estados Unidos
10.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1940765, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128776

RESUMO

Due to comprehensive social distancing measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic, medical faculties worldwide have made a virtue of necessity in resorting to online teaching. Medical faculties grapple with how to convey clinical competencies to students in this context. There is a need for research not only to map but also to explain the effect of these secondary measures on students' learning and mental wellbeing. During a period of ongoing comprehensive social distancing measures in Germany, we translated a competency-based curriculum including obstetrics, paediatrics, and human genetics to an e-learning course based on online patient and teacher encounters. In our qualitative study on students' and teachers' views, we identify potential enablers and drivers as well as barriers and challenges to undergraduate medical education under lockdown. In summer 2020, we conducted six focus group interviews to investigate medical students' and teachers' perspectives, experiences and attitudes. All focus groups were videotaped, transcribed verbatim and coded. To guide our deductive and inductive analysis, we applied the theoretical framework of Regmi and Jones. Content analysis was performed in a multi-perspective group. We identified five major themes contributing to a successful use of clinical competency-based e-learning under lockdown: Communication (with teachers, students, and patients), Mental wellbeing, Structure and self-organization, Technical issues, and Learning and commitment. We discuss enablers and potential barriers within all themes and their overlap and link them in an explanatory model. In our setting, students and teachers find e-learning holds strong potential and especially in times of COVID-19 it is greatly appreciated. We broaden the understanding of the impact of distant learning on acquiring competencies, on attitudes, and on mental wellbeing. Our model may serve for a thoughtful, necessary transition to future e-learning and hybrid programs for a competency-based medical education with ongoing social distancing measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Competência Clínica/normas , Educação à Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Adulto , Educação Baseada em Competências/organização & administração , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Docentes de Medicina , Grupos Focais , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes de Medicina
12.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S9-S13, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183596

RESUMO

Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) have been increasingly used as an assessment framework to formally capture the myriad ad hoc entrustment decisions that occur on a daily basis in clinical settings with learners present. Following the definition of Core EPAs for Entering Residency by the Association of American Medical Colleges in 2014, the American Board of Surgery (ABS) began to explore the utility of EPAs as a framework to support competency-based resident education within general surgery in 2016. As the complement of EPAs drafted for a specialty serve to define the core tasks of a professional within that discipline, initial efforts to define the entire scope of general surgery were fraught with difficulty as no commonly accepted definition of a general surgeon currently exists. Opting to prioritize a pilot of the EPA conceptual framework within surgical training rather than defining the entirety of the specialty, ABS leaders identified 5 EPAs that represent a core of general surgery with which to begin. This article details the process of choosing the initial set of EPAs and provides a roadmap for other disciplines interested in testing the feasibility of this assessment framework while garnering buy-in among the community of educators. Future steps, including implementation of the existing 5 EPAs beyond the initial pilot sites and drafting and implementation of the additional complement of EPAs, are also described.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/terapia , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/terapia , Hérnia Inguinal/diagnóstico , Hérnia Inguinal/terapia , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Projetos Piloto , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
13.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S14-S21, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183597

RESUMO

The Core EPAs for Entering Residency Pilot project aimed to test the feasibility of implementing 13 entrustable professional activities (EPAs) at 10 U.S. medical schools and to gauge whether the use of the Core EPAs could improve graduates' performance early in residency. In this manuscript, the authors (members of the pilot institutions and Association of American Medical Colleges staff supporting the project evaluation) describe the schools' capacity to collect multimodal evidence about their students' performance in each of the Core EPAs and the ability of faculty committees to use those data to make decisions regarding learners' readiness for entrustment. In reviewing data for each of the Core EPAs, the authors reflected on how each activity performed as an EPA informed by how well it could be assessed and entrusted. For EPAs that did not perform well, the authors examined whether there are underlying practical and/or theoretical issues limiting its utility as a measure of student performance in medical school.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Internato e Residência , Comportamento Cooperativo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Documentação , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Relações Interprofissionais , Anamnese , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Exame Físico , Projetos Piloto , Gestão da Segurança
14.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S22-S28, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183598

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) are one approach to competency-based medical education (CBME), and 7 EPAs have been developed that address content relevant for all pediatric subspecialties. However, it is not known what level of supervision fellowship program directors (FPDs) deem necessary for graduation. The Subspecialty Pediatrics Investigator Network (SPIN) investigated FPD perceptions of the minimum level of supervision required for a trainee to successfully graduate. METHOD: In 2017, SPIN surveyed all FPDs of accredited fellowships for 14 subspecialties. For each EPA, the minimum supervision level for graduation (ranging from observation only to unsupervised practice) was set such that no more than 20% of FPDs would accept a lower level. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 82% (660/802). The minimum supervision level for graduation varied across the 7 EPAs from 2 (direct) to 4 (indirect for complex cases), with significant differences between EPAs. The percentage of FPDs desiring a lower minimum supervision level ranged from 3% to 17%. Compared with the 4 nonclinical EPAs (quality improvement, management, lead within the profession, scholarship), the 3 clinical EPAs (consultation, handover, lead a team) had higher minimum supervision graduation levels (P < .001), with less likelihood that an FPD would graduate a learner below their minimum level (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Consensus among FPDs across all pediatric subspecialties demonstrates the potential need for ongoing supervision for graduates in all 7 common pediatric subspecialty EPAs after fellowship. As CBME programs are implemented, processes and infrastructure to support new graduates are important considerations for leaders.


Assuntos
Educação Baseada em Competências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Bolsas de Estudo , Medicina do Adolescente/educação , Endocrinologia/educação , Gastroenterologia/educação , Hematologia/educação , Humanos , Infectologia/educação , Oncologia/educação , Medicina , Neonatologia/educação , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica/educação , Pediatria/educação , Pneumologia/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S29-S35, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183599

RESUMO

Postgraduate medical education in the Netherlands has adopted competency-based education since the turn of the century. In 2006, the CanMEDS competency framework was introduced. A 2013 government plan to reduce the length and budgets of training programs led the Dutch Association of Medical Specialists (DAMS) to respond with a proposal to create more flexibility and individualization rather than a blunt cut in the length across all training programs. DAMS launched a government-funded, nation-wide, 4-year project (2014-2018) to blueprint the reform of postgraduate medical education in this direction. To achieve competency-based individualization, the fixed duration of postgraduate programs was abandoned, and entrustable professional activities (EPAs) were introduced in all specialty programs. Implementation of this new generation of programs took place in 2017-2019 in all disciplines. The project focused on EPA-based individualization of all programs, while addressing issues of the continuity of patient care in time-variable programs and the legal and regulatory consequences of individualization. About 30 specialty programs were revised at national, regional, local, and individual levels to incorporate EPAs; portfolio systems were adapted, clinical competency committees were installed for all programs, and procedures for summative entrustment decision making were elaborated. This paper reports on the rationale and the process that led to a more time-variable postgraduate education landscape, and, on average, a shortening of training length by 3 months.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Países Baixos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S36-S41, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183600

RESUMO

Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) have emerged as a meaningful framework for achieving competency-based medical education (CBME). However, little is known about how to adapt EPAs to large-scale, multispecialty, system-wide implementations. The authors describe the design and experience of creating such a system based on EPAs and the Van Melle Core Components Framework for all accredited training programs under the auspices of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. The resulting design is a unique configuration and use of EPAs, called Royal College EPAs. Others looking to implement EPAs for large-scale health professions education systems may want to consider this design approach.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Canadá , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S42-S49, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183601

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe trajectories in level of supervision ratings for linked entrustable professional activities (EPAs) among pediatric learners in medical school, residency, fellowship. METHOD: The authors performed secondary analyses of 3 linked datasets of level of supervision ratings for the Core EPAs for Entering Residency, the General Pediatrics EPAs, and the Subspecialty Pediatrics EPAs. After identifying 9 activities in common across training stages and aligning the level of entrustment-supervision scales across the datasets, piecewise ordinal and linear mixed effects models were fitted to characterize trajectories of supervision ratings. RESULTS: Within each training period, learners were rated as needing less supervision over time in each activity. When transitioning from medical school to residency or during the first year of residency, learners were rated as needing greater supervision in activities related to patient management, teamwork, emergent care, and public health/QI than in earlier periods. When transitioning from residency to fellowship, learners were always rated as needing greater supervision than they had been accorded at the end of residency and sometimes even more than they had been accorded at the start of residency. CONCLUSIONS: Although development over training is often imagined as continuous and monotonically increasing competence, this study provides empirical evidence supporting the idea that entrustment is a set of discrete decisions. The relaxation of supervision in training is not a linear process. Even with a seamless curriculum, supervision is tightly bound to the training setting. Several explanations for these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Pediatria/educação , Bolsas de Estudo , Humanos , Internato e Residência
18.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S50-S55, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183602

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Assessment has been the Achilles heel of competency-based medical education. It requires a program of assessment in which outcomes are clearly defined, students know where they are in the development of the competencies, and what the next steps are to attaining them. Achieving this goal in a feasible manner has been elusive with traditional assessment methods alone. The Education in Pediatrics Across the Continuum (EPAC) program at the University of Minnesota developed a robust program of assessment that has utility and recognizes when students are ready for the undergraduate to graduate medical education transition. APPROACH: The authors developed a learner-driven program of assessment in the foundational clinical training of medical students in the EPAC program based on the Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency (Core EPAs). Frequent workplace-based assessments, coupled with summative assessments, informed a quarterly clinical competency committee and individualized learning plans. The data were displayed on real time dashboards for the students to review. OUTCOMES: Over 4 cohorts from 2015 to 2019, students (n = 13) averaged approximately 200 discrete Core EPA workplace-based assessments during their foundational clinical training year. Assessments were completed by an average of 9 different preceptors each month across 8 different specialties. The data were displayed in a way students and faculty could monitor development and inform a clinical competency committee's ability to determine readiness to transition to advanced clinical rotations and residency. NEXT STEPS: The next steps include continuing to scale the program of assessment to a larger cohort of students.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico , Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Pediatria/educação , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Curva de Aprendizado
19.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S56-S63, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183603

RESUMO

Educators use entrustment, a common framework in competency-based medical education, in multiple ways, including frontline assessment instruments, learner feedback tools, and group decision making within promotions or competence committees. Within these multiple contexts, entrustment decisions can vary in purpose (i.e., intended use), stakes (i.e., perceived risk or consequences), and process (i.e., how entrustment is rendered). Each of these characteristics can be conceptualized as having 2 distinct poles: (1) purpose has formative and summative, (2) stakes has low and high, and (3) process has ad hoc and structured. For each characteristic, entrustment decisions often do not fall squarely at one pole or the other, but rather lie somewhere along a spectrum. While distinct, these continua can, and sometimes should, influence one another, and can be manipulated to optimally integrate entrustment within a program of assessment. In this article, the authors describe each of these continua and depict how key alignments between them can help optimize value when using entrustment in programmatic assessment within competency-based medical education. As they think through these continua, the authors will begin and end with a case study to demonstrate the practical application as it might occur in the clinical learning environment.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feedback Formativo , Humanos , Aprendizagem
20.
Acad Med ; 96(7S): S64-S69, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183604

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Health professions education has shifted to a competency-based paradigm in which many programs rely heavily on workplace-based assessment (WBA) to produce data for summative decisions about learners. However, WBAs are complex and require validity evidence beyond psychometric analysis. Here, the authors describe their use of a rhetorical argumentation process to develop a map of validity evidence for summative decisions in an entrustment-based WBA system. APPROACH: To organize evidence, the authors cross-walked 2 contemporary validity frameworks, one that emphasizes sources of evidence (Messick) and another that stresses inferences in an argument (Kane). They constructed a validity map using 4 steps: (1) Asking critical questions about the stated interpretation and use, (2) Seeking validity evidence as a response, (3) Categorizing evidence using both Messick's and Kane's frameworks, and (4) Building a visual representation of the collected and organized evidence. The authors used an iterative approach, adding new critical questions and evidence over time. OUTCOMES: The first map draft produced 25 boxes of evidence that included all 5 sources of evidence detailed by Messick and spread across all 4 inferences described by Kane. The rhetorical question-response process allowed for structured critical appraisal of the WBA system, leading to the identification of evidentiary gaps. NEXT STEPS: Future map iterations will integrate evidence quality indicators and allow for deeper dives into the evidence. The authors intend to share their map with graduate medical education stakeholders (e.g., accreditors, institutional leaders, learners, patients) to understand if it adds value for evaluating their WBA programs' validity arguments.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Local de Trabalho , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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