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1.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 66(3): 243-258, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876552

RESUMO

Objectives: Addressing the lack of population-based data, the purpose of this representative study was to assess sex- and age-specific associations of maternal and paternal rearing behavior with depressiveness and anxiety controlling for sociodemographic and somatic variables. Methods: 8,175 subjects participating in a population-based study completed standardized questionnaires measuring Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior and distress. Results: Women recalled their fathers as more controlling and warmer, and their mothers as more rejecting than men. Comparisons between age groups (≤ 60 vs. > 60 years) revealed that younger participants recalled more parental control and emotional warmth. In addition to sociodemographic and somatic risk factors, paternal rejection and maternal control were associated with depressiveness and anxiety both for women and men (OR 1.58-1.96; OR 1.37-1.66). Maternal warmth was negatively related to distress (OR 0.66-0.69). Conclusions: Findings suggested sex- and age-specific differences in recalled maternal and paternal rearing behavior. The current results highlighted the important role of recalled parental rearing behavior besides sociodemographic factors and somatic diseases for the occurrence of depression and anxiety symptoms across the age groups.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Educação Infantil , Depressão/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Mães/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais
2.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S25-S32, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737229

RESUMO

In this article, I examine the role of minors' competence for medical decision-making in modern American law. The doctrine of parental consent remains the default legal and bioethical framework for health care decisions on behalf of children, complemented by a complex array of exceptions. Some of those exceptions vest decisional authority in the minors themselves. Yet, in American law, judgments of minors' competence do not typically trigger shifts in decision-making authority from adults to minors. Rather, minors' decisional capacity becomes relevant only after legislatures or courts determine that the default of parental discretion does not achieve important policy goals or protect implicated constitutional rights in a particular health care context and that those goals can best be achieved or rights best protected by authorizing capable minors to choose for themselves. It is at that point that psychological and neuroscientific evidence plays an important role in informing the legal inquiry as to whether minors whose health is at issue are legally competent to decide.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Menores de Idade/legislação & jurisprudência , Consentimento dos Pais/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação Infantil , Bem-Estar da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Civis , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Família , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Consentimento Informado por Menores/ética , Consentimento Informado por Menores/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Mental/normas , Menores de Idade/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Consentimento dos Pais/ética , Patient Self-Determination Act , Autonomia Pessoal , Procurador/legislação & jurisprudência , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): e379-e383, agosto 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118507

RESUMO

En este artículo, se propone situar la crianza infantil como un proceso social y cultural que, lejos de presentar características universales e invariables, muestra una enorme diversidad, ligada, en gran medida, a particularidades culturales de las familias y comunidades que la llevan a cabo. Se considera que la perspectiva de la antropología puede contribuir a comprender esa multiplicidad de formas de criar a los niños que suele emerger en el consultorio del pediatra y que pone en juego diferentes concepciones de niñez, sujeto, cuerpo, maternidad, paternidad, entre otras. A su vez, se advierte acerca de los riesgos de limitar el abordaje de la crianza a un relativismo cultural ingenuo que esencialice el papel de la cultura, y se señala, por el contrario, la necesidad de considerar el modo en que las particularidades culturales se entrelazan con las desigualdades sociales a la hora de interpretar esa diversidad


This article proposes to define child rearing as a social and cultural process that, far from depicting universal and invariable characteristics, shows a huge diversity, mostly linked to the cultural features of families and communities in charge of such process. It has been considered that the anthropological perspective may contribute to understanding such multiple forms of bringing up children that are usually seen at the pediatrician's office and that involve different concepts in relation to childhood, individual, body, motherhood, fatherhood, among others. In turn, this article warns about the risks of restricting the approach to child rearing to a naive cultural relativism that reduces the role of culture to essentials and, on the contrary, points out the need to consider how cultural features intertwine with social inequalities when interpreting such diversity.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Educação Infantil , Diversidade Cultural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Família , Iniquidade Social , Antropologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687510

RESUMO

Dietary and physical activity behaviors formed early in life can increase risk for childhood obesity and have continued negative consequences for lifelong health. Previous research has highlighted the importance of both genetic and environmental (e.g., cultural environment or parental lifestyle) contributions to obesity risk, although these studies typically involve genetically-related individuals residing in the same household, where genetic similarity and rearing environment are inextricably linked. Here we utilize a sibling-adoption design to independently estimate genetic and environmental contributions to obesity risk in childhood and describe how these influences might vary as children age. As part of a prospective adoption study, the current investigation used data from biological siblings reared either apart or together, and nonbiological siblings reared together to estimate the contributions of genetics and environment to body mass indices (BMI) in a large cohort of children (N = 711). We used a variance partitioning model to allocate variation in BMI to that which is due to shared genetics, common environment, or unique environment in this cohort during middle childhood and adolescence. We found 63% of the total variance in BMI could be attributed to heritable factors in middle childhood sibling pairs (age 5-11.99; 95% CI [0.41,0.85]). Additionally, we observed that common environment explained 31% of variation in BMI in this group (95% CI [0.11,0.5]), with unique environment and error explaining the remaining variance. We failed to detect an influence of genetics or common environment in older sibling pairs (12-18) or pairs spanning childhood and adolescence (large sibling age difference), but home type (adoptive versus birth) was an important predictor of BMI in adolescence. The presence of strong common environment effects during childhood suggests that early interventions at the family level in middle childhood could be effective in mitigating obesity risk in later childhood and adolescence.


Assuntos
Adoção , Índice de Massa Corporal , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Irmãos , Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Educação Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (38): 282-291, Jan.-Jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1090102

RESUMO

Resumen En las últimas décadas se ha desarrollado una mayor conciencia acerca de cuán relevante es la paternidad activa en el desarrollo integral de los/as hijos/as y en la equidad de género. Sin embargo, a pesar de la amplia discusión e implementación de algunas estrategias, se observa una escasa participación en la crianza y cuidados de parte de los padres, situación por la que el presente ensayo tiene el propósito de reflexionar críticamente en torno al cuidado de la niñez desde la desigualdad de género, la masculinidad imperante y las estrategias para el fomento de la paternidad activa. Este escrito reflexiona sobre la paternidad activa desde la mirada de una sociedad adultocéntrica y su influencia en la incorporación de valores, actitudes y conductas durante la niñez. Además, analiza la construcción del cuidado del infante en el ámbito privado, tarea que es subvalorada por la comunidad y que recae principalmente en la mujer con las consecuencias de inequidad de género y problemas de salud que conlleva. Finalmente, se evidencia los esfuerzos realizados en Chile en la implementación para el fomento de una paternidad activa, así como los desafíos pendientes. Para avanzar a la paternidad activa se requiere de una mayor intervención con las familias y los distintos sectores de la sociedad, implementando estrategias desde un enfoque de equidad de género en cuanto a la distribución del cuidado en la niñez. Asimismo, se requiere de avances politicos importantes para dar sustento a una nueva formar de cuidar.


Abstract In recent decades, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of active fatherhood in the integral development of children and in gender inequality. Despite the extensive discussion and implementation of some strategies, there is a low participation in parenting and care of parents. For this reason, the present essay has the purpose of critically reflecting on the care of children from gender inequality, prevailing masculinity and strategies for the promotion of active parenthood. This paper reflects on active fatherhood from the perspective of an adult-centric society and its influence on the incorporation of values, attitudes and behaviors during childhood. In addition, it analyzes the construction of child care in the private sphere, a task that is undervalued by the community and that falls mainly on women with the consequences of gender inequity and health problems that it entails. Finally, the efforts made in Chile in the implementation for the promotion of active fatherhood and the pending challenges are visualized. To move towards active fatherhood requires a greater intervention with families and different sectors of society, implementing strategies from a gender equity perspective regarding the distribution of child care. It also requires important political advances to support a new way of caring.


Resumo Nas últimas décadas, tem havido uma crescente conscientização sobre a importância da paternidade ativa no desenvolvimento integral das crianças e na desigualdade de gênero. Apesar da extensa discussão e implementação de algumas estratégias, há uma baixa participação na parentalidade e no cuidado dos pais. Por este motivo, o presente ensaio tem como objetivo refletir criticamente em torno do cuidado das crianças da desigualdade de gênero, masculinidade prevalente e estratégias para a promoção da paternidade ativa. Este artigo reflete sobre a paternidade ativa a partir da perspectiva de uma sociedade adultocêntrica e sua influência na incorporação de valores, atitudes e comportamentos durante a infância. Além disso, analisa a construção da creche na esfera privada, uma tarefa que é subvalorizada pela comunidade e que recai principalmente sobre as mulheres com as conseqüências da desigualdade de gênero e dos problemas de saúde que ela acarreta. Finalmente, os esforços feitos no Chile na implementação para a promoção da paternidade ativa e os desafios pendentes são visualizados. Avançar para a paternidade ativa requer uma maior intervenção com as famílias e diferentes setores da sociedade, implementando estratégias a partir de uma perspectiva de equidade de gênero em relação à distribuição do cuidado infantil. Também requer avanços políticos importantes para apoiar uma nova maneira de cuidar.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Paternidade , Cuidado da Criança , Educação Infantil , Ensaio , Masculinidade
10.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 1-10, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189156

RESUMO

Current emergent studies are seriously questioning if parental strictness contributes to adolescent adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between authoritative (warmth and strictness), authoritarian (strictness without warmth), indulgent (warmth without strictness), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting styles shows equal or different pattern of adjustment and maladjustment for aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents. The sample consisted of 969 Spanish adolescents, 554 females (57.2%) and 415 males, ranging from 12 to 17 years old. Families were classified into one of four typologies by their scores on warmth and strictness, and the adolescents were grouped by their aggressiveness (low vs. high). Adolescent adjustment was captured with three self-esteem indicators (emotional, physical, and family) and personal maladjustment with five indicators (negative self-esteem, negative self-adequacy, emotional irresponsiveness, emotional instability, and negative worldview). It was tested main and interaction effects between parenting and aggressiveness considering also sex and age factors. Findings showed that aggressive adolescents always had the worst socialization outcomes (i.e., the lowest self-esteem and the highest personal maladjustment). Aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents have a common pattern: both, indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were always associated with better outcomes than either authoritarian or neglectful parenting, but indulgent parenting style was associated with the best outcomes across all the criteria. In contrast with previous evidence about the idea that parental strictness and imposition might be beneficial to raise aggressive adolescents, present findings highlight the positive impact of parental warmth even with aggressive adolescents. Implications for family interventions were considered


Investigaciones emergentes cuestionan que la severidad parental contribuya al ajuste del adolescente. Este estudio examina si la relación entre los estilos parentales autorizativo (afecto y severidad), autoritario (severidad sin afecto), indulgente (afecto sin severidad) y negligente (ni afecto ni severidad) presenta patrones de ajuste y desajuste iguales o diferentes en adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos. Participaron 969 adolescentes españoles, 554 mujeres (57.2%) y 415 varones, de 12 a 17 años. Las familias se clasificaron en un estilo parental según sus puntuaciones en afecto y severidad y los adolescentes se agruparon por agresividad (baja vs. alta). Se captó el ajuste mediante tres indicadores de autoestima (emocional, física y familiar) y el desajuste personal con cinco indicadores (autoestima negativa, autoeficacia negativa, falta de respuesta emocional, inestabilidad emocional y visión negativa del mundo). Se probaron efectos principales y de interacción para estilos parentales y agresividad, considerando también sexo y edad. Los análisis mostraron que los adolescentes agresivos siempre tenían los peores resultados (i.e., la menor autoestima y el mayor desajuste personal). Los adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos comparten un patrón común: los estilos indulgente y autorizativo siempre se asociaron con mejores resultados que el autoritario o el negligente, pero el estilo indulgente se asoció con los mejores resultados en todos los criterios. A diferencia de estudios previos que consideraban que el rigor y la severidad de los padres podrían ser beneficiosos en hijos agresivos, los presentes resultados resaltan el impacto positivo del afecto parental incluso en adolescentes agresivos. Se consideraron las implicaciones para las intervenciones familiares


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Autoimagem , Características da Família , Relações Pais-Filho , Agressão/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Afeto/classificação , Autoritarismo , Fatores de Risco , Psicometria/instrumentação
11.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S195-S196, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463282

RESUMO

The spread of the COVID-19 disrupted ecological systems in which children develop, exacerbating threats to their safety and increasing their vulnerability to future psychopathology. Supports to reduce sources of stress for caregivers and protect children from threats to their safety are warranted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Educação Infantil , Infecções por Coronavirus , Família , Transtornos Mentais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
13.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 11(2): e1020, 1 de Mayo de 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1118346

RESUMO

Introdução: A Teoria do Cuidado Transpessoal auxilia a compreensão de momentos críticos no processo saúde-doença, como a vivência de uma cirurgia de grande porte. O presente estudo tem por objetivo avaliar a religiosidade e o bem-estar espiritual de pacientes internados no período pré-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca, na perspectiva do Cuidado Transpessoal de Jean Watson. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado entre os meses de janeiro e junho de 2017, nas enfermarias cirúrgicas de hospital universitário cardiológico do Nordeste do Brasil. Foram avaliados 174 participantes no pré-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca, utilizando-se do Índice de Religiosidade de DUKE e a Escala de Bem-Estar Espiritual. Resultados: Os resultados apontaram que os pacientes utilizavam a religiosidade de forma significativa para manterem o bem-estar espiritual no pré-operatório. A análise dos resultados encontrados teve o referencial da teoria do Cuidado Transpessoal de Jean Watson. Discussão e Conclusões: As crises existenciais vivenciadas pelos pacientes diante da cirurgia cardíaca, envolvendo as restrições, mudanças impostas e o desconhecido, impactam na manutenção do bem-estar, na sua dimensão espiritual, que é, em uma análise transpessoal, uma dimensão da saúde integral do individuo.


Introduction: The theory of transpersonal caring is useful in understanding critical moments in the health-disease process such as the experience of major surgery. This study aims to evaluate the religiousness and spiritual well-being of patients hospitalized in the preoperative period of heart surgery from the perspective of Jean Watson's transpersonal caring. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2017 at the surgical wards of a university cardiology hospital in northeastern Brazil. 174 participants were evaluated in the preoperative period of cardiac surgery using the Duke University Religion Index and the Spiritual Well Being Scale. Results: The results showed that patients made significant use of religion to maintain their spiritual well-being in the preoperative period. The analysis of the results found was carried out based on Jean Watson's theory of transpersonal caring. Discussion and conclusion: Existential crisis experienced by patients in the face of cardiac surgery, which involves restrictions, imposed changes and uncertainty, has an impact on the maintenance of well-being and its spiritual dimension which, in a transpersonal analysis, is a dimension of the individual's integral health.


Introducción: La teoría del cuidado transpersonal ayuda a comprender los momentos críticos del proceso de salud-enfermedad, como la experiencia de una cirugía mayor. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la religiosidad y el bienestar espiritual de los pacientes hospitalizados en el período preoperatorio de cirugía cardíaca desde la perspectiva del cuidado transpersonal de Jean Watson. Materiales y métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado entre los meses de enero y junio de 2017 en las salas de cirugía de un hospital universitario de cardiología en el noreste de Brasil. 174 participantes fueron evaluados en el período preoperatorio de cirugía cardíaca mediante el Índice de Religiosidad Duke y la Escala de Bienestar Espiritual. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que los pacientes hicieron un uso significativo de la religión para mantener su bienestar espiritual en el período preoperatorio. El análisis de los resultados encontrados se basó en la teoría del cuidado transpersonal de Jean Watson. Discusión y conclusión: Las crisis existenciales experimentadas por los pacientes frente a la cirugía cardíaca, que implican restricciones, cambios impuestos e incertidumbre, repercuten en el mantenimiento del bienestar y en su dimensión espiritual que, en un análisis transpersonal, es una dimensión de la salud integral del individuo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Enfermagem Perioperatória , Cirurgia Torácica , Teoria de Enfermagem , Educação Infantil , Espiritualidade , Período Pré-Operatório
14.
J Psychol ; 154(5): 325-345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281919

RESUMO

The advancement of technology has led to an increasingly permeable boundary between work and off-work time. As such, employees may face pressure to immediately respond to work-related information and communication technology (ICT) messages during off-work time. This study examines the mediating role of workplace telepressure on the relationships between ICT availability demands with burnout and work-family conflict, as well as the moderating effects of self-regulation on these relationships. Data were collected from 185 full-time employees at two time points. Results indicated full support for the moderated mediation model, demonstrating that workplace telepressure mediated the relationships between ICT availability demands and burnout and work-family conflict. Moreover, dispositional self-regulation strengthened the direct effect of ICT availability demands on workplace telepressure and the indirect effects of ICT availability demands on burnout and work-family conflict. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Família , Personalidade , Autocontrole , Telecomunicações , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Criança , Educação Infantil , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Fractal rev. psicol ; 32(1): 21-30, abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1098261

RESUMO

Trata-se de apresentação de resultados de pesquisa fundamentada na abordagem histórico-cultural, desenvolvida com uma turma de crianças de cinco a seis anos, em uma escola de educação infantil no município de Campinas/SP, e sua respectiva professora. O objetivo foi investigar as possibilidades de desenvolvimento da atenção mediada em crianças através de práticas pedagógicas. O material empírico foi produzido por meio de encontros preparatórios com a professora para a realização de atividades, observação participante durante as atividades desenvolvidas (sete semanas) e entrevistas com a professora, no início, meio e final do período de permanência em campo. O material empírico foi analisado qualitativamente, utilizando-se elementos da abordagem microgenética. Os resultados da pesquisa demonstram que o aprimoramento da mediação e das práticas pedagógicas na educação infantil poderá oferecer maiores contribuições para o desenvolvimento infantil, bem como novas perspectivas para o estudo da atenção mediada ou superior, segundo nomenclatura de L. S. Vigotski.(AU)


It is the presentation of search results based on the cultural- Historical approach, developed with children of five to six years in a school of Early Childhood Education in Campinas/ SP and their respective teacher. The objective was to investigate the possibilities of mediated attention development in children through pedagogical practices. The empirical material was produced by preparatory meetings with the teacher to carry out activities, participant observation during the activities (seven weeks) and interviews with the teacher at the beginning, middle and end of the field in length of stay. The empirical material was analyzed qualitatively, using elements of microgenetic approach. The survey results show that the improvement of mediation and pedagogical practices in early childhood education may offer greater contributions to child development as well as new perspectives for the study of mediated or greater attention, according to nomenclature of L. S. Vygotsky.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Adulto , Atenção , Criança , Educação Infantil
16.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(9): 922-930, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219370

RESUMO

Long-term exposures to the stress and stimulation of different work, parenting, and partnership combinations might influence later life cognition. We investigated the relationship between women's work-family life histories and cognitive functioning in later life. Analyses were based on data from women born between 1930 and 1957 in 14 European countries, from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (2004-2009) (n = 11,908). Multichannel sequence analysis identified 5 distinct work-family typologies based on women's work, partnership, and childrearing statuses between ages 12 and 50 years. Multilevel regressions were used to test the association between work-family histories and later-life cognition. Partnered mothers who mainly worked part-time had the best cognitive function in later life, scoring approximately 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 1.07) points higher than mothers who worked full-time on a 19-point scale. Partnered mothers who were mainly unpaid caregivers or who did other unpaid activities had cognitive scores that were 1.19 (95% CI: 0.49, 1.89) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.20, 1.66) points lower than full-time working mothers. The findings are robust to adjustment for childhood advantage and educational credentials. This study provides new evidence that long-term exposures to certain social role combinations after childhood and schooling are linked to later-life cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Características da Família , Papel (figurativo) , Saúde da Mulher , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Educação Infantil , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Classe Social , Mulheres Trabalhadoras
17.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 13(1): 105-113, jan/mar 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052906

RESUMO

O estudo objetivou analisar a situação vacinal de crianças matriculadas em Centros Municipais de Educação Infantil da Zona Sul de Natal (RN), para as vacinas pneumocócica 10 valentes e meningocócica C. Trata-se de uma pesquisa epidemiológica e retrospectiva de abordagem quantitativa, realizada a partir de levantamento dos dados de 733 cartões de vacina junto aos 15 Centros Municipais de Educação Infantil na Zona Sul de Natal. Para a vacina meningocócica C, 500 (63,75%) crianças apresentaram esquema vacinal completo, 224 (30,64%) esquema vacinal incompleto, 43 (5,61%) não foram imunizadas e 6 (0,78%) falhas de registro. Em relação à vacina pneumocócica 10 valentes, 470 (60,63%) crianças estão com o esquema vacinal completo, 273 (36,88%) esquema incompleto, 19 (2,49%) não foram vacinadas e 11 (1,42%) falhas de registro. Os achados apontam uma situação vacinal abaixo da meta estabelecida pelo Programa Nacional de Imunização.


The vaccine situation of children enrolled in the Municipal Centers of children education in the south zone of Natal, Brazil, is investigated, with regard to meningococcal c and pneumococcal 10 conjugate vaccines. Current epidemiological and retrospective research was undertaken with 733 vaccine charts from 15 Municipal Centers of Children Education in the south zone of Natal, Brazil. In the case of meningococcal C vaccine, 500 (63.75%) of the children had a complete vaccine chart; 224 (30.64%) presented an incomplete one; 43 (5.61%) had not been immunized and 6 (0.78%) presented blacks in the register. In the case of the pneumococcal 10 vaccine, 470 (60.63%) children had a complete vaccine chart; 273 (36.88%) presented an incomplete one; 19 (2.49%) were not immunized and 11 (1.42%) had gaps in the register. Research revealed a vaccine situação lower than average established by the Brazilian Immunization Program.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Imunização , Cobertura Vacinal , Criança , Educação Infantil
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 136, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study tests whether home visitation to prevent child maltreatment can be improved by adding manualized program components, targeting four key risk factors for child maltreatment: low parental self-efficacy, high levels of perceived stress, parental anger, and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Home visitation is widely implemented, but effects on child maltreatment risk tend to be modest at best. Home visitation tends to be rather flexible (i.e., professionals decide how to support each family). We will test whether adding manualized program components increases program effectiveness, by ensuring that key risk factors are addressed, while maintaining flexibility. In addition, we will test whether any component effects on reduced child maltreatment risk can be explained (i.e., is mediated) by ameliorated risk factors. Lastly, we will test whether the components are more effective for some mothers (e.g., those at highest child maltreatment risk) than for others. METHODS: We will conduct a randomized controlled trial among 398 mothers enrolled in a Dutch home visiting program targeting families at risk for child maltreatment. Mothers in the experimental group will receive the manualized components in two consecutive home visits, while mothers in the control group will receive regular home visits (care as usual). Mothers will fill out questionnaires at four time points: before and after each of the two home visits. Outcome variables include the four targeted risk factors parental self-efficacy, perceived stress, parental anger, and (recognition of) post-traumatic stress symptoms, as well as parenting practices (e.g., rejection and affection), and risk for child maltreatment. DISCUSSION: This study aims to determine whether adding manualized program components to a flexible home visiting program increases program effectiveness on risk for child maltreatment. In addition, our test of whether the effects of the components on risk for child maltreatment is explained (i.e., mediated) by amelioration of the targeted risk factors, may contribute to our understanding of the role of these risk factors in child maltreatment. Our tests of which mothers benefit most from adding the components may help move the field towards evidence-based personalized family support. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial has been retrospectively registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NL8005).


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Visita Domiciliar , Mães/psicologia , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Países Baixos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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