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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444004

RESUMO

High treatment attrition and limited reach of mental health services for at-risk families remains an important problem in order to effectively address the global concern of child maltreatment and child disruptive behavior problems. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a home-based and time-limited adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Twenty families with children (70% boys) aged between three and seven years were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment group (IT, n = 10) or a waitlist control group (WL, n = 10). After receiving treatment and compared to mothers in the WL group, mothers in the IT group reported fewer child behavior problems and more improved parenting skills. Although initial analyses revealed no significant differences, additional analyses showed a significant decrease in the primary outcome of the study, namely child abuse potential, between the baseline and follow-up assessment for the total treated sample. A low treatment attrition rate (15%) was found, indicating higher accessibility of treatment for families. Findings suggest that the brief home-based PCIT is a potentially effective intervention to prevent child maltreatment and disruptive behavior problems in at-risk families. Results also reinforce the importance of addressing the specific needs of these families to increase treatment effectiveness.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Educação Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar
2.
Lancet ; 398(10297): 355-364, 2021 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197808

RESUMO

Physical punishment is increasingly viewed as a form of violence that harms children. This narrative review summarises the findings of 69 prospective longitudinal studies to inform practitioners and policy makers about physical punishment's outcomes. Our review identified seven key themes. First, physical punishment consistently predicts increases in child behaviour problems over time. Second, physical punishment is not associated with positive outcomes over time. Third, physical punishment increases the risk of involvement with child protective services. Fourth, the only evidence of children eliciting physical punishment is for externalising behaviour. Fifth, physical punishment predicts worsening behaviour over time in quasi-experimental studies. Sixth, associations between physical punishment and detrimental child outcomes are robust across child and parent characteristics. Finally, there is some evidence of a dose-response relationship. The consistency of these findings indicates that physical punishment is harmful to children and that policy remedies are warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Punição/psicologia , Criança , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Humanos
3.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(10): 2079-2095, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259955

RESUMO

Ample evidence suggested that parental responsiveness, demandingness, and autonomy granting protect adolescents from depressive symptoms. However, what is less well understood is how parenting practices reduce the risk of depressive symptoms. This study tested the protective effects of parenting practices and inhibitory control on depressive symptoms, along with the mediating role of inhibitory control and the moderating role of the COMT gene in linking parenting practices to depressive symptoms. The study utilized cross-sectional data from a community sample of Chinese Han adolescents (N = 943, Mage = 15.25 years, SD = 0.70 years; 51.9% girls). Results showed that parental responsiveness and autonomy granting promoted higher inhibitory control, which in turn was associated with lower depressive symptoms. Further, the mediation effects were moderated by the COMT gene. For adolescents with ValVal homozygotes, both responsiveness and autonomy granting were related to higher levels of inhibitory control, which reduced risk for depressive symptoms, but the mediation effects were not observed among Met allele carriers. The mediating role of inhibitory control did not hold in the parental demandingness model. Findings support the cognitive theory that inhibitory control is a proximal factor linking parenting practices to depressive symptoms exclusively in ValVal homozygotes. These results also suggested that differentiating different dimensions of parenting practices may help to further clarify the processes by which parenting practices eventuate depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Catecol O-Metiltransferase , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Criança , Educação Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299807

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine associations between screen time (ST) parenting practices and 2-5-year-old children's TV viewing and weight status. Data were collected from 252 parent-child dyads enrolled in a randomized parent-focused childhood obesity prevention trial from 2009-2012. ST parenting practices were assessed at baseline using a validated parent-reported survey. Parent-reported child TV viewing and objectively measured anthropometrics were assessed at baseline, post-intervention (35 weeks), and follow-up (59 weeks). Marginal effect models were developed to test the association between baseline ST parenting practices and children's TV viewing, BMI z-score, and waist circumference across all time points. Limiting/monitoring ST was associated with decreased weekly TV viewing (ß = -1.79, 95% CI: -2.61; -0.95), while exposure to TV was associated with more weekly TV viewing over 59 weeks (ß = 1.23, 95% CI: 0.71; 1.75). Greater parent use of ST as a reward was associated with increased child BMI z-score (ß = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03; 0.27), while limiting/monitoring ST was associated with decreased BMI z-score (ß = -0.16, 95% CI: -0.30; -0.01) and smaller waist circumference (ß = -0.55, 95% CI: -1.04; -0.06) over the study period. These findings suggest that modifying parent ST practices may be an important strategy to reduce ST and promote healthy weight in young children.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Tempo de Tela , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Educação Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Poder Familiar , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Televisão
5.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064826

RESUMO

Parental involvement is an essential component of obesity prevention interventions for children. The present study provides a process and impact evaluation of the family component of SuperFIT. SuperFIT is a comprehensive, integrated intervention approach aiming to improve energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) of young children (2-4 years). A mixed methods design combined in-depth interviews with parents (n = 15) and implementers (n = 3) with questionnaire data on nutritional and physical activity-related parenting practices (CFPQ and PPAPP), the physical home environment (EPAO_SR) (n = 41), and intervention appreciation (n = 19). Results were structured using the concepts of reach, adoption, implementation, and perceived impact. Findings indicated that the families reached were mostly those that were already interested in the topic. Participants of the intervention appreciated the information received and the on-the-spot guidance on their child's behavior. Having fun was considered a success factor within the intervention. Parents expressed the additional need for peer-to-peer discussion. SuperFIT increased awareness and understanding of parents' own behavior. Parents made no changes in daily life routines or the physical home environment. Translating knowledge and learned strategies into behavior at home has yet to be achieved. To optimize impact, intervention developers should find the right balance between accessibility, content, and intensity of interventions for parents.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comportamento Infantil , Educação Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Appetite ; 166: 105433, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087257

RESUMO

Past research has mainly focused on the links between child eating behaviors and maternal food practices. The impact of fathers and of concordant/discordant food parenting practices within families has received much less attention. To fill this gap, both parents of 105 French children aged 2.01-6.51 years (54 boys, Mage = 3.88 years, SD = 1.40) filled in a survey with items from validated questionnaires. Results showed that fathers and mothers perceived their child's eating behaviors in similar ways (Pearson correlations between 0.34 and 0.78; M = 0.60), despite mothers taking significantly more meals with their child than fathers. Fathers reported using significantly more pressure to eat and food as reward, but reported lower levels of "family meal setting" than mothers. Moderate to high correlations were observed between mothers' and fathers' feeding practices and styles. Regression analyses showed that both maternal and paternal practices and styles were predictors for child eating behaviors. One interaction effect was observed: in households where both parents used higher levels of pressure to eat, the child showed a significantly lower food enjoyment than expected if the effects were additive. Our findings underline the importance of studying the individual role of each parent in child feeding research and that both parents within families should avoid using coercive practices. This could finally stimulate new interventions and recommendations addressed to both parents.


Assuntos
Pai , Mães , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Educação Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Fam Syst Health ; 39(1): 7-18, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: For implementation of an evidence-based program to be effective, efficient, and equitable across diverse populations, we propose that researchers adopt a systems approach that is often absent in efficacy studies. To this end, we describe how a computer-based monitoring system can support the delivery of the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a parent-focused evidence-based prevention program for divorcing parents. METHOD: We present NBP from a novel systems approach that incorporates social system informatics and engineering, both necessary when utilizing feedback loops, ubiquitous in implementation research and practice. Examples of two methodological challenges are presented: how to monitor implementation, and how to provide feedback by evaluating system-level changes due to implementation. RESULTS: We introduce and relate systems concepts to these two methodologic issues that are at the center of implementation methods. We explore how these system-level feedback loops address effectiveness, efficiency, and equity principles. These key principles are provided for designing an automated, low-burden, low-intrusive measurement system to aid fidelity monitoring and feedback that can be used in practice. DISCUSSION: As the COVID-19 pandemic now demands fewer face-to-face delivery systems, their replacement with more virtual systems for parent training interventions requires constructing new implementation measurement systems based on social system informatics approaches. These approaches include the automatic monitoring of quality and fidelity in parent training interventions. Finally, we present parallels of producing generalizable and local knowledge bridging systems science and engineering method. This comparison improves our understanding of system-level changes, facilitates a program's implementation, and produces knowledge for the field. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Informática Aplicada à Saúde dos Consumidores , Divórcio , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/métodos , Poder Familiar , Pais/educação , Adulto , COVID-19 , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Educação Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Salud Colect ; 17: e3303, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905624

RESUMO

As the COVID-19 pandemic has made visible, childhood is the virus's proverbial south: a world where care is not a value chosen from a place of desire, and where children's voices are silenced at the hands of an ancestral epistemic injustice. Thus, the transformation that human societies are undergoing due to COVID-19 has significantly impacted the rights of children, both at the micro and the macro levels. In Spain - a country that has been particularly hard-hit by the pandemic - we find that both infancy (especially through obstetric violence) and childhood at all its stages fall victim to an adultcentric paradigm based on control and epistemic injustice. This essay analyzes and discusses some of the negative consequences observed in this country related to the care for and the confinement of minors and their families - which has occurred as a result of the pandemic - and considers that the crisis triggered by COVID-19 may be an opportunity to shed light on situations of ancestral injustice towards children.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Saúde da Criança , Proteção da Criança , Direitos Humanos , Distanciamento Físico , Quarentena , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Educação Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Poder Psicológico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Violência
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923994

RESUMO

Development of psychosocial maturity has profound implications for youths' well-being and positive development in the long run. Nevertheless, little research has investigated the way family socialization contributes to youths' psychosocial maturity. Both the concepts of family socialization and psychosocial maturity are multifaceted and latent, which may lead to biased results if studied by manifest variables. Also, no existing research has discovered how different family socialization components interact latently to contribute to youths' psychosocial maturity. The current study, based on a sample of 533 Chinese parent-youth dyads, examined the effects of family socialization by positive family processes and authoritative parenting, and their latent interaction in an integrated moderation and mediation modeling framework on Chinese youths' psychosocial maturity. Results showed that both positive family processes and authoritative parenting, and their latent interaction significantly predicted the higher psychosocial maturity of Chinese youths. Authoritative parenting acted as a mediator for the relationship between positive family processes and Chinese youths' psychosocial maturity. Furthermore, the mediating effect of authoritative parenting was conditioned by different contexts of positive family processes, the strongest and least strong effects found in high and low positive family processes, respectively, and moderate effect observed in medium positive family processes. Findings of the current study contribute to our understanding of the complicated family mechanism in relation to youth development, especially in this digital era.


Assuntos
Análise de Mediação , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Criança , Educação Infantil , China , Humanos , Socialização
10.
Child Maltreat ; 26(3): 255-266, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate household exposure to COVID-19 related stress and the association with parent report of neglectful, harsh, and positive discipline practices. METHODS: Cross sectional survey data was collected from 2,068 parents in the Northeastern US. Parents reported personal and household experiences of COVID-19 stressors, their level of distress, and use of neglectful parenting and discipline practices for a randomly selected child in their home. Analyses estimated rates of COVID-19 related stress and parenting practices. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation of COVID-19 stress to parenting behaviors. RESULTS: Individual and household stressor level, as well as distress were each positively associated with likelihood of neglect. Personal exposure to stressors was minimally related to discipline, but household stressor level and parents' distress were positively associated with harsh and positive discipline. DISCUSSION: Indicators of COVID-19 stress (e.g., exposure to stressors and distress) each uniquely predicted parents' use of neglect, particularly physical and family-based sub-types, and use of harsh and positive discipline practices. Results suggest that parents may require additional support to provide appropriate care for their children while coping with the increased rates of stress associated with the pandemic and the resulting public health response.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Pais/psicologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669821

RESUMO

There is a shortage of dental hygienists for dental clinics in Japan. An ideal solution would be for dormant dental hygienists to re-enter the workforce. In this study, we identified the obstacles preventing these dental hygienists from re-entering the workforce. The Japan Dental Hygienists' Association surveyed all 16,113 members about their working conditions. Among the 101 items in the questionnaire, 11 items specifically targeted the reasons why dental hygienists leave their jobs. Among 8780 responses (54.5%), 1063 were from members who had resigned from jobs as dental hygienists. Three hundred and fifty-five (34.4%) answered "Yes" to the question "I would like to return to work if conditions are satisfactory." The most frequent cause for leaving a job was" Childbirth and child-rearing" (16.9%). "Working status/working hours" (15.7%) was the main obstacle to re-entry. Furthermore, dental hygienists with intentions to re-enter decided to leave their jobs most frequently because of "Childbirth and child-rearing" and "Working status/working hours." Improvement of the social support system for dental hygienists is required to ensure a sufficient supply of dental health services.


Assuntos
Educação Infantil , Higienistas Dentários , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(3): 0-0, nov.-feb. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201278

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores asociados a una baja adherencia de un programa de habilidades parentales. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en una muestra por conveniencia de 624 personas entre 2017 y 2018 en Barcelona. Se definió como baja adherencia acudir a menos del 70% del total de sesiones del programa. Se ajustaron modelos de regresiones logísticas multinivel y se examinaron variables sociodemográficas, del programa y de las profesionales secuencialmente para determinar los factores asociados. RESULTADOS: Un 35% de los participantes no cumplió con la asistencia mínima establecida. La adherencia aumenta cuando la institución que lidera la intervención pertenece a servicios de salud, la intervención se realiza por la mañana y las profesionales tienen experiencia en el trabajo con familias. CONCLUSIONES: La adherencia se asocia a factores del programa y de las profesionales. Se deberían seguir invirtiendo esfuerzos en mejorarla haciendo énfasis en la correcta recogida y monitorización de los datos sobre la asistencia, que permitan ampliar la investigación en este ámbito


OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with low adherence to a parental skills programme. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 624 people between 2017 and 2018 in Barcelona. Low adherence was defined as lower than 70% attendance at all established sessions. Multilevel logistic regression model were performed. Sociodemographic, programme and professional variables were sequentially examined to determine which factors were associated with non-adherence. RESULTS: A total of 35% of participants did not meet the minimum attendance requirement. Adherence increased when the institution that led the intervention belonged to health services, when the intervention was held in the morning and when professionals had experience working with families. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence is associated with both programme and professional factors. Further efforts should be made to improve the programme. Special emphasis should be placed on correct collection and monitoring of data on attendance, which would facilitate further research in this area


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Poder Familiar , Educação Infantil , Características da Família , Estudos Transversais , Participação da Comunidade , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Relações Familiares , Apoio Social
14.
Psychol Assess ; 33(3): e1-e12, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475401

RESUMO

Parenting practices have been linked to a wide range of issues related to children's psychological adjustment; however, more research is warranted to further understand not only cultural variations of parenting norms, but also how such variations might differentially influence child outcomes. The current study examined the psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Parenting Scale (MAPS) in order to: (a) assess both positive and negative dimensions of parenting in Chinese-speaking societies and (b) to explore the association between these practices and children's psychopathological symptoms. A total of 2,237 parents with children between 6 and 12 years old completed the MAPS, Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P), adapted Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and other measures related to children's psychosocial functioning. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) revealed a clear six-factor structure. Strong to strict measurement invariance for child gender, parent gender, and child age were found. The results demonstrated adequate psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. MAPS subscales also showed concurrent and convergent validity with mindful parenting, parent-child bonding, and children's psychopathology outcomes. The Chinese version of the MAPS will help facilitate multidimensional parenting research in Chinese-speaking societies and promote future cross-cultural studies examining the effect of positive and negative parenting on children's psychopathological adjustment. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Educação Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Psicometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , China , Comparação Transcultural , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções
15.
Child Dev ; 92(2): 626-637, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416202

RESUMO

This study examined the theory of change of the ACT Raising Safe Kids parenting program, including whether intervention effects on children's behavior problems were explained by improvements in mothers' reported parenting practices, as well as whether baseline child behavior problems moderated these relations. Adult mothers of 3-to 8-year-old Brazilian children were assigned to the intervention (n = 97) or control (n = 46) groups. Results showed that the intervention improved mothers' perceptions of their parenting practices (positive discipline, emotional and behavioral regulation, and communication). Intervention-induced reductions in children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were mediated by improvements in mothers' emotional and behavioral regulation. Program effects were strongest for children with high levels of baseline behavior problems.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/prevenção & controle , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/educação , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Child Dev ; 92(2): 554-577, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511634

RESUMO

In a series of meta-analyses, paternal sensitivity was associated with children's (age range: 7 months-9 years) overall cognitive functioning (N = 3,193; k = 23; r = .19), including language skills (k = 9; r = .21), cognitive ability (k = 9; r = .18), and executive function (k = 8; r = .19). Paternal sensitivity was not associated with children's overall socioemotional functioning (N = 2,924; k = 24; r = -.03) or internalizing problems, but it was associated with children's emotion regulation (k = 7; r = .22) and externalizing problems (k = 19; r = -.08). In the broad cognitive functioning, executive function, broad socioemotional functioning, and externalizing problems meta-analyses, child age was a significant moderator.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Função Executiva , Relações Pai-Filho , Controle Interno-Externo , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Aptidão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
17.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 49(2): 134-143, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428461

RESUMO

Objective: Psychoeducational parent training is an economic way to provide care for parents of children newly diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study explores pre-post effect sizes of the manualized autism-specific parent training FAUT-E (Frankfurter Autismus-Elterntraining). Method: Two behaviorally trained therapists worked with 6-10 parents in eight group sessions. Twenty-four parents of 24 children with ASD participated in the study. Outcomes were child- and parent-related measures obtained at T0 (first measurement), T1 (second measurement), T2 (postintervention), and T3 (3 months after intervention). Results: Children showed improved behavior in the parent-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) total score after therapy (p = .001; ES T1T2 = .73) and at T3 (p = .018; ES T1-T3 = -.51), and a lower intensity of parent-rated problem behavior at T3 (p = .031; ES T1-T3 = -.46). Parental measures did not change. Conclusions: This study found medium pre-post effects on the child's behavior by FAUT-E between T1 and T2/T3; these were not observed between the measurements T0-T1. FAUT-E was easy to implement and did not increase parental stress. This is in line with results of studies on other training programs to teach parents to use effective behavioral strategies with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Fardo do Cuidador/psicologia , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Educação em Saúde , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Comportamento Problema
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(1): 357-371, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025876

RESUMO

Poor food hygiene practices, child feces not being disposed of in a latrine, child mouthing of contaminated fomites, and poor hand hygiene of caregivers have been associated with diarrheal diseases, environmental enteropathy, and impaired growth in young children. Mobile health (mHealth) programs present a low-cost approach to delivering water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs. We conducted a theory-driven and evidence-based approach to formative research and intervention development to design and pilot test a Baby WASH mHealth program targeting food hygiene, child mouthing, and child feces disposal behaviors in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. Formative research activities included 31 semi-structured interviews, five group discussions, six mHealth workshops, and a three-phase iterative pilot study among 102 households. Findings from semi-structured interviews and group discussions indicate that caregivers of young children have relatively high awareness of the need for safer food hygiene, child mouthing, and child feces disposal practices, but are limited by existing household responsibilities and restricted access to enabling technology that would facilitate practicing recommended behaviors. The piloted Baby WASH mHealth program was well-received by households. This study presents a theory-driven and evidence-based approach for intervention development that can be implemented for the development of future WASH mHealth programs in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Higiene , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Saneamento , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Bangladesh , Educação Infantil , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Culinária , Características da Família , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Projetos Piloto
19.
J Urol ; 205(2): 570-576, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924749

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the impact of psychological intervention with parents of children with enuresis on treatment outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 66 children with enuresis were randomized into 2 groups. All children received urotherapy orientation and psychological counseling. Psychological intervention was performed with parents in the experimental group and not in the control group. All parents answered a questionnaire to evaluate violence against their children (Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale) and the Tolerance Scale. The Child Behavior Checklist was applied to evaluate behavior problems. Children responded to the Impact Scale and the Children and Youth Self-Concept Scale. Treatment results were assessed with a 14-day wet night diary. RESULTS: Mean age and gender were similar in both groups. Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale showed less violence after the treatment in the experimental group (p=0.007). The Tolerance Scale indicated that parents of children with enuresis were intolerant and that, after treatment, intolerance had a greater decrease in the experimental group (p <0.001). The Impact Scale showed that children suffer some impact from enuresis, and that in those in the experimental group this impact was smaller after treatment (p=0.008). No differences were seen in the Child Behavior Checklist or Children and Youth Self-Concept Scale after intervention. After treatment the percentage of dry nights had a greater improvement in the experimental group (52%, range 30% to 91%) than in the control group (10%, range 3% to 22.5%; p <0.001). Children in the experimental group had a 6.75 times greater chance of having a complete response to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological intervention with parents of children with enuresis during their treatment improved the percentage of dry nights and the impact of enuresis, while their parents started coping better with the problem and became more tolerant, reducing punishment toward their children.


Assuntos
Educação Infantil , Enurese/terapia , Pais/psicologia , Intervenção Psicossocial , Punição , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 55: e20210025, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1287903

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the early childhood education teachers' knowledge about first aid before and after the participation in an educational action. Method: Quantitative research with a quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design, carried out with 45 teachers from four early childhood education schools. For data collection, an instrument with questions regarding the characterization of the participants and knowledge about first aid was used. Data were analyzed through statistical techniques, using the Shapiro Wilk and Wilcoxon tests. Results: There was an increase in the number of correct answers to the questions and improvement regarding grades, with an increase in the score from pre- to post-test by 5.17 points and with a significant comparison of sums. Conclusion: Carrying out educational actions on first aid increases the knowledge of early childhood education teachers on the subject and the nurses' role as health educators is highlighted.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Averiguar el conocimiento de los profesores de la educación infantil sobre los primeros auxilios antes y después de la participación en la acción educativa. Método: investigación cuantitativa con delineación casi experimental del tipo pre y post-test, realizado con 45 profesores de cuatro escuelas de educación infantil. Se utilizó para recolección de datos un instrumento con cuestiones referentes a la caracterización de los participantes y al conocimiento sobre los primeros auxilios. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de técnicas de estadística, por lo que se realizaron el test de Shapiro Wilk y de Wilcoxon. Resultados: hubo aumento en el número de cuestiones correctas y mejora en relación a los conceptos, con aumento en la puntuación del pre para el post-test en 5,17 puntos y con la comparación de las sumas significativa. Conclusión: la realización de acciones educativas sobre primeros auxilios aumenta el conocimiento de profesores de la educación infantil sobre el tema y los enfermeros poseen destaque en la actuación como educadores en Salud.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar o conhecimento dos professores da educação infantil sobre os primeiros socorros antes e após a participação na ação educativa. Método: pesquisa quantitativa com delineamento quase-experimental do tipo pré e pós-teste, realizado com 45 professores de quatros escolas de educação infantil. Utilizou-se para coleta de dados um instrumento com questões referentes à caracterização dos participantes e ao conhecimento sobre os primeiros socorros. Os dados foram analisados por meio de técnicas de estatística, sendo realizado o teste de Shapiro Wilk e de Wilcoxon. Resultados: houve aumento no número de acertos das questões e melhora em relação aos conceitos, com aumento na pontuação do pré para o pós-teste em 5,17 pontos e com a comparação das somas significativa. Conclusão: a realização de ações educativas sobre primeiros socorros aumenta o conhecimento de professores da educação infantil sobre o tema e os enfermeiros possuem destaque na atuação como educadores em saúde.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Enfermagem , Primeiros Socorros , Educação Infantil
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