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1.
N Engl J Med ; 382(8): 717-726, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of hypertension is escalating, and control rates are poor in low- and middle-income countries. Cardiovascular mortality is high in rural areas. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized, controlled trial in rural districts in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. A total of 30 communities were randomly assigned to either a multicomponent intervention (intervention group) or usual care (control group). The intervention involved home visits by trained government community health workers for blood-pressure monitoring and counseling, training of physicians, and care coordination in the public sector. A total of 2645 adults with hypertension were enrolled. The primary outcome was reduction in systolic blood pressure at 24 months. Follow-up at 24 months was completed for more than 90% of the participants. RESULTS: At baseline, the mean systolic blood pressure was 146.7 mm Hg in the intervention group and 144.7 mm Hg in the control group. At 24 months, the mean systolic blood pressure fell by 9.0 mm Hg in the intervention group and by 3.9 mm Hg in the control group; the mean reduction was 5.2 mm Hg greater with the intervention (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2 to 7.1; P<0.001). The mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure was 2.8 mm Hg greater in the intervention group than in the control group (95% CI, 1.7 to 3.9). Blood-pressure control (<140/90 mm Hg) was achieved in 53.2% of the participants in the intervention group, as compared with 43.7% of those in the control group (relative risk, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.35). All-cause mortality was 2.9% in the intervention group and 4.3% in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In rural communities in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, a multicomponent intervention that was centered on proactive home visits by trained government community health workers who were linked with existing public health care infrastructure led to a greater reduction in blood pressure than usual care among adults with hypertension. (Funded by the Joint Global Health Trials scheme; COBRA-BPS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02657746.).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Visita Domiciliar , Hipertensão/terapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Idoso , Ásia Ocidental , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Lista de Checagem , Países em Desenvolvimento , Educação Médica Continuada , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prática de Saúde Pública , População Rural
4.
Acad Med ; 95(2): 190-193, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464735

RESUMO

Through site visits to 42 teaching clinics associated with family and internal medicine residency programs during 2013-2018, the authors observed a spectrum of faculty involvement. In this Perspective, they describe and share examples of the 3 faculty models they identified. Some programs have a small, focused faculty whose members spend at least 5 half-day sessions per week seeing patients or precepting residents in the clinic. Others have a large, dispersed faculty with many faculty physicians who spend 1 or 2 half-day sessions per week in the clinic. Some use a hybrid model with a small focused faculty group plus other faculty with little clinic time. The dispersed model was observed only in university-based residencies, and the focused faculty model was commonly seen in community-based residencies. While faculty in both settings must juggle multiple responsibilities, several studies have confirmed the value of having faculty committed to ambulatory care and teaching. In site visit interviews, clinic leaders indicated focused faculty play an important role in teaching clinics by championing clinic improvement, improving continuity of care, and enhancing the resident experience. Faculty physicians who spend substantial time in the clinic know the residents' patients, provide greater continuity of care, anchor clinic teams, and coordinate coverage for residents when they are on other rotations. Clinic and residency program leaders generally favored a shift toward a focused or hybrid model. The authors view the hybrid model as a practical way to balance the challenges of having a focused faculty with the multiple responsibilities facing university- and community-based faculty.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina/organização & administração , Medicina Interna/educação , Educação Médica Continuada , Grupos Focais , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Atenção Primária à Saúde
5.
J Surg Res ; 246: 499-505, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical coaching is an emerging concept of education and collaboration to improve surgical performance. Surgical education in low-resource settings remains a challenge because of confounding barriers of access, resources, and sustainability. No formal assessments of coaching as a means to improve surgical quality in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) exist. The purpose of this review is to explore if surgical coaching could serve as an effective method of fostering continued education and advancement of surgical skills in low-resource settings. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search in July 2018. Included studies were peer-reviewed and met preestablished study criteria. Studies must have assessed surgical coaching, specifically defined as a means to establish continuous professional growth of trainees and practicing surgeons. RESULTS: Of 2189 articles, 175 were selected for full-text analysis, 23 met inclusion criteria for analysis, 13 of these 23 articles evaluated coaching of trainees, 10 articles assessed coaching surgeons in established careers. 18 of the 23 articles discussed skill acquisition, 4 of which assessed nontechnical skills alone, and 14 assessed technical skills or both technical and nontechnical skills. Remote or cross-institutional coaching was explored in 8 of the 23 studies. None of the studies discussed or evaluated coaching in LMICs. CONCLUSIONS: Coaching is a method of teaching surgeons at multiple stages of a career. The explored advantages of surgical coaching may be applied to continuous performance improvement and collaboration with surgeons in LMICs. Furthermore, coaching may aid in advancement of the well-established Lancet Global Surgery Indicators, improving surgical capacity and quality in LMICs.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Cooperação Internacional , Tutoria , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/educação , Cirurgiões/educação , Competência Clínica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Saúde Global , Humanos
6.
Clin Biochem ; 76: 1-4, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We describe the implementation of an Alberta-wide intervention aimed at educating clinicians about redundant vitamin B12 testing. We hypothesized that the introduction of an educational comment outlining recommended vitamin B12 test intervals would reduce the annual number of vitamin B12 tests performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional observational study that included all vitamin B12 tests ordered in Alberta between May 1, 2017 and April 30, 2018. An educational comment was appended to all vitamin B12 test results in Alberta beginning May 2, 2017. Using a simple seasonal model, we compared predicted versus observed vitamin B12 test volumes for the 12-month period following the introduction of the educational comment. The sole outcome measured was the monthly change in volume of vitamin B12 testing. A cost-analysis of the effects of the intervention on test volumes was also performed. RESULTS: Over the sum of the first 12 months of the intervention, 18,000 more vitamin B12 tests were ordered compared to the predicted value in Alberta. With an estimated cost of $7 per test, this resulted in a $126,000 increase in costs for vitamin B12 testing provincially. CONCLUSIONS: An educational intervention aimed at limiting inappropriate vitamin B12 testing in Alberta did not alter testing as desired. Multiple utilization management strategies and a longer observation period may be needed to reduce redundant vitamin B12 testing.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada/organização & administração , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Alberta , Estudos Transversais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Med Educ Online ; 25(1): 1694308, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747854

RESUMO

Background: Industry funding in continuing medical education has been extensively studied in the USA. Although continuing medical education is also a requirement for Chinese physicians, little is known about Chinese physician perceptions of industry support in continuing medical education.Objective: We aim to determine perceptions regarding industry support for CME among Chinese physicians at a large CME course, examine potential associations between Chinese physicians' perceptions and their demographic characteristics, and compare Chinese and US physicians' perceptions of industry support for CME.Design: We performed a cross-sectional survey of physicians at a nephrology continuing medical education conference in China. All participants received a previously published, anonymous survey consisting of 4 items, with questions asked in English and Mandarin Chinese. Responses were compared with those of a previous cohort in the USA.Results: The response rate was 24% (128/541). Most respondents were nephrologists (112/126, 89%), women (91/128, 71%), and aged 20 to 40 years (79/127, 62%). Most respondents preferred industry-supported continuing medical education (84/123, 68%) or had no preference (33/123, 27%). More clinicians than clinical researchers supported industry offsetting costs (76.9% vs 58.3%; P = .03). Almost half of participants (58/125, 46%) stated that industry-supported continuing medical education was biased in support of industry. Compared with US physicians, Chinese physicians were more likely to believe, or had no opinion, that industry-supported courses were biased (67.2% vs 47.0%; P < .001).Conclusions: Chinese continuing medical education participants preferred industry-sponsored continuing medical education and were strongly in favor of industry offsetting costs, but almost half believed that such education was biased in favor of supporting companies. Concern for bias was higher among Chinese than US physicians. Given participants' concerns, further study examining industry bias in Chinese continuing medical education is recommended.Abbreviations: CME: Continuing medical education; US: USA.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(12): 2501-2509, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806103

RESUMO

Clinicians in today's health care environment face an overwhelming quantity of knowledge that requires continued education and lifelong learning. However, traditional continuing medical education (CME) courses cannot meet these educational needs, particularly given the proliferation of knowledge and increasing demands on clinicians' time and resources. CME courses that previously offered only in-person, face-to-face education must evolve in a learner-centric manner founded on principles of adult learning theory to remain relevant in the current era. In this article, we describe the transition of the Mayo Clinic Cardiovascular Review for Cardiology Boards and Recertification (CVBR) from a traditional course with only live content to a course integrating live, online, and enduring materials. This evolution has required leveraging technology to maximize learner engagement, offering faculty development to ensure content alignment with learner needs, and strong leadership dedicated to providing learners an unparalleled educational experience. Despite stagnation in growth of the traditional live course, these changes have increased the overall reach of the Mayo Clinic CVBR. Learners engaging with digital content have demonstrated larger increases in knowledge with less educational time commitment. Courses seeking to implement similar changes must develop formal learning objectives focused on learner needs, build an online presence that includes an assessment of learner knowledge, enlist a cohort of dedicated faculty who teach based on principles of adult learning theory, and perpetually refresh educational content based on learner feedback and performance. Following these principles will allow traditional CME courses to thrive despite learners' resource constraints and alternative means to access information.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Educação Médica Continuada/organização & administração , Humanos
9.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(8): 1059-1066, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuing education is essential for health professions and online courses can be a good way for professional development. AIM: To describe the experience with online courses for continuing education in hepatology and gastroenterology and to analyze their educational impact. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A three years' experience in courses on liver diseases and digestive tract is described. Their curricular design, methodology, and the educational impact was analyzed using the four levels of the Kirkpatrick's model. RESULTS: On average, there were 321 students per course (2015-2017). 94% were Chilean and 6% from abroad (20 countries). In the educational impact analysis, in level 1 "reaction": 93% said that the course fulfilled their expectations and 92% would recommend it. In level 2 "learning": 42% approved the courses. Level 3 "behavior" was not evaluated and level 4 "organizational change" highlighted that the traditional face-to-face continuing education model of Chilean Gastroenterology Society (SChG) changed to full distance model in these three courses, with 1284 students from South America, Asia and Europe, in a 3-years-period. Additionally, these programs were included in the Medical Society of Santiago (SMS) continuing education agenda. CONCLUSIONS: The alliance between the SMS and the SChG generated on line courses that meet the educational needs of physicians and medical students, with excellent results and student perception.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância/métodos , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Gastroenterologia/educação , Chile , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sociedades Médicas , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This article is the second of a 2-part series examining results regarding self-reported learning and practice change from the American Board of Pediatrics 2017 pilot of an alternative to the proctored, continuing certification examination, termed the Maintenance of Certification Assessment for Pediatrics (MOCA-Peds). Because of its design, MOCA-Peds has several learning advantages compared with the proctored examination. METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative analyses with 5081 eligible pediatricians who registered to participate in the 2017 pilot; 81.4% (n = 4016) completed a quarter 4 survey and/or the end-of-year survey (January 2018) and compose the analytic sample. RESULTS: Nearly all (97.6%) participating pediatricians said they had learned, refreshed, or enhanced their medical knowledge, and of those, 62.0% had made a practice change related to pilot participation. Differences were noted on the basis of subspecialty status, with 68.9% of general pediatricians having made a practice change compared with 41.4% of subspecialists. Within the 1456 open-ended responses about participants' most significant practice change, responses ranged widely, including both medical care content (eg, "care for corneal abrasions altered," "better inform patients about. . .flu vaccine") and nonspecific content (eg, providing better patient education, using evidence-based medicine, increased use of resources in regular practice). CONCLUSIONS: As a proctored examination alternative, MOCA-Peds positively influenced self-reported learning and practice change. In future evaluation of MOCA-Peds and other medical longitudinal assessments, researchers should study ways to further encourage learning and practice change and sustainability.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Certificação/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Educação Médica Continuada/normas , Aprendizagem , Pediatras/normas , Adulto , Certificação/métodos , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pediatras/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Z Orthop Unfall ; 157(5): 574-596, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594004

RESUMO

The basis for assessing thoracolumbar vertebral body fractures are two established classification systems. Important, especially in terms of further treatment, is the distinction between osteoporotic and healthy bones. The AO Spine classification offers a comprehensive tool for healthy bones to reliably specify the morphological criterias (alignment, integrity of the intervertebral disc, fragment separation, stenosis of the spinal canal). In addition to the fracture morphology, the OF classification for osteoporotic fractures includes patient-specific characteristics to initiate adequate therapy. In general an adequate pain therapy is required for early rehabilitation. While in the bone healthy population, physiotherapy reduces the risk of muscle deconditioning, in the osteoporotic population it additionally serves to prevent subsequent fractures. Unlike osteoporotic patients, bone healthy patients with vertebral fractures should not undergo a corset/orthosis treatment.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Vértebras Lombares/lesões , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Vértebras Torácicas/lesões , Educação Médica Continuada , Fraturas por Compressão/terapia , Humanos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/classificação , Fraturas por Osteoporose/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/classificação , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/classificação , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 147-148: 20-27, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623979

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a complex educational intervention to improve the diagnostic competencies of general practitioners (GPs) regarding the detection of depression, anxiety and somatization. METHODS: Cluster-randomized controlled pilot study with six practices each in the intervention group and in the control group. Psychological morbidity was determined by patient self-report using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-D). GPs rated the extent of psychological morbidity on a numerical rating scale from 0 (no co-morbidity) to 10 (maximum) of the individual patient after the consultation, independent of the reason for encounter. RESULTS: 364 patients participated. There were moderate correlations between GP rating and the PHQ scales (Spearman correlation between 0.27 and 0.42). There was no significant difference between intervention and control group. Diagnostic accuracy of the GPs, as determined with areas under the curves (AUCs), ranged between 0.52 (95%KI 0.30-0.73) and 0.84 (95%KI 0.67-1.00). The AUCs showed significant heterogeneity (Cochran Q=25.0; p<0.01). The regression analysis with 'presence of psychological disorder' (in PHQ) as the dependent variable showed that longer duration of doctor-patient-relationship was negatively associated with psychological morbidity (OR 0.96; 95%KI 0.92-0.99; p=0.01). There was a significant interaction between the factors 'time of doctor-patient relationship' and 'GP rating' (ß=0.02; OR 1.02, 95%KI 1.01-1.03; p<0.001), pointing towards increasing diagnostic accuracy when patients are known for a longer time. DISCUSSION: We found no significant effect regarding the educational intervention. The GPs' estimation regarding psychological morbidity correlated significantly with the self-rating of the patients on PHQ scales. However, there was a considerable inter-individual variation between the GPs' diagnostic accuracy. The diagnostic estimation improved with increasing duration of doctor-physician relationship. CONCLUSION: A one-time educational intervention seems not to be sufficient to improve diagnostic competencies in the detection of psychological morbidity. The considerable variation of the diagnostic accuracy might explain why 'one-size-fits-all' educational interventions will not help improve diagnostic competencies.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais/educação , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Relações Médico-Paciente , Educação Médica Continuada , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Medicina Geral/educação , Medicina Geral/normas , Alemanha , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Encaminhamento e Consulta
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(12): 104323, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In the existing model of community health service in China, community general practitioners play important roles in health promotion as well as prehospital stroke recognition and management. We recently engineered Stroke 120 based on FAST for China. This investigation aimed to investigate its acceptance in community physicians and promote their stroke related knowledge. METHODS: We conducted an stroke education session to community physicians or family doctors (total of 435 participants), teaching both FAST and Stroke 120. Online survey was distributed to the participants before and after the education session to evaluate the awareness of stroke and the acceptance of the stroke recognition tool. RESULTS: Significant stroke knowledge deficiencies were found in community physicians. After the education session, percent of the participants knew that the thrombolytic therapeutic window (<4.5 hours) was improved from 54.0% to 91.6% (P < .001). A total of 88.5% of them would send their patients who had stroke to the nearest hospital with stroke center by emergency medical service, compared to baseline (64.4%, P < .001). In total, 95.2% of them would recommend thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke compared to 82.7% (baseline P < .001). Although majority mastered both FAST (95.5%) and Stroke 120 (98.0%) through our education session, 96.3% of them believe that Stroke 120 is the most suitable for Chinese in stroke education. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke 120 strategy was well accepted by the community physicians in China and in the meantime improved knowledge regarding stroke was observed.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Capacitação em Serviço/métodos , Médicos de Família/economia , Médicos de Atenção Primária/educação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conscientização , China , Competência Clínica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos de Família/psicologia , Médicos de Atenção Primária/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Diving Hyperb Med ; 49(3): 209-215, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523796

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evidence from many areas of healthcare suggests that skills learned during simulation transfer to clinical settings; however, this has not yet been investigated in hyperbaric medicine. This systematic review aimed to identify, summarize, and assess the impact of simulation-based education in hyperbaric medicine. METHODS: Eligible studies investigated the effect of simulation-based education for learning in hyperbaric medicine, used any design, and were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. Learning outcomes across all Kirkpatrick levels were included. MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Pairs of independent reviewers assessed references for study eligibility. RESULTS: We found no article assessing the impact of simulation-based education in hyperbaric medicine published in English. Only one potentially relevant paper published in German was found. CONCLUSIONS: More research is needed to determine how the hyperbaric medicine community and their patients may benefit from simulation-based education to optimize both practice and patient care.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Simulação por Computador , Educação Médica Continuada , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Humanos
17.
Hand Surg Rehabil ; 38(6): 348-352, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473335

RESUMO

Our hypothesis was that immediate repetition of a microsurgery-suturing task will improve its execution and outcome. This was an experimental animal study. Ten surgeons were divided into two groups of five surgeons. Each performed two end-to-end carotid anastomoses on the same rat, one after the other. The anastomosis was evaluated by the surgeon and an instructor. The primary endpoint was permeability. The outcome was evaluated using an objective and subjective assessment grid yielding 1 to 3 points per item. The total scores for each of the 10 surgeons were used to compare the anastomosis of carotid 1 versus 2, using the ratings given by the surgeon and the instructor. Twenty anastomoses were performed, but 1 rat died intraoperatively, leaving 18 anastomoses for evaluation. No significant differences were found on the main endpoint of permeability, with all anastomoses being permeable. The surgeon's self-assessment was significantly better for the second carotid artery (P=0.05), but this was not confirmed by the proxy assessment (instructor). The analysis by subgroups-morning versus afternoon-found the second carotid anastomosis was significant better in the self-assessment and proxy assessment for the morning group (P<0.001, P=0.024). There was no significant difference in clamping times. The immediate repetition of a microsurgical procedure seems to favor its execution, which leads us to propose that the more difficult or important anastomosis should be done after an easier or less important one during complex surgeries. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2B.


Assuntos
Anastomose Cirúrgica/educação , Competência Clínica , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Microcirurgia/educação , Cirurgiões , Suturas , Animais , Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Humanos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
18.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 35(3): 218-223, set. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023707

RESUMO

La Clínica Ginecotocológica A (CGA) de la Facultad de Medicina (FM) se ha comprometido con los objetivos de la reforma sanitaria en lo referente a la formación de posgrados, trabajando para ello en la descentralización de los escenarios de enseñanza-aprendizaje. En esta publicación se presenta la estrategia de descentralización de la formación de posgrados de ginecotocología de la CGA en el período 2010-2018. Se describen las herramientas que permiten mantener el contacto de los posgrados y tutores sustentados en tecnologías de la comunicación para realizar regularmente ateneos, actividades tutoriales, teleclínicas. Por otro lado, se describe la distribución logrado de postgrados, así como el logro de las destrezas en los diferentes Centros Docentes Asociados (CEDA). De la evaluación del funcionamiento de la red de CEDA de la CGA, así como de los logros formativos de recursos humanos, se concluye que es factible el aumento del cupo formativo de posgrados de Ginecotocología apelando a la descentralización estructurada de los escenarios de aprendizaje.


The Gynecotocology Clinic A (GCA) of the School of the School of Medicine is committed to the goals set in the health reform in terms of the training of postgraduates, and thus has focused on the decentralization of the educational scenario. This study presents the decentralization strategy in the training of postgraduate students in gynecotocology of the GCA between 2010 and 2018. It describes the tools that allow keeping in touch with the posgraduate students and tutors by means of technology that regularly aids grand rounds, tutorial activities, remote clinics, etc. Also, a description of the distribution of achievements by psotgraduates is provided, as well as the achievement of skills in the different Associated Teaching Centers (CEDAs in Spanish). Upon the assessment of performance of the CEDAs network of CGA, as well as the educational achievements in human resources, a conclusion is drawn as to the feasibility of increasing the number of postgraduates trained in gynecotocology appealing to structured decentralization strategies for the learning scenario.


A Clínica Ginecotocológica A (CGA) da Faculdade de Medicina (FMed-UDELAR) está comprometida com os objetivos da reforma sanitária no que diz respeito à formação dos pós-graduandos, trabalhando para isso na descentralização dos cenários de ensino-aprendizagem. Nesta publicação apresenta-se a estratégia de descentralização da formação dos pós-graduandos de ginecologia e obstetrícia da CGA no período 2010-2018. Descreve-se as ferramentas que permitem manter o contacto entre pós-graduandos e supervisores utilizando tecnologias da comunicação para realizar regularmente discussão de casos clínicos, atividades de supervisão e tele clínicas. Por outro lado, apresenta-se a distribuição geográfica dos pós-graduandos, bem como os resultados da obtenção de destrezas nos diferentes Centros docentes Associados (CEDA). A avaliação do funcionamento da rede de CEDA da CGA e dos resultados da formação de recursos humanos, permite concluir que é factível aumentar as vagas para pós-graduandos de ginecologia e obstetrícia utilizando a descentralização estruturada dos cenários de aprendizagem.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação , Ginecologia/educação , Educação Médica Continuada
19.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(11): 2061-2068, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396830

RESUMO

Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and Infection prevention and control (IPC) are two key complementary strategies that combat development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The ESGAP (ESCMID Study Group for AMS), EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) and TAE (Trainee Association of ESCMID) investigated how AMS and IPC activities and training are organized, if present, at national level in Europe. From February 2018 to May 2018, an internet-based cross-sectional survey was conducted through a 36-item questionnaire, involving up to three selected respondents per country, from 38 European countries in total (including Israel), belonging to the ESGAP/EUCIC/TAE networks. All 38 countries participated with at least one respondent, and a total of 81 respondents. Education and involvement in AMS programmes were mandatory during the postgraduate training of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases specialists in up to one-third of countries. IPC was acknowledged as a specialty in 32% of countries. Only 32% of countries had both guidance and national requirements regarding AMS programmes, in contrast to 61% for IPC. Formal national staffing standards for AMS and IPC hospital-based activities were present in 24% and 63% of countries, respectively. The backgrounds of professionals responsible for AMS and IPC programmes varied tremendously between countries. The organization and training of AMS and IPC in Europe are heterogeneous and national requirements for activities are frequently lacking.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica Continuada/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Administração Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Profissionais Controladores de Infecções/educação , Profissionais Controladores de Infecções/organização & administração , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/educação , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 306, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regulatory authorities in healthcare are authorised to develop and assess the cultural competence of their professionals. There remains significant diversity on approaches to cultural competency training and assessment. Little evidence exists about whether existing cultural competency training leads to improved patient health outcomes and reductions in health disparity. DISCUSSION: In this paper I frame cultural competency as analogous to the ocean and consisting of three zones: surface competency zone, bias twilight zone, and the confronting midnight zone. The surface competency zone focuses on deployment of culturally-specific knowledge: what people see, say, and do. The bias twilight zone is where people engage in critical reflection on their inherent/unconscious biases, and how such biases inform their thoughts and practices. The confronting midnight zone is where people engage in critical consciousness and self-awareness. Here they look beyond their biases to interrogate their power and positionality in society (their own privileges and centralisation). This attention is coupled with a commitment to social justice and to working within their means to reduce health disparities. CONCLUSIONS: I suggest surface cultural competency is somewhat easier to see, teach and reach than the bias twilight or confronting midnight zones. But it is these deeper zones that cultural competency training needs to attend to if we are to see systemic cultural changes in healthcare provision. Research assessing the extent by which cultural competency training within each zone informs improved patient outcomes and reductions in health disparity is called for.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural/educação , Educação Médica Continuada , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
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