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1.
Acad Med ; 95(10): 1488-1491, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006868

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Association of American Medical Colleges has called for a temporary suspension of clinical teaching activities for medical students. Planning for the continued involvement of learners in patient care during this pandemic should include teaching learners professional formation. The authors provide an ethical framework to guide such teaching, based on the ethical principle of beneficence and the professional virtues of courage and self-sacrifice from professional ethics in medicine. The authors show that these concepts support the conclusion that learners are ethically obligated to accept reasonable, but not unreasonable, risk. Based on this ethical framework, the authors provide an account of the process of teaching professional formation that medical educators and academic leaders should implement. Medical educators and academic leaders should embrace the opportunity that the COVID-19 pandemic presents for teaching professional formation. Learners should acquire the conceptual vocabulary of professional formation. Learners should recognize that risk of infection from patients is unavoidable. Learners should become aware of established ethical standards for professional responsibility during epidemics from the history of medicine. Learners should master understandable fear. Medical educators and academic leaders should ensure that didactic teaching of professional formation continues when it becomes justified to end learners' participation in the processes of patient care; topics should include the professionally responsible management of scarce medical resources. The COVID-19 pandemic will not be the last major infectious disease that puts learners at risk. Professional ethics in medicine provides powerful conceptual tools that can be used as an ethical framework to guide medical educators to teach learners, who will bear leadership responsibilities in responses to future pandemics, professional formation.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/ética , Ética Médica/educação , Pandemias/ética , Profissionalismo/educação , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral , Profissionalismo/ética , Faculdades de Medicina , Sociedades Médicas
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 342, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008374

RESUMO

Worldwide it is being discussed whether medical students might be of help during the present COVID-19 epidemic. Although this question is probably a legitimate one, one should however discuss this thoroughly before deciding whether medical students are to be included in this kind of medical care on a larger scale.Various arguments should be weighted, and potential tasks should be chosen carefully. This period could however be also an opportunity for medical students to learn things they would probably never learn about. Nevertheless, medical students have a deficit concerning knowledge about epidemics, and they are also not really well skilled in many hygiene measures. Furthermore, some of the known medical students' behaviour could be a risk factor for further spread of the virus as well. Then, young adults are at risk of getting infected themselves. Last but not least, medical students in general are under a great deal of pressure from their studies which could lead to the development of anxiety and other mental disorders. One could only speculate on the effects of this epidemic on their further mental well-being. Therefore, medical students participating in direct care of patients with COVID-19 should first be trained well, and then properly supervised at all times. Only then it might be a really useful and exceptional experience, for healthcare, medical schools as well as for society.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e21668, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in nursing and medical education is to foster the critical thinking ability and autonomous learning ability for students. But the effect of different teaching methods on these abilities of nursing or medical students has not been conclusive, and few studies have directly compared the differences in the effects of different teaching methods. As a result, it is necessary for students to evaluate the impact of different teaching methods on critical thinking ability and autonomous learning ability. METHODS: A systematic search will be performed using Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data (Chinese database), VIP Information (Chinese database), Chinese Biomedical Literature, and English language databases, including PubMed and Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL Complete (EBSCO0, Cochrane library to identify relevant studies from inception to July 10, 2020. We will include random controlled trials that evaluated the different teaching methods. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 quality assessment tool will be used to assess the risk of bias in each study. Standard pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis will be performed using STATA V.12.0, MetaDiSc 1.40, and R 3.4.1 software to compare the diagnostic efficacy of different hormonal biomarkers. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: This study will summarize the direct and indirect evidence to determine the effectiveness of different teaching methods for medical or nursing students and attempt to find the most effective teaching method. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval and patient consent are not required, because this study is a meta-analysis based on published studies. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202070017.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Currículo , Educação Médica/normas , Educação em Enfermagem/normas , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Pensamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22430, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the convert of educational concept, flipped classroom has been adopted gradually in radiology courses as a new teaching mode. Considering no evidence has been concluded to illustrate the effectiveness of of flipped classroom over traditional instructor-centered lectures in radiology education, this meta-analysis was conducted to provide empirical evidence for the reform of pedagogical. METHODS: Studies were retrieved from six databases, including Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Wanfang Data, CNKI, and VIP, from their inception to 16 February 2020. Literature selection and data extraction were completed by two reviewers independently. The effect size of each index was expressed as the odds ratio (OR) for a categorical variable and standard mean difference (SMD) for a continuous variable, each with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). RESULTS: A total of 19 studies with 2114 participants were deemed to be eligible for inclusion. The results of this meta-analysis indicated that: the newly emerged flipped classroom represented significant advantage versus traditional lecture in improving theoretical performance (SMD 1.12, 95% CI 0.61-1.63, P < .001), as well as in cultivating students' practical skills (SMD 2.59, 95% CI 1.69-3.59, P < .001). In the subjective findings of investigation, more positive responses were attained in students who took radiology subjects in flipped classroom, covering course satisfaction (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.35-2.14, P < .001), improvement of teamwork ability (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.21-2.67, P = .004), self-directed learning and reflection (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.31-2.97, P = .001), and subjective cognition on consolidation of knowledge mastery (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.19-1.60, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Flipped classroom displays multiple advantages versus traditional lecture-based teaching mode, which is well worth further promoting and applying in the process of radiology education.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Radiologia/educação , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos
7.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52802

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Mapear as características de implantação de novos cursos de Medicina nas universidades federais brasileiras, a partir de 2013. Métodos. Estudo exploratório com metodologia quantitativa e qualitativa. Foi realizado um levantamento das novas escolas de Medicina em universidades federais, com análise dos projetos pedagógicos dos cursos e entrevistas a estudantes, professores e profissionais de serviços de saúde vinculados às escolas de Medicina. Os dados coletados foram analisados quantitativa e qualitativamente. Resultados. Foram identificados 30 novos cursos de Medicina, dos quais 24 foram visitados. Todos os novos cursos se localizam fora dos grandes centros urbanos e capitais, nas cinco macrorregiões brasileiras; são organizados em arranjos formativos diversos, que buscam superar a fragmentação disciplinar com metodologias ativas e avaliação formativa. A rede de saúde é utilizada na formação para enfrentamento dos desafios da integração ensino-serviço-comunidade, com vistas a uma formação crítica e voltada à saúde pública. A criação dos cursos promoveu a interiorização de docentes, embora de forma limitada, e contribuiu para o ingresso de estudantes locais e a criação de residências médicas, expedientes potentes na fixação médica. Conclusões. Observou-se diversidade nas formas da materialidade e aderência ao disposto pelas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais de Medicina publicadas em 2014. A construção de modelos de formação médica condizentes com as particularidades locais e com as exigências do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) em seu papel de ordenador da formação dos profissionais da saúde pode contribuir para reduzir as desigualdades em saúde.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To map the implementation characteristics of Medicine programs established in Brazilian federal universities from 2013 onwards. Methods. A qualitative and quantitative exploratory study was performed. Newly created Medicine programs were identified in federal universities, with analysis of pedagogical frameworks and interviews with students, faculty, and health care professionals from associated health care services. Data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Results. Thirty new Medicine programs were identified, of which 24 were visited. All the new programs were located outside large urban centers and capitals, across the five Brazilian macro-regions, and adopted various formative configurations in an attempt to overcome fragmentation of content with active methodologies and formative evaluations. The healthcare network is used for training as a means to meet the challenge of academic-health service-community integration, with the aim of providing critical education focused on public health. The establishment of the Medicine programs facilitated to a limited extent the retention of faculty in remote areas and promoted the access of local students and the creation of residency programs, which are powerful strategies to enhance the retention of medical professionals. Conclusions. Variations were observed among the programs in the manner of implementation and adherence to the National Curriculum Guidelines for Medicine, published in 2014. The construction of medical training models that appropriately address local specificities and the requirements of the Unified Health System in its formative role for health care may contribute to reduce health inequalities.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Mapear las características de implementación de los programas de Medicina establecidos en las universidades federales brasileñas a partir de 2013. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio exploratorio cualitativo y cuantitativo. Se identificaron los programas de medicina recién creados en las universidades federales, se anlizaron los marcos pedagógicos y se entrevistaron estudiantes, profesores y profesionales de la salud de los servicios de salud asociados. Los datos fueron analizados usando métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Resultados. Se identificaron 30 nuevos programas de medicina, de los cuales se visitaron 24. Todos los nuevos programas se ubicaron fuera de los grandes centros urbanos y capitales en las cinco macrorregiones brasileñas y adoptaron diversas configuraciones formativas en un intento de superar la fragmentación de contenido con metodologías activas y evaluaciones formativas. La red de salud se empleó para la formación como un medio para facilitar la integración entre los ámbitos académico, de servicios de salud y la comunidad, con el objetivo de proporcionar una educación crítica centrada en la salud pública. El establecimiento de los programas de medicina facilitó en cierta medida la retención del profesorado en zonas remotas y promovió el acceso de los estudiantes locales y la creación de programas de residencia, que son estrategias importantes para mejorar la retención de los profesionales médicos. Conclusiones. Se observaron variaciones entre los programas en cuanto a la manera de aplicar y cumplir las Directrices Curriculares Nacionales de Medicina, publicadas en 2014. La construcción de modelos de formación médica que aborden adecuadamente las especificidades locales y los requisitos del Sistema Único de Salud en su función formativa para la atención de la salud puede contribuir a reducir las desigualdades en materia de salud.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Instituições de Ensino Superior , Saúde Pública , Brasil , Educação Médica , Consórcios de Saúde , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Instituições de Ensino Superior , Saúde Pública , Brasil , Educação Médica , Consórcios de Saúde , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Instituições de Ensino Superior , Saúde Pública
10.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e039082, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify what motivates medical students to join a pandemic emergency healthcare workforce. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Aalborg University, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All medical students. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Motivational points as perceived by the students to be important. Demographic characteristics and 11 motivational domains scored on a Visual Analog Scale from 0 (low) to 100 (high) responding to the question: 'To what degree are the following statements important for you to join a national emergency preparedness workforce?' The questionnaire was developed by an expert panel in a process of four iterations. RESULTS: A total of 486 students of 688 (70.6%) completed the survey within 7 days in March 2020. 80% had decided to join the pandemic emergency healthcare workforce. Ranked median scores for motivational statements in each domain were: care, 100; learn, 90; pride, 83; team, 77; needed, 75; safety, 75; supervision, 75; job, 73; duty, 66; salary, 62; historic, 50. Supervision (p<0.001), salary (p<0.001) and duty (p=0.001) were given increasing priority with advancing study years. Interestingly, students added that support by the university and clarification of study plans were priorities. CONCLUSIONS: Results guide decision-makers and colleagues on how to motivate or reinforce medical students in joining the pandemic emergency healthcare workforce. Importantly, students emphasised protection for themselves.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Motivação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Voluntários/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento de Escolha , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Educação Médica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Salários e Benefícios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(8): e202000808, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965305

RESUMO

Infectious viruses pose a threat to all living organisms, including humans, and can cause significant morbidity. Previous experience with pigs in medical education and research, rather than in domestic control settings, has led to a unique perspective on viral infections in swine. In this article, common porcine infectious diseases have been listed, based mainly on the authors' experience thus far. For example, young domestic pigs that were used in surgical training and infected with hepatitis E were subjected to quarantine and isolation treatment, and attempts were made to develop a DNA vaccine for swine influenza arising from swine-to-human transmission. More recent research has focused on preventing infection by the African swine virus, a current threat. We hope that this article of porcine infectious diseases identified at the School of Medicine will help develop a breakthrough with regard to coronavirus disease.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Educação Médica , Sus scrofa/virologia , Viroses/veterinária , Animais , Humanos , Japão , Suínos , Viroses/transmissão
14.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 840-842, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873164

RESUMO

Cosmetic or Fundamental Reform of Medical Education? Abstract. At regular intervals, medical faculties and national committees discuss adjustments to the training of physicians. These adaptations are mostly of a cosmetic nature. Discussions on fundamental reform concepts of training rarely take place. Too many different interests, sometimes openly declared but more often concealed, make discussions difficult as soon as fundamental questions are raised. As a result, there is no fundamental debate about the goal and concept of medical education. The issue of the assumption of medical activities by non-physician professions is at least discussed, but hardly any of it is implemented. It is closely linked to the question of how many physicians are needed in Switzerland. The following considerations, which some may find provocative, will hopefully trigger a fundamental discussion. In this case they will have achieved their goal.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Médicos , Docentes de Medicina , Humanos , Suíça
15.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 866-870, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873166

RESUMO

Update Medical Studies 2020: Bern Abstract. The education of the young Bernese medical students is problem-based as well as practice-oriented. The didactical concept of the Bachelor Studies is a guided self-study accompanied by concept lectures and interactive tutorials. The clinical skills are taught in a highly structured way, beginning with e-learning, seminars and Bedside Teaching. The Master Studies are based on evidence-based clinical education. The well-structured internships are the heart of the Bernese Master Studies; they enable the early inclusion of the students in the medical practice of the various healthcare disciplines. The communication trainings as well as the sonography courses are examples for the innovative development of the Bernese curriculum. The rotations in GP practices give an insight into the primary healthcare.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Comunicação , Currículo , Humanos , Suíça
16.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 843-846, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873170

RESUMO

Studying Human Medicine at the University of Zurich Abstract. We compile the most important published information on studying human medicine at the Medical Faculty of the University of Zurich (as of 8.6.2020), with a brief overview of the 'Education Network' (www.medunet.ch) of the six participating locations with the Universities of Zurich, Basel, St. Gallen, Lucerne, the Università della Svizzera italiana and the ETH Zurich. Within the educational network, the Universities of Lucerne and St. Gallen offer the so-called 'Lucerne Track' and 'St. Gallen Track' for 40 medical students each as a joint Master's program with the University of Zurich. The two partners present their curriculum in separate articles. Finally, information on the current curriculum revision is provided under the label ZH Med4, which stands for the main focus areas of digitization, research, networking and primary care.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Humanos , Complexo Mediador , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Suíça , Universidades
17.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 847-852, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873174

RESUMO

Joint Medical Master University of Lucerne and University of Zurich Abstract. The medical education in Switzerland is changing. On the one hand, the new, competence-based catalogue of learning objectives PROFILES has to be implemented. On the other hand, new training locations and cooperations have been created within the context of the special program 'Increasing the number of degrees in human medicine'. One of these cooperations is the Joint Medical Master of the Universities of Lucerne and Zurich. Since 2017, students have had the opportunity to complete their Bachelor's degree at the University of Zurich in the 'Lucerne Track'. In the subsequent joint Master's program (start fall semester 2020), the approximately 40 students are primarily enrolled at the University of Lucerne, which together with its partner institutions in the health care region of Central Switzerland offers about two thirds of the courses. At the University of Lucerne, which has a strong emphasis on social and human sciences, the Department of Medicine is part of the Department of Health Sciences and Medicine and focuses on a holistic, interdisciplinary understanding of health, illness and human functioning. In the training of medical students, the Joint Medical Master primarily offers interactive, practice-oriented courses in small groups, based on the new catalogue of learning objectives, and uses innovative didactic concepts and digital learning programs. The Lucerne curriculum focuses on interprofessional education, especially with health science students, as well as basic medical care and the interface between in- and outpatient care, respectively. In the last year of the course, which is currently in its final development phase, the topics of emergency medicine and patient safety will be a particular focus. Due to the manageable cohort size, the Joint Medical Master in Lucerne offers a family environment and a close exchange between students and lecturers. The students are involved in the further development of the curriculum as well as in the evaluation of the courses, and the lecturers are prepared as well as possible for their teaching duties by continuing medical education events. In the medium term, the University of Lucerne would also like to focus more on the continuum of pre- and postgraduate training, and to network nationally and internationally in the medical education landscape.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Humanos , Suíça
18.
J Grad Med Educ ; 12(4): 507-511, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879697

RESUMO

Background: The start of a new academic year in graduate medical education will mark a transition for postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) residents from medical school into residency. The relocation of individuals has significant implications given the COVID-19 pandemic and variability of the outbreak across the United States, but little is known about the extent of the geographic relocation taking place. Objective: We reported historical trends of PGY-1 residents staying in-state and those starting residency from out-of-state to quantify the geographic movement of individuals beginning residency training each year. Methods: We analyzed historical data collected by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in academic years 2016-2017, 2017-2018, and 2018-2019, comparing the locations of medical school and residency programs for PGY-1 residents to determine the number of matriculants from in-state medical schools and out-of-state medical schools. International medical school graduates (IMGs) were shown separately in the analysis and then combined with out-of-state matriculants. US citizens who trained abroad were counted among IMGs. Results: The total number of PGY-1s increased by 10.3% during the 3-year time period, from 29 338 to 32 348. When combined, IMGs and USMGs transitioning from one state or country to another state accounted for approximately 72% of PGY-1s each year. Approximately 63% of USMGs matriculated to a residency program in a new state, and IMGs made up 24.6% to 23.1% of PGY-1s over the 3-year period. Conclusions: Each year brings a substantial amount of movement among PGY-1s that highlights the need for policies and procedures specific to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Internato e Residência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Área de Atuação Profissional , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Educação Médica , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estados Unidos , Local de Trabalho
19.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202530, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: simulation based teaching is a powerful tool in medical education, allowing hands on practice under a controlled environment and with repeated maneuvers. Central venous access venipuncture is one of the most frequent procedures carried out in the hospital setting, due to its various clinical indications and, when performed with the help of ultrasonography, the risk of adverse events is minimized. Aim: to develop, to describe and to test a porcine model that simulates the central venous access puncture aided by ultrasonography. METHOD: a low cost porcine model was developed to train medical students and residents on central venous access guided by ultrasonography. Both students and medical residents underwent a theoretical training regarding the model, followed by a hands-on training session. Afterwards, the participants assessed the model by answering a questionnaire. RESULTS: there were 51 participants. The average score regarding the similarity between the model and the human anatomy was 9.15. When the characteristics were separately assessed, the mean scores regarding the similarity of the vessels, anatomic disposition and ultrasonographic characteristics as well as the venipuncture were, respectively, 9.27; 9.31; 9.54 and 8.86. CONCLUSION: The model was approved and considered appropriate for the training of central venous venipuncture by all the participants. Furthermore, it is a low cost, simple and reproducible model, that presents high similarity with the human anatomy. Therefore, it may be used as an aid to train people on ultrasonography guided central venous access.


Assuntos
Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Educação Médica , Treinamento por Simulação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Suínos
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