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1.
Front Public Health ; 8: 609599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330345

RESUMO

In the wake of COVID-19, there is an urgent need for a diverse public health work force to address problems presented or exacerbated by the global pandemic. Educational programs that create our work force both train and shape the makeup of access through graduate applications. The Graduate Record Exam has a number of standing issues, with additional barriers created by the pandemic. We trace the GRE waiver movement over several years, focusing on the gradual adoption in CEPH accredited programs and the rapid expansion of temporary waivers as a response to testing access. Going forward, we need to consider gaps in waivers during the pandemic and how this data can be used to shape our future use of the GRE.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/normas , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Saúde Pública/educação , Critérios de Admissão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes de Medicina , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(6): 349-356, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198371

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo realizar validez de contenido a partir del juicio de expertos de un instrumento de medición que indaga 4 dimensiones: reacciones físicas, consecuencias, perturbaciones y métodos de afrontamiento de los estudiantes de medicina ante la práctica de disección anatómica. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio psicométrico de validez de contenido, en el que participaron 9 expertos que evaluaron cada ítem con base en las características de suficiencia, claridad, coherencia, relevancia y pertinencia, al igual que estimaciones relacionadas con la congruencia de los ítems, amplitud de contenido, redacción, claridad y pertinencia del instrumento original. Fueron tenidas en cuenta las observaciones cualitativas de los expertos. Se determinó el grado de acuerdo entre expertos con el coeficiente kappa de Fleiss. Se aplicó prueba de pretest, para medir el grado de comprensibilidad. RESULTADOS: Globalmente se obtuvo fuerza de concordancia en cada dimensión, como casi perfecta y por parejas de expertos, entre moderada y casi perfecta. Para las características, la pertinencia fue la más alta (0,8443) y en la significación estadística, la suficiencia (p = 0,0268). Se ajustó la estructura del instrumento, sin afectar la validez de contenido. De los 39 ítems originales, se eliminaron 16 ítems y se conservaron 22, de los que 6 se corrigieron en redacción. El grado de comprensibilidad fue de rango alto para la nueva versión del instrumento. CONCLUSIÓN: El instrumento validado podrá ser explorado y aplicado para favorecer la comparación de poblaciones de diferentes facultades en este y otros países que hablen el mismo idioma español


INTRODUCTION: The objective of the present investigation was to carry out content validity based on expert judgment of a measurement instrument that investigates 4 dimensions: physical reactions, consequences, disturbances and coping methods of students of medicine before the practice of anatomical dissection. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Psychometric study of content validity, in which 9 experts participated who evaluated each item based on the characteristics of sufficiency, clarity, coherence, relevance and pertinence, as well as estimates related to the congruence of the items, breadth of content, writing, clarity and relevance of the original instrument. The qualitative observations of the experts were taken into account. The degree of agreement between experts was determined with the Fleiss kappa coefficient. A preliminary test was applied to measure the degree of comprehensibility. RESULTS: Globally, almost perfect strength of agreement was obtained in each dimension, and in pairs of experts, between moderate and almost perfect. For the characteristics, the relevance was the highest (0.8443) and in the statistical significance, the sufficiency (p=.0268). The structure of the instrument was adjusted, without affecting the content validity. Of the 39 original items, 16 items were eliminated, and 22 items were retained, of which 6 were corrected in writing. The degree of comprehensibility was of high rank for the new version of the instrument. CONCLUSION: The validated instrument can be explored and applied to favor the comparison of populations of different faculties in this and other countries that speak the same Spanish language


Assuntos
Humanos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Psicometria/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Instrumentos de Pesquisa , Anatomia/educação , Percepção , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adaptação Psicológica
3.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(6): 553-557, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ENT presentations are prevalent in clinical practice but feature little in undergraduate curricula. Consequently, most medical graduates are not confident managing common ENT conditions. In 2014, the first evidence-based ENT undergraduate curriculum was published to guide medical schools. OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent that current UK medical school learning outcomes correlate with the syllabus of the ENT undergraduate curriculum. METHOD: Two students from each participating medical school independently reviewed all ENT-related curriculum documents to determine whether learning outcomes from the suggested curriculum were met. RESULTS: Sixteen of 34 curricula were reviewed. Only a minority of medical schools delivered teaching on laryngectomy or tracheostomy, nasal packing or cautery, and ENT medications or surgical procedures. CONCLUSION: There is wide variability in ENT undergraduate education in UK medical schools. Careful consideration of which topics are prioritised, and the teaching modalities utilised, is essential. In addition, ENT learning opportunities for undergraduates outside of the medical school curriculum should be augmented.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Otolaringologia/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/educação , Cauterização/métodos , Cauterização/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Clínica , Currículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Laringectomia/educação , Laringectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/normas , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/normas , Traqueostomia/educação , Traqueostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 28(14): e620-e625, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692099

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Students seek gap years to enhance knowledge and improve chances of professional success. Although many institutions offer research opportunities, no studies have examined outcomes after these experiences. This study evaluates a dedicated year of orthopaedic research on a cohort's ultimate orthopaedic surgery match rate. METHODS: From 2001 to 2018, 129 learners spent a year with our Department of Orthopedic Surgery at a major academic medical center. The students were either completing a gap year after college, during or after medical school, or after an unsuccessful match. Participants were asked to respond to a survey, which included demographics, educational information, and metrics related to the program. For the subcohort of students who ranked orthopaedic surgery, the match rate was compared with the mean for the US orthopaedic surgery match rates from 2006 to 2018 using a chi-square analysis. In addition, a Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the number of publications before and after the year. RESULTS: One hundred three students (80%) returned completed questionnaires. Of all learners who applied to and ranked orthopaedic surgery, 91% matched into an orthopaedic surgery residency program. These results compared favorably with the US orthopaedic match from 2006 to 2018 (67.9%; P < 0.001), despite a 4-point lower United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 score for the research cohort. Finally, the research cohort had a greater percentage of women (23%) and minorities (40%) than the proportion of woman and minority practicing orthopaedic surgeons. CONCLUSION: Students who completed a gap year in research matched into orthopaedics at a higher rate than the national average, despite a lower Step score. Mentors may also target traditionally underrepresented groups to help increase the pool of diverse applicants.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/educação , Ortopedia/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Mentores , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(3): 316-320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563343

RESUMO

The reasons underlying the lack of diversity within dermatology can be broadly categorized into lack of mentorship, decreased awareness of the specialty during medical school, socioeconomic barriers associated with the application process, and implicit bias during resident selection. This contribution examines the need for diversity in medicine and provides insight into the reasons behind the low number of underrepresented minority residents in dermatology. Leadership strategies that may help increase diversity in the field are also reviewed.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência , Liderança , Mentores , Grupos Minoritários , Faculdades de Medicina , Dermatologia/educação , Humanos
7.
Nurs Outlook ; 68(4): 417-429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditionally health care professions education research (HCPER) is poorly funded, despite it being key to success. PURPOSE: This unique study maps HCPER evolution within a single country during a period when significant national governmental HCPER funding is introduced. METHODS: A scoping review method examined Taiwan's HCPER landscape across 12-years. Literature searches across four databases (OVID Medline; Scopus; Web of Science; the Airiti Library), a manual scan of HCPE journals and hand searches. Endnote and ATLAS.ti managed the data. Demographic and content codes were developed. PRISMA guidelines are used. DISCUSSION: One thousand four hundred and ten articles across 310 journals, with a steady rise in funded studies. Science/Social Science Citation Index and English language publications increased. Nursing Students/Nurses and Medical Students/Physicians are the most common populations. Significant associations with funding was found for indexed and English language publications. National funding influenced quality and local funding positively. CONCLUSION: Caution around local vs. global needs is highlighted and national funding policies for HCPER are advocated.


Assuntos
Financiamento de Capital/economia , Financiamento de Capital/estatística & dados numéricos , Financiamento de Capital/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Educação Médica/economia , Educação Médica/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Humanos , Taiwan
8.
Tunis Med ; 98(3): 211-218, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, efforts have been made to ensure that the teachers of the Faculty of Medicine of Tunis (FMT) cite their affiliation to the FMT and the University of Tunis El Manar in addition to their hospital institutions and their research structure in their publications. AIMS: In this study, we proposed to evaluate the FMT's membership in the publications of its teachers, to identify the different types of publications and to estimate the real number. METHODS: In this bibliometric cross-sectional study, we retrieved the FMT publications indexed in medline/pubmed database (1964-June2019). We have chosen the keywords corresponding to the publications of group1 (referenced FMT) and group2 (referenced FMT or annexed hospital-university institutions). Next, we calculated the rate of group1 on group2 and sorted the different types of items in group2. Finally, We estimated, after randomization, the actual number of FMT publications for a 99% confidence interval (99% CI). RESULTS: For groups 1 and 2, 1477 and 5194 publications were retrieved, respectively. The FMT membership rate averaged 28% ranging from 4% (1990-2010) to 44% (2011-2019). Of the FMT publications, 30% were free of charge and 55% were original articles. After a draw for 300 group2 publications, the estimated number of total FMT publications was between 4519 and 4934 for a 99% CI. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to mention its affiliation to «the Faculty of Medicine of Tunis¼ and to «the University of Tunis El Manar¼ in order to improve the visibility and ranking of our two academic institutions.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/tendências , Editoração , Adulto , Bibliometria/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Educação Médica/história , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/tendências , Docentes de Medicina/história , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Publicações/história , Publicações/provisão & distribução , Editoração/história , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Editoração/provisão & distribução , Editoração/tendências
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 293, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cypriot healthcare system has undergone a number of major transformations since the induction of the Republic of Cyprus in the European Union over 10 years ago. Currently Cyprus is undergoing a major reform, namely the introduction of a primary care driven national healthcare system. The aim of the study was to assess the existing state of training, support, quality, guidelines and infrastructure towards a better healthcare system in Cyprus. METHODS: This is a mixed-methods study combining statistical data until October 2016 and workshop discussions delivered in Cyprus in November 2015. We used anonymised data provided: (1a) by the Cyprus Medical Association of all registered medical doctors up to October 2016; (1b); by the Ministry of Health (MoH) Health Monitoring Unit up to October 2016; (2) during a workshop organised with representatives from the Royal College of Physicians, the European Commission and the Health Insurance Organization. RESULTS: The gender ratio of men over women is disproportionate, with over 85% of the medical doctors undertaking their training in Greece, Eastern Europe and neighbouring countries, while the current record does not hold a relevant specialty information for 4 out of 10 doctors. The results show lack of statutory inspection systems, application of revalidation principles or implementation of peer-review clinical services on the island. There are eight proposed recommendations made by the workshop participants towards the transformation of the Cypriot healthcare system and the development of the Cyprus Quality Improvement Institute. These are aimed at addressing gaps in quality of care, adherence to clinical guidelines and implementation of audits, development of doctors' revalidation and peer-review of clinical services, accreditation of service implementation, establishment of a statutory inspection system as well as the set-up of an incentives program as part of the general healthcare system (GHS) of Cyprus. CONCLUSIONS: Current efforts for the implementation of the new GHS in Cyprus call for adequate training and support of the medical workforce, transparent and safer quality of care provision through the implementation of clinical guidelines and capacity-building infrastructure.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Chipre , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230931, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Competency based medical education (CBME) requires novel approaches to surgical education. Significant investment has been made in laparoscopic simulation, which has been shown to foster skill development prior to patient encounters. However, research suggests variable voluntary use of these resources by residents, and little is known about the motivational factors that influence their utilization. The purpose of this study was to characterize factors that motivate residents to seek laparoscopic simulation experience outside of the formal curriculum. DESIGN: We developed a questionnaire grounded in Expectancy Value Theory, an established psychological theory of motivation, by adapting validated measures to fit the study context. We conducted a cross sectional survey of Canadian obstetrics and gynecology residents. SETTING: We invited residents enrolled in English-language obstetrics and gynecology training programs in Canada to participate. PARTICIPANTS: All residents engaged in clinical duties during Winter 2018 were invited to complete the questionnaire. Forty-four Obstetrics and Gynecology (Ob/Gyn) residents participated in the study. RESULTS: Residents reported limited use of simulation resources and identified multiple barriers including lack of time, access, and supervision. They expressed concern about development of bad habits during independent practice, and simulation use was positively correlated with perceived utility. Compared to junior residents, senior residents reported greater enjoyment of laparoscopic surgery, less emotional costs, and higher self-efficacy for learning laparoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Residents' perception of utility and barriers impede voluntary simulation use and overall use was limited. As programs undertake curricula redevelopment for CBME, mitigating barriers and improving perceived utility of laparoscopic simulation is vital to increase use and enhance skill development.


Assuntos
Ginecologia/educação , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparoscopia/educação , Motivação/fisiologia , Obstetrícia/educação , Canadá , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Currículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 20(1): e83-e89, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190374

RESUMO

Objectives: Faculty members are the most important resource in any institution of higher education as medical education has been, and continues to be, a priority for medical colleges in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to assess faculty members' perceptions of faculty development programmes (FDPs) in supporting important goals in medical education. In addition, this study aimed to assess faculty members' perceived needs. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2016 and August 2017 and involved participants from six universities in Saudi Arabia's Western Province. The survey consisted of 31 items designed to assess FDP effectiveness and 49 items designed to assess needs in FDPs. Results: A total of 210 faculty members participated in the study (response rate = 52.5%) and identified 49 needs. Faculty members perceived personal improvement in delivering medical education and the provision of greater educational involvement as the most effective considerations in an FDP. The respondents considered 13 needs to be of utmost importance; the remaining were considered important. Conclusion: This study assessed and identified faculty needs and important skills to consider when establishing an FDP. Furthermore, it provided information addressing the needs of, or gaps between, current and desired conditions in medical education in Saudi Arabia. The study also identified the most important elements (i.e. personal improvement) of faculty-perceived effectiveness for a successful FDP in medical education.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Capacitação de Professores , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
13.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 31(1): 63-70, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044209

RESUMO

The UK General Medical Councils' approved curricula share only 3 topics with the Fellowship in the Academy of Wilderness Medicine core curriculum, suggesting an underrepresentation of wilderness medicine (WM) in medical education. We developed a 5-mo course to address the gaps between these curricula to run in parallel with the conventional curriculum. Our 71-h course is composed of lectures and practical exercises. We set out to evaluate the effectiveness of this concept and assess its suitability for use by other institutions. The course was undertaken by 18 medicine and healthcare undergraduates. Semiquantitative evaluation of the course was done using participants' self-reported WM knowledge and interest before and after the course using a Likert scale. Participants were further assessed with a WM objective structured clinical examination. Before the course, students had a lower understanding of WM (2.8/5.0) and were not confident in prehospital medicine (2.5/5.0). After the course, knowledge and confidence increased in all teaching categories, with a mean gain of 1.4/5.0 (P<0.05). Students demonstrated competence in a range of WM categories by completing the WM objective structured clinical examination, with a pass rate of 82%. Providing students with a WM course is effective in introducing components of the Fellowship in the Academy of Wilderness Medicine curriculum and inspiring future engagement in the field. We have developed a framework for successful implementation of WM teaching and shown that the concept may be used in other undergraduate settings.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Selvagem/educação , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Medicina de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido , Medicina Selvagem/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Perspect Med Educ ; 9(2): 111-116, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026318

RESUMO

In medical education, we assess knowledge, skills, and a third category usually called values or attitudes. While knowledge and skills can be assessed, this third category consists of 'beetles', after the philosopher Wittgenstein's beetle-in-a-box analogy. The analogy demonstrates that private experiences such as pain and hunger are inaccessible to the public, and that we cannot know whether we all experience them in the same way. In this paper, we claim that unlike knowledge and skills, private experiences of medical learners cannot be objectively measured, assessed, or directly accessed in any way. If we try to do this anyway, we risk reducing them to knowledge and skills-thereby making curriculum design choices based on what can be measured rather than what is valuable education, and rewarding zombie-like student behaviour rather than authentic development. We conclude that we should no longer use the model of representation to assess attitudes, emotions, empathy, and other beetles. This amounts to, first of all, shutting the door on objective assessment and investing in professional subjective assessment. Second, changing the way we define 'fuzzy concepts' in medical education, and stimulating conversations about ambiguous terms. Third, we should reframe the way we think of competences and realize only part of professional development lies within our control. Most importantly, we should stop attempting to measure the unmeasurable, as it might have negative consequences.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Valores Sociais , Currículo/normas , Currículo/tendências , Educação Médica/métodos , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
15.
Acad Med ; 95(7): 984-988, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101916

RESUMO

Understanding complex interventions, such as in medical education, requires a philosophy of science that can explain how and why things work, or fail to work, in different contexts. Critical realism and its operationalization in the form of realist inquiry provides this explanatory power. Ontologically, critical realism posits that the social world is real, that it exists independent of our knowledge of it, and that it is driven by causal mechanisms. However, unlike postpositivism, a realist epistemological position is that our understanding of the mechanisms that underlay social reality is limited and subjective. Critical realism is focused on understanding the mechanisms that drive social reality even when they are not directly observable. One of the most commonly used methodologies in the critical realist paradigm is realist inquiry, which focuses on the relationships between context, mechanisms, and outcomes. At its core, realist inquiry is concerned with "What works for whom, under what circumstances, how, and why?" To that end, realist inquiry explores the mechanisms that drive social systems and the ways in which these mechanisms work to develop explanatory theories of the phenomena under consideration. Although, compared with other approaches, realist inquiry is relatively new in medical education, the value of realist inquiry is in its ability to model how complex interventions function differently across multiple contexts, explaining what works, how it works, for whom, and in what contexts.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção/fisiologia , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Filosofia Médica , Projetos de Pesquisa
16.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 576-584, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies demonstrate that social media are used by plastic surgeons to educate and engage. The hashtag #PlasticSurgery has been studied previously and is embraced by American plastic surgeons and journals; however, no studies have examined its use or adoption across Europe. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 800 tweets containing the words "plastic surgery" or the hashtag #PlasticSurgery in four of the most spoken European languages worldwide excluding English (Spanish, #CirugiaPlastica; French, #ChirurgiePlastique; Portuguese, #CirurgiaPlastica; and German, #PlastischeChirurgie) was performed. The following were assessed: identity of author, subject matter, use of the hashtag #PlasticSurgery in each language, whether posts by surgeons and academic institutions were self-promotional or educational, and whether a link to a journal article or a reference in PubMed was provided. RESULTS: Seventeen percent and 3 percent of analyzed tweets came from plastic surgeons or academic institutions, respectively; only 17.5 percent of them were for educational purpose. None of them had any digital link to a peer-reviewed article or a scientific journal. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the low participation of plastic surgeons and academic institutions in social media (especially for education) in four of the major world languages. Social media should be considered in Europe as an opportunity to increase leadership, improve education, and spread knowledge of plastic surgery by board-certified plastic surgeons.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Liderança , Cirurgia Plástica/educação , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Idioma , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Plástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Terminologia como Assunto
17.
Med Educ Online ; 25(1): 1710895, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931679

RESUMO

Background: In Japan, sexual and gender minorities (SGM) remain stigmatized, provoking hospital access barriers and health disparities from judgmental care. Japan's Western-influenced introduction of SGM course content into medical education for future physicians addresses these disparities, although often perfunctorily and inconsistently.Objective: To examine the prevalence and characteristics of medical education curriculum with respect to SGM patients, we surveyed medical schools.Methods: A medical education faculty member from each of 80 Japanese medical schools received double postcards to identify relevant SGM coursework. Upon acknowledgement, 43 schools received seven-item anonymous questionnaires in March 2018. Survey results were analyzed from the perspective of three of the qualities and abilities required of a physician - Patient Care, Knowledge for Practice, and Professionalism from Japan's Medical Core Curriculum - to develop recommendations for outcomes-based SGM curriculum through the lens of Van Melle's medical education framework.Results: The response rate was 46%, with 22 schools providing SGM lectures mostly to first- and third-year students. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Neuropsychiatry, and Introduction to Medicine lectures were the top three subjects offering SGM lectures, primarily consisting of basic knowledge of SGM and Differences in Sex Development. Several lectures addressed the health challenges of SGM. Primary reasons for not offering SGM lectures were lack of suitable instructors or no school policies.Conclusions: Students can best experience the humanity of SGM patients and employ more appropriate diagnostic practices and modes of treatment with targeted curriculum to address SGM health disparities and inclusion of SGM patients in clinical practice training. To disseminate SGM education in Japanese medical schools, development of qualified instructors and policies is essential, employing currently active experts. The Van Melle reforms framework can guide in the development of recommended tailored learning experiences and lectures for improved and expanded SGM education, integrating appropriate coursework within current medical core curriculum structure.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Prevalência , Estigma Social
18.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(3): 246-249, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized the need for a health workforce trained in recognising, understanding and acting on the social determinants of health (SDH). However, little is known about how current medical education prepares graduates to meet this challenge. This study analyses the extent to which content on SDH is incorporated in the German medical curriculum. METHOD: This work is based on a qualitative and quantitative content analysis of 3 key document groups, outlining what medical schools are expected to teach and defining what medical students are expected to know on graduation. RESULTS: The assessment reveals important gaps in the representation of SDH in key frameworks for German medical education. Only between 4 and 27% of the analysed document-elements contained reference to any SDH-related issues, with 0-3% of those elements containing explicit references to SDH. While some aspects were widely covered (e. g. topics of occupational health), other topics such as health inequalities or determinants outside of the health care system were not or hardly represented. CONCLUSIONS: A stronger and more explicit representation of SDH during medical education could help to prepare the new health workforce for current and future challenges in our globalised world. The current reform process of the National Competency-Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Medicine should strive to fill the gaps, e. g. by putting more emphasis on aspects of poverty and health, health inequalities and issues of access to healthcare.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Currículo/normas , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha , Humanos
19.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 32(2): 122-127, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476943

RESUMO

Psychiatry's practice in Latin America is unique as it comes from the junction of the indigenous cultures and their conceptualization of mental disorders, the European colonizers who brought with them the early modern psychiatric conceptualizations and, later, the Africans who were forced to migrate to the continent as slaves and introduced elements of the African culture. With this background in mind it is easier to understand why Latin America is a multiethnic and multicultural continent. In order to be able to practice in this particular context, Psychiatry should take into account all the aforementioned elements in the design of its educational programmes. Nevertheless, Latin American countries have a tremendous deficit in mental health providers and, as such, are in dire need to strengthen their residency programmes and their recruitment processes in order to be able to meet the needs of the population. This paper sets out to review the current state of psychiatric education in Latin America and describe in more detail the current training programmes available in the region. It also discusses the perceptions of Latin American psychiatric residents regarding their training programmes and presents possible alternatives for the future of training.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Psiquiatria/educação , Educação Médica/tendências , Humanos , América Latina
20.
Med Teach ; 42(1): 17-23, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491350

RESUMO

Colombia is the second largest country in South America. In this article, we provide an overview of medical education in Colombia, including a description of existing public and private medical schools and available undergraduate and postgraduate programs. Medical education in Colombia has evolved through time, following international trends. In addition to 61 undergraduate medical programs, there are 529 postgraduate clinical, 30 PhD, and 131 Master programs in health sciences in Colombia. We identify current challenges and highlight future perspectives for medical education in Colombia.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Colômbia , Humanos , Universidades
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