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2.
Acad Med ; 95(2): 184-189, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577586

RESUMO

Several lawsuits have recently been filed against U.S. universities; the plaintiffs contend that considerations of race and ethnicity in admissions decisions discriminate against Asian Americans. In prior cases brought by non-Latino whites, the U.S. Supreme Court has upheld these considerations, arguing that they are crucial to a compelling interest to increase diversity. The dissenting opinion, however, concerns the possibility that such policies disadvantage Asian Americans, who are considered overrepresented in higher education. Here, the authors explain how a decision favoring the plaintiffs would affect U.S. medical schools. First, eliminating race and ethnicity in holistic review would undermine efforts to diversify the physician workforce. Second, the restrictions on considering race/ethnicity in admissions decisions would not remedy potential discrimination against Asian Americans that arise from implicit biases. Third, such restrictions would exacerbate the difficulty of addressing the diversity of experiences within Asian American subgroups, including recognizing those who are underrepresented in medicine. The authors propose that medical schools engage Asian Americans in diversity and inclusion efforts and recommend the following strategies: incorporate health equity into the institutional mission and admissions policies, disaggregate data to identify underrepresented Asian subgroups, include Asian Americans in diversity committees and support faculty who make diversity work part of their academic portfolio, and enhance the Asian American faculty pipeline through support and mentorship of students. Asian Americans will soon comprise one-fifth of the U.S. physician workforce and should be welcomed as part of the solution to advancing diversity and inclusion in medicine, not cast as the problem.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação Médica/legislação & jurisprudência , Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Diversidade Cultural , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Médicos , Estados Unidos/etnologia
3.
Global Health ; 15(1): 84, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most international electives in which medical students from high-income countries travel abroad are largely unstructured, and can lead to problematic outcomes for students as well as sending and receiving institutions. We analyse the problems of unstructured medical electives and describe the benefits of an elective experience that includes more organisation and oversight from the sending medical school. RESULTS: A number of structured elective programmes have been developed, including those at the Medical School for International Health, Israel and the University of Dundee, United Kingdom. These programmes provide significant pre-departure training in global health and the ethical dimensions of electives, support and monitoring during the elective, and post-elective debrief. Crucially, the programmes themselves are developed on the basis of long-term engagement between institutions, and have an element of reciprocity. We further identify two major problems in current medical electives: the different ethical contexts in which electives take place, and the problem of 'voluntourism', in which the primary beneficiary of the activity is the medical student, rather than the receiving institution or health system. These two issues should be seen in the light of unequal relations between sending and receiving institutions, which largely mirror unequal relations between the Global North and South. CONCLUSION: We argue that more structured elective programmes could form a useful corrective to some of the problems identified with medical electives. We recommend that medical schools in countries such as the UK strongly consider developing these types of programmes, and if this is not possible, they should seek to further develop their pre-departure training curricula.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/organização & administração , Intercâmbio Educacional Internacional , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Currículo , Humanos , Reino Unido
4.
Med Educ Online ; 24(1): 1555435, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671284

RESUMO

Effective mentoring enhances the personal and professional development of mentees and mentors, boosts the reputation of host organizations and improves patient outcomes. Much of this success hinges upon the mentor's ability to nurture personalized mentoring relationships and mentoring environments, provide effective feedback and render timely, responsive, appropriate, and personalized support. However, mentors are often untrained raising concerns about the quality and oversight of mentoring support.To promote effective and consistent use of mentor training in medical education, this scoping review asks what mentor training programs are available in undergraduate and postgraduate medicine and how they may inform the creation of an evidenced-based framework for mentor training.Six reviewers adopted Arksey and O'Malley's approach to scoping reviews to study prevailing mentor-training programs and guidelines in postgraduate education programs and in medical schools. The focus was on novice mentoring approaches. Six reviewers carried out independent searches with similar inclusion/exclusion criteria using PubMed, ERIC, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and grey literature databases. Included were theses and book chapters published in English or had English translations published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2017. Braun and Clarke's approach to thematic analysis was adopted to circumnavigate mentoring's and mentor training's evolving, context-specific, goal-sensitive, learner-, tutor- and relationally dependent nature that prevents simple comparisons of mentor training across different settings and mentee and mentor populations.In total, 3585 abstracts were retrieved, 232 full-text articles were reviewed, 68 articles were included and four themes were identified including the structure, content, outcomes and evaluation of mentor training program.The themes identified provide the basis for an evidence-based, practice-guided framework for a longitudinal mentor training program in medicine and identifies the essential topics to be covered in mentor training programs.


Assuntos
Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Mentores/educação , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Humanos
9.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 27: 56, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528335

RESUMO

Background: This is the second article reporting on a study that sought the views of people with extensive experience in Councils on Chiropractic Education (CCEs) on research that has raised concerns about variability in accreditation standards and processes for chiropractic programs (CPs) and chiropractic practice in general. Methods: This qualitative study employed in-depth semi-structured interviews that consisted of open-ended questions asking experts about their thoughts and views on a range of issues surrounding accreditation, graduate competency standards and processes. The interviews were audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim in June and July of 2018. The transcripts were reviewed to develop codes and themes. The study followed the COREQ guidelines for qualitative studies. Results: The interviews revealed that these CCE experts were able to discern positive and negative elements of the accreditation standards and processes. They were, in general, satisfied with CCEs accreditation standards, graduating competencies, and site inspection processes. Most respondents believed that it was not possible to implement an identical set of international accreditation standards because of cultural and jurisdictional differences. This was thought more likely to be achieved if based on the notion of equivalence. Also, they expressed positive views toward an evidence-based CP curriculum and an outcomes-based assessment of student learning. However, they expressed concerns that an evidence-based approach may result in the overlooking of the clinician's experience. Diverse views were found on the presence of vitalism in CPs. These ranged from thinking vitalism should only be taught in an historical context, it was only a minority who held this view and therefore an insignificant issue. Finally, that CCEs should not regulate these personal beliefs, as this was potentially censorship. The notable absence was that the participants omitted any mention of the implications for patient safety, values and outcomes. Conclusions: Expert opinions lead us to conclude that CCEs should embrace and pursue the widely accepted mainstream healthcare standards of an evidence-based approach and place the interests of the patient above that of the profession. Recommendations are made to this end with the intent of improving CCE standards and processes of accreditation.


Assuntos
Acreditação/normas , Quiroprática/educação , Quiroprática/normas , Educação Médica/normas , Acreditação/organização & administração , Quiroprática/organização & administração , Currículo/normas , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Prova Pericial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 22(4): 159-164, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183075

RESUMO

La educación médica en Costa Rica se inicia en 1959 con la creación de la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Costa Rica. La interacción entre la Junta de Protección Social y la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social ha fortalecido su desarrollo. La fundación de las escuelas de medicina privadas en la década de los setenta, así como la creación del Sistema Nacional de Acreditación de la Educación Superior como garante de la calidad académica de las instituciones de educación superior y el Colegio de Médicos y Cirujanos, ente que regula el ejercicio profesional y la idoneidad del recurso médico, han contribuido de forma importante a este desarrollo. Todos estos esfuerzos institucionales conjuntos permiten a los estudiantes de grado y posgrado el acceso a planes de estudio de calidad, para dar mejores servicios de salud a la población costarricense, permitiendo el avance en los índices de salud del país y el desarrollo de un sistema sanitario que cubre el 95% de la población. Los desafíos se dirigen a una mejor planificación, que regule la formación de este recurso, a la atención de la población mayor de 65 años, tanto en lo preventivo como en las patologías propias de la edad, al desarrollo de estrategias mediante la tecnología informática que potencie la formación de redes para la investigación en educación médica, a la formación de profesionales a nivel general y a una especialización de mayor calidad


Medical education in Costa Rica began in 1959 with the creation of the School of Medicine of the University of Costa Rica. The subsequent interaction between the Social Protection Board and the alliances with the Costa Rican Social Security Fund has strengthened its development. Black in the seventies, the foundation of the private schools of medicine, and the creation of the National System of Accreditation of Higher Education as guarantor of the minimum academic quality and the role of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, entity that regulates the professional practice and the suitability of the resource edict, has contributed in an important way with this development. All these joint institutional efforts allow undergraduate and graduate students, access to quality study plans, to provide better health services to the Costa Rican population and allowing advancement in the health indices presented by the country and the development of a health system that covers 95% of the population. The challenges are focused on the achievement of a better planning, that regulates the formation of this course, the attention for the population over 65 years, both in the preventive, as in the pathologies of that time, the development of strategies through the computer technology that enhances the formation of networks for research in medical education and the training of general and specialty professionals of higher quality


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Médica/métodos , Modelos Educacionais , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação/métodos , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Costa Rica , Acreditação , Teste de Admissão Acadêmica
15.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(3): 403-410, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258446

RESUMO

Background: The following case example provides an overview of one innovative way to engage health professions faculty with health sciences librarians in the development of an interprofessional book discussion and identifies strategies to address implementation challenges. Academic health sciences librarians worked with the Interprofessional Education (IPE) Steering Committee to organize interprofessional book discussion groups for incoming health professions students. This inaugural book discussion brought together students and faculty of different disciplines to engage students in "learning from, with, and about" other professions. Case Presentation: When Breath Becomes Air, by Paul Kalanithi, allowed involved discussions on important health sciences issues. The project included outreach, designing pre- and post-surveys, scheduling participants, and communicating with all participants before, during, and after the event. A total of seventy-nine students and thirty-six faculty, representing all health professions schools, participated in the small group IPE book discussions over two weeks. Conclusions: Small group book discussions have been shown to be an effective tool to engage students and faculty in IPE. The results of the participant surveys were positive, and the IPE Steering Committee found value in including health sciences librarians throughout the process. Lessons learned from the pilot project include needing an efficient scheduling system, strongly communicating at all stages of the project, and starting the planning process months ahead of time. The IPE Steering Committee plans to conduct similar book discussions every fall semester moving forward and explore options for other IPE events.


Assuntos
Livros , Comportamento Cooperativo , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Relações Interprofissionais , Bibliotecários/psicologia , Adulto , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
16.
Am Surg ; 85(6): 601-605, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267900

RESUMO

The Stop the Bleed (STB) course teaches trainees prehospital hemorrhage control with a focus on mass education. Identifying populations most likely to benefit can help save on the significant cost and limited resources. In this study, we attempted to identify those populations and performed a cost analysis. Trainees underwent STB education and completed a survey on completion to assess demographics and prior experiences where STB skills could have been useful. Five hundred seventy-one trainees categorized as first responders (14%), students (56%), and the working public (30%) completed the survey. Most trainees found the lecture and simulation helpful, 96 per cent and 98 per cent, respectively. There were significant differences among groups who had previously been in situations where the STB course would have been helpful (88% first responders versus 40% students versus 43% public workers) (P < 0.001). Teaching a class of 10 students costs approximately $455; the cost can be as high as $1246 for a class of 50 students. Most STB trainees found the course helpful. First responders are most likely to be exposed to situations where course information could be helpful. Focusing on specific high-yield groups rather than mass education might be a more efficient approach to STB education.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Socorristas/educação , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Educação Profissionalizante/organização & administração , Tratamento de Emergência , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/educação , Melhoria de Qualidade , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
17.
Indian Pediatr ; 56(6): 489-495, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278230

RESUMO

Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are currently the buzz word in the field of e-learning. By definition, MOOCs are massive courses considering the number of participants enrolled across the globe per course, are open accessed, and are available online. MOOCs have evolved along the trajectory of correspondence courses, radio- and television-broadcasts, and e-learning. Though various taxonomies to classify MOCCs exit, two types - Connectivist Massive Open Online Course (cMOOC) and Extended Massive Open Online Course (xMOOC) have distinctly emerged. cMOOC promotes creativity and interaction among participants, while xMOOC is used merely for knowledge dispersion. With increased and unrestricted use of internet, and with ease of developing new online platforms, MOOCs are proving to be an evolutionary phenomenon. Many universities and institutes of higher learning are using MOOCs for knowledge dispersion and skill development. Their role in faculty development, capacity and capability building in medical education arena is unequivocal. Potential of MOOCs can be well-tapped for conduct of continuing medical education programs, and programs for improving soft-skills and research skills in medical field for faculty development. This review details the concepts of MOOCs and their application in education field, particularly in medical education, and feasibility of developing MOOCs in India.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância/métodos , Educação Médica/métodos , Internet , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Humanos , Índia
18.
Educ Prim Care ; 30(5): 289-294, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354075

RESUMO

Introduction: Increasing the capacity of Primary Care to meet the challenge of providing future complex and multi-disciplinary care in England has led to the increasing establishment of 'Training Hubs' [TH]. Other terms are used interchangeably to refer to TH activity: Advanced Training Practices, Enhanced Training Practices and Community Education Providers. The aim of this study was to gather the perceptions of TH Leads in North West England on how they established their TH and lessons learned. Methods: Five semi-structured telephone interviews were undertaken with TH Leads. Thematic analysis of the transcripts was undertaken. Findings: Four themes were identified: Motivation and Expectations of Establishing THs; Benefits to Learners and Practice Staff; Implementation Challenges and Barriers to Scale-Up; Sustainability and Wider Implementation. Discussion: TH Leads highlighted that the establishment of THs enhanced the multi-disciplinary learning experience. However, several barriers for sustaining the quality of the TH learning environments were identified. Difficulties recruiting 'Spoke Practices' were greater than expected. Findings identified the following factors for consideration for wider implementation: the maintenance of TH Lead support networks; appropriateness of funding to encourage practices who may be reluctant to take on this additional responsibility; the importance of communication channels between THs and HEIs; careful management of students numbers.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/organização & administração , Educação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Inglaterra , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço/economia , Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 268, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The educational beliefs of medical academics influence how they act in class and thus influence student learning. One component of these are beliefs academics hold about the qualities of teachers themselves. These teacher qualities range from behaviours and competencies to more personal attributes such as the teacher's identity and mission. However, it is unclear what medical academics believe to be key teacher qualities. Therefore, this study explored the variety of medical academics' beliefs about 'teacher qualities', aiming to identify and characterise profiles of academics with similar beliefs. METHODS: We interviewed 26 expert academics from two medical schools to explore their beliefs about teacher qualities. A concentric onion-model focusing on teacher qualities was used to analyse and categorise the data deductively. Within each theme we developed subthemes inductively. To gain insight into the variety of beliefs we then clustered the participants into teacher profiles according to the themes. To better understand each of the profiles we carried out a quantitative study of the differences between profiles regarding subthemes, contextual and personal factors, and analysed statistical significance using Fisher's exact- and Student's t-tests for categorical and continuous data, respectively. RESULTS: Four profiles of medical academics were identified, corresponding to the most central theme that each participant had reflected on: the 'Inspirer', 'Role-model', 'Practitioner', and 'Critic'. The focus of the profiles varied from external constraining factors within the 'Critic' profile to affective personal qualities within the 'Role-model' and 'Inspirer' profiles. The profiles could be regarded as hierarchically ordered by inclusiveness. Educational institute was the only significant factor related to the profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Besides the relevance of affective teacher qualities, the 'Inspirer' profile demonstrates the importance of developing a clear mission as a teaching academic, centred around student learning and professional development. In our view, academics who inspire their students continue to be inspired themselves. The practical implications are described for faculty development programmes, and for the potential value of using these profiles within medical schools. In the discourse on educational beliefs, the authors argue that more attention should be paid to affective qualities, in particular to explicating the educational mission of academics.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Docentes de Medicina/organização & administração , Competência Profissional , Gestão da Qualidade Total , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
20.
Med Educ Online ; 24(1): 1630238, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248353

RESUMO

Given the economic burden and numerous morbidities associated with obesity and poor dietary choices, it is increasingly important for medical students to receive education on nutrition and preventive medicine so that they are equipped to advise patients about healthy lifestyle choices. Currently, 71% of US medical schools do not reach the minimum benchmark of 25 hours of nutrition education set by the National Academy of Sciences. In order to improve the quality and quantity of nutrition education at the Keck School of Medicine of USC (KSOM), medical students and faculty have partnered with LA Kitchen (LAK), a local teaching kitchen, and the Wellness Center at LA County Medical Center (LAC+USC). They developed a hands-on preclinical culinary and nutrition course that aims to teach students practical skills and knowledge that they will be able to apply to their own lives and pass onto patients. Following the completion of the first three years of the course (2016-2018), analysis suggests that the class was well-received and has improved students' nutrition knowledge, confidence in lifestyle counseling, and personal culinary skills. Given these highly encouraging observations, the project is currently aimed at incorporating nutrition education more broadly into the required preclinical curriculum at KSOM.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Dieta , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Currículo , Humanos , Relações Interinstitucionais , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração
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