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1.
S Afr Med J ; 110(5): 369-373, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little information on the financial return of investment when funding the tertiary education of healthcare professionals (HCPs) in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-benefit of the Umthombo Youth Development Foundation (UYDF) scholarship scheme, which has supported the training of HCPs from rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal Province, SA, for the past 19 years, and to establish whether it is a worthwhile investment. METHODS: This was an economic analysis to estimate the costs and economic value of UYDF's investment in the training of HCPs, using a deterministic model developed in Excel 2010 (Microsoft, USA) to analyse the UYDF's historical, numerical and economic data. Costs were measured in monetary terms, and a rate of return on investment was calculated over the working life of HCPs who had been supported by the UYDF. RESULTS: With a >90% pass rate, the total cost of training the 254 graduates supported by the UYDF from 2009 to 2015 was estimated to be ZAR186 million. Graduates are expected to generate an estimated ZAR15 billion in lifetime earnings, which is equal to ZAR4 billion at 2015 prices, and represents an internal rate of return of 63%. Income tax paid on future earnings will be ~ZAR4 billion, assuming a 20 - 30% tax rate. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis has shown that the cost of HCPs' education, where the annual pass rate is >90%, and >98% of graduates are employed, is an excellent investment. Consideration should be given to finding ways of improving the pass rate at institutions of higher learning and ensuring that graduates obtain meaningful employment if such returns on investment are to be seen on a national level.


Assuntos
Educação Profissionalizante/economia , Bolsas de Estudo/economia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Análise Custo-Benefício , Fundações , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , África do Sul
5.
J Perinat Med ; 48(5): 446-449, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401229

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a rapid and massive transition to online education. We describe the response of our Office of Faculty Development at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso (TTUHSC EP) to this unprecedented challenge during and after this post-pandemic crisis. The initiatives for emergency transition to eLearning and faculty development described in this paper may serve as a model for other academic health centers, schools, colleges and universities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Educação Profissionalizante/métodos , Docentes/organização & administração , Internet , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Educação Profissionalizante/organização & administração , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/métodos , Texas
6.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 151: 102976, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389896

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of the European School of Oncology's (ESO) Masterclass (MCO) in Clinical Oncology on the career development of young participants. MCO represents the flagship educational activity of ESO and is organized annually, mostly in collaboration with the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) in five different geographical regions. A questionnaire consisting of 21 questions was sent to all doctors who attended the ESO MCOs from 2009 to 2016. The 228 responders were mostly from European countries and hold the specialty of Medical Oncology. Ninety-five percent of them evaluated ESO MCOs as "extremely useful" or "useful" for their professional career. Around 60% were trained at University Hospitals or Cancer Institutes and currently, one-third of them are employed in Academic Centers. Eighty percent have performed translational or clinical research and 77.5% were able to publish in pertinent international journals. The contribution of ESO MCOs to trainees' career development in different oncology disciplines around the world is discussed.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada , Educação Profissionalizante/organização & administração , Oncologia/educação , Neoplasias , Médicos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Oncologia/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Arq. bras. psicol. (Rio J. 2003) ; 72(1): 173-186, jan.-abr. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1114679

RESUMO

O estudo exploratório e qualitativo do qual este artigo faz um recorte teve como objetivo caracterizar as estratégias de aprendizagem de estudantes de Ensino Técnico brasileiro. A amostra compreendeu 20 estudantes do primeiro ano do Ensino Técnico. Os participantes foram submetidos a uma entrevista semiestruturada sobre o seu modo de aprendizagem (a maneira como aprendem) e a sua prática de análise crítica (o grau de análise crítica empregue na aprendizagem). As respostas foram sujeitas a uma análise temática, que sugere uma replicação da estratégia de superfície (mecanização da aprendizagem e reduzida análise crítica), da estratégia de profundidade (compreensão e elevada análise crítica), da estratégia de organização (enfoque nos conteúdos que serão avaliados) e da estratégia intermédia (memorização e compreensão dos conteúdos). Foram igualmente encontradas variações daquelas estratégias.


The exploratory and qualitative study in which this article makes a cut had the objective of characterizing the learning strategies of Brazilian Vocational Education students. The sample comprised 20 students from the first year of a Technical Education course. Participants underwent a semi-structured interview about their learning mode (the way they learn) and their use of critical analysis (the degree of critical analysis employed in learning). The responses were subject to a thematic analysis, which suggests a replication of the surface strategy (mechanization of learning - reduced critical analysis), deep strategy (comprehension - high degree of critical analysis), achieving strategy (focus on the contents that will be evaluated) and the intermediate strategy (memorization and understanding of contents). Variations of these strategies were also found.


El estudio exploratorio y cualitativo del cual este artículo hace un recorte tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las estrategias de aprendizaje de estudiantes de Enseñanza Técnica brasileña. La muestra comprendió 20 estudiantes del primer año de la Enseñanza Técnica. Los participantes fueron sometidos a una entrevista semiestructurada sobre su modo de aprendizaje (la manera como aprenden) y su práctica de análisis crítico (el grado de análisis crítico empleado en el aprendizaje).Las respuestas se sometieron a un análisis temático, que sugiere una replicación de la estrategia de superficie (mecanización del aprendizaje y reducido análisis crítico), de la estrategia de profundidad (comprensión y alto análisis crítico), de la estrategia de organización (enfoque en los contenidos que serán evaluados) y de la estrategia intermedia (memorización y comprensión de los contenidos). También se encontraron variaciones de esas estrategias.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Ensino , Educação Vocacional , Educação Profissionalizante , Aprendizagem , Brasil
9.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3247, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the results of an Interprofessional Education activity in the ​​Occupational Health field. METHOD: this is an Action Research, which encompassed the implementation and evaluation stages of the activity. It was developed in a Public Higher Education Institution through 15 meetings, totaling 60 hours. It had 16 participants, five undergraduate students, three graduate students, five teachers and three health professionals, representing the areas of Nursing, Physical Education, Physiotherapy, Gerontology and Psychology. Data regarding the implementation of the activity were collected in a field diary and analyzed through Thematic Analysis. An evaluation form constructed exclusively for this purpose was applied, whose data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. RESULTS: three thematic categories were identified: (1) Comprehensive care; (2) Work as a social determinant of the health-disease process; and (3) Interprofessional teamwork. The activity of Interprofessional Education was positively evaluated by the participants, who pointed out the contributions of this strategy in the construction of knowledge directed to Occupational Health. CONCLUSION: the activity of Interprofessional Education proved to be possible and important in the context of the formation of health professions to strengthen occupational health care.


Assuntos
Educação Profissionalizante , Relações Interprofissionais , Saúde do Trabalhador/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Feminino , Humanos , Setor Público , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Nurse Educ Today ; 84: 104239, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health and social care education is highly important for preparing future professionals for their future roles in sustainable health and social care. However, previous studies have emphasized that health and social care educators' competence is complex and poorly defined. Thus, there is a clear need for a psychometrically validated instrument to enable clarification and assessment of the required skills. OBJECTIVE: To develop and psychometrically validate an instrument (the HeSoEduCo) for assessing health and social care educators' competence in higher and professional education. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A HeSoEduCo instrument, with items inviting 1-4 Likert scale responses, was developed, based on one systematic review and one qualitative study, then validated in terms of face, content and construct validity and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha values). All health and social care educators based in all 21 universities of applied sciences in Finland and seven vocational colleges were subsequently invited to participate in a large-scale application of the instrument in fall 2018. In total, responses of 390 of these educators are analyzed here. RESULTS: The face and content validity of 71 newly developed items were assessed by experts in two evaluation rounds. The final content validity showed high scores for the instrument's relevance and clarity. Confirmatory factor analysis (to test construct validity) yielded eight factors (43-items remaining), defining the following competence areas of educators: evidence-based practice, digital collaborative learning, student-centered pedagogy, collaboration & societal, leadership & management, cultural & linguistic diversity, mentoring student into professional competence development and subject & curriculum. Cronbach's alpha values for the factors ranged from 0.70 to 0.89. CONCLUSION: The instrument can be used to obtain self-evaluations of educators' competence when assessing their general competence levels and help human resources departments and managers to identify suitable continuous education programs for their staff.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Docentes de Enfermagem , Psicometria , Educação Profissionalizante , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 91(1): 4-10, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spatial disorientation (SD) remains a significant cause of accidents and near accidents. A variety of training methods have been used to assist pilots to anticipate the SD problem. The value of such training in the prevention of disorientation has been difficult to assess.METHODS: To study transfer of SD awareness training, we related reported incidents to the content and frequency of SD awareness training received. The questionnaire was completed by 368 out of 495 pilots; 189 currently flying fixed-wing, and 150 flying rotary-wing aircraft. On average, their age was 38, and they had 2466 flight hours on-type.RESULTS: Respondents gave high ratings for the importance of SD training and their awareness of SD, the latter being one of the training objectives. The amount of SD training received by respondents was positively correlated with ratings for appreciation and importance. Self-rated awareness was positively correlated with the number of reported SD experiences. Although the correlations were below 0.50, the results provide an indication that SD training is effective. In total, respondents reported 5773 SD experiences, 195 of them resulting in a serious risk for flight safety. Narratives of these serious events show that, in many cases, pilots managed their SD by carefully checking the flight instruments, and also by good crew coordination.DISCUSSION: The results of the survey provide some evidence, although based on subjective reports, for transfer of SD training. The results of the SD experiences can be used to improve the SD training in terms of content and frequency.Pennings HJM, Oprins EAPB, Wittenberg H, Houben MMJ, Groen EL. Spatial disorientation survey among military pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2020; 91(1):4-10.


Assuntos
Confusão/prevenção & controle , Militares/psicologia , Orientação Espacial , Pilotos/psicologia , Transferência de Experiência , Adulto , Conscientização , Educação Profissionalizante , Humanos , Ilusões , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/educação , Pilotos/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Acad Med ; 95(5): 686-689, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876567

RESUMO

Health professions education (HPE) researchers come from many different academic traditions, from psychology to engineering to rhetoric. Trained in these traditions, HPE researchers engage in science and the building of new knowledge from different paradigmatic orientations. Collaborating across these traditions is particularly generative, a phenomenon the authors call the multidisciplinary edge effect. However, to harness this productivity, scholars need to understand their own paradigms and those of others so that collaboration can flourish. This Invited Commentary introduces the Philosophy of Science series-a collection of articles that introduce readers to 7 different paradigms that are frequently used in HPE research or that the authors suggest will be increasingly common in future studies. Each article in the collection presents a concise and accessible description of the main principles of a paradigm so that researchers can quickly grasp how these traditions differ from each other. In this introductory article, the authors define and illustrate key terms that are essential to understanding these traditions (i.e., paradigm, ontology, epistemology, methodology, and axiology) and explain the structure that each article in this series follows.


Assuntos
Educação Profissionalizante/métodos , Estudos Interdisciplinares/tendências , Educação Baseada em Competências , Educação Profissionalizante/tendências , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
14.
Trab. educ. saúde ; 18(supl.1): e0025385, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094559

RESUMO

Resumo O objetivo foi analisar o diálogo no agir-aprendente do educando e no agir-educativo das educadoras no movimento ensino-aprendizagem em um curso técnico de nível médio em enfermagem promovido pela Escola de Formação Técnica em Saúde do Sistema Único de Saúde, para comunidade em contexto de vulnerabilidade social. Estudo qualitativo, do tipo estudo de caso, ancorado no referencial de Paulo Freire. Participaram doze educandos e cinco educadoras, com os dados coletados entre dezembro de 2014 e setembro de 2015 por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, observações registradas em diário de campo e análise documental. O diálogo no uso de metodologias inovadoras e problematizadoras proporcionou a construção e estreitamento de vínculos, contextualização do conteúdo teórico com base no território e na leitura de mundo dos educandos em busca de uma relação dialógica. O potencial formativo embasado no pensamento freireano orientou a reflexão e prática fundamentada no diálogo que contribuiu para o processo educativo emancipatório e plural. Concluímos que o diálogo proporcionou uma relação de proximidade entre educadores e educandos, revelando-se como ideia/força, favorecendo a dinâmica sensível e crítica que permeou e constituiu o movimento ensino-aprendizagem para educandos em contexto de vulnerabilidade social.


Abstract This article aimed to analyze the learner's acting-learning and the educating-acting of the educators in the teaching-learning movement in an Intermediate Level Technical Course in Nursing promoted by the School of Technical Formation in Health of Brazilian Unified Healht System. The methodology had a qualitative, exploratory, case study approach, anchored in Paulo Freire's framework. Twelve students and five teachers participated in this study, with data collected from December 2014 to September 2015 through semi-structured interviews, observations recorded in a field diary and document analysis. The use of innovative and problematizing methodologies showed that the dialogue provided the construction and strengthening of bonds, contextualization of the theoretical content based on the territory and the students' reading of the world in search of a dialogical relation. The formative potential of Freire's thinking guided reflection on practice in dialogues, with a view to constituting emancipatory educational processes. We conclude that the dialogue provided a close relationship between educators and learners, revealing itself as an idea/force, favoring the sensitive and critical dynamics that permeated and constituted the teaching-learning movement for students in a context of social vulnerability.


Resumen Este artículo ha tenido como objetivo analizar el actuar-aprendiz del educando y el actuar-educativo de las educadoras en el movimiento enseñanza-aprendizaje considerando sus contribuciones para el campo de la formación en un Curso Técnico de Nivel Secundario en Enfermería, impulsado por la Escuela de Formación Técnica en Salud del Sistema Único de Salud de Brasil. Estudio cualitativo, del tipo estudio de caso, anclado en el referencial de Paulo Freire. Han participado de este estudio 12 educandos y cinco educadoras, con los datos recogidos entre diciembre de 2014 y septiembre de 2015 por medio de entrevista semiestructurada, observaciones registradas en diario de campo y análisis documental. El dialogo en uso de metodologías innovadoras y problematizadoras ha proporcionado la construcción y estrechamiento de vínculos, contextualización del contenido teórico con base en el territorio y en la lectura de mundo de los educandos en la búsqueda de una relación dialógica. El potencial formativo del pensamiento freireano ha guiado la reflexión e práctica fundamentada en diálogo, que ha contribuido para el proceso educativo emancipatorio y plural. Concluimos que el diálogo proporcionó una estrecha relación entre educadores y educandos, revelándose como idea/fuerza, favoreciendo la dinámica sensible y critica que permeó y constituyó el movimiento enseñanza-aprendizaje para educandos en contexto de vulnerabilidad social.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ensino , Enfermagem , Vulnerabilidade Social , Educação Profissionalizante , Aprendizagem
18.
Edumecentro ; 11(4): 222-236, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089984

RESUMO

RESUMEN Fundamento: el proceso de universalización de la enseñanza en la formación de profesionales de la salud posibilitó la educación médica en escenarios diversos donde antes solo se realizaba la atención primaria. Objetivo: valorar el impacto de la universalización en la formación y desempeño de los profesionales de la salud en la sede universitaria del municipio de Santo Domingo en Villa Clara. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de intervención en el proceso de universalización del período 2009-2017, las unidades de observación fueron el total de profesores activos categorizados para impartir la docencia y los estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina matriculados en los dos primeros cursos. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis, inducción-deducción e histórico-lógico; y empíricos: el análisis documental de informes que ofrecieron los datos de comparación. Resultados: las cifras encontradas posibilitaron apreciar avances en los educadores en cuanto al tránsito de categorías docentes inferiores hasta profesores auxiliares, aumento de grados académicos y científicos concretados en mayor número de másteres, especialistas de segundo grado e investigadores agregados, y se incrementaron las publicaciones y la participación en eventos científicos nacionales e internacionales. La mayoría de los estudiantes se graduaron, y se mantienen en el sistema de salud aportando buenos resultados en la atención a la población, incluso algunos han cumplido misiones internacionalistas. Conclusiones: el proceso de universalización se valoró de forma positiva porque elevó de forma considerable las competencias en los profesionales del territorio y el desempeño de los graduados formados en esa modalidad de estudios universitarios.


ABSTRACT Background: the process of universalization of education in the training of health professionals enabled medical education in diverse settings where primary care was only performed before. Objective: to assess the impact of universalization in the training and performance of health professionals in Santo Domingo Municipality University branch in Villa Clara. Methods: an intervention study was carried out in the universalization process from 2009 to 2017, the observation units were the total number of active ranked teaching professors and the students of the medical degree enrolled in the first two courses. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis, induction-deduction and historical-logical; and empirical ones: the documentary analysis of reports that offered the comparison data. Results: the figures found made it possible to appreciate advances in educators in terms of the transition from lower teaching ranks to associate professors, increase in academic and scientific degrees specified in a greater number of masters, second degree specialists and assistant researchers, and publications and Participation in national and international scientific events. Most of the students graduated, they remain in the health system providing good results in the care of the population, and even some of them have completed internationalist missions. Conclusions: the universalization process was valued in a positive way because it significantly increased the competencies in the professionals of the territory and the performance of graduates trained in this modality of university studies.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Educação Profissionalizante , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Prática Integral de Cuidados de Saúde
19.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 87(2): 63-70, abr.-dic. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1097496

RESUMO

Antecedentes: La asixia perinatal, producida al feto/neonato por hipoxia y/o hipoperfusión tisular, puede llevar a ence-falopatía hipóxico-isquémica (EHI). La hipotermia terapéutica (HT) es eicaz para tratar EHI moderada/severa. Objetivo: Determinar conocimientos y actitudes sobre EHI e HT del personal sanitario y estudiantes antes y después de una intervención educativa, Departamento de Pediatría, Hospital Escuela (HE), Tegucigalpa, 2019. Métodos: Estudio cuasi experimental. Médicos, enfermeras, estudiantes de grado y posgrado fueron invitados a participar mediante consentimiento informado. El ensayo consistió en evaluación pre-intervención (Fase 1), seguida de intervención educativa, video y documento enviados por aplicación WhatsApp, y evaluación post-intervención (Fase 2). Se registraron características sociodemográicas. Se evaluó conocimientos (Excelente, Muy bueno, Bue-no, Deiciente) y actitudes (Buena, Regular, Mala, Muy mala). Se midió el cambio (Delta Porcentaje) entre proporción de participantes de acuerdo a conocimientos y actitudes pre y post-intervención. Resultados: De 181 potenciales participantes, en Fase 1 participaron 147 (81.2%) y en Fase 2, 127 (70.2%). Inicialmente, 93.2% (137) demostró un conocimiento deiciente y actitud buena 38.0% (56), regular 28.0% (41), mala 32.0% (47). El conocimiento bueno aumentó en 561.2% (3.1% versus 20.5%), conocimiento muy bueno aumentó en 185.1% (4.7% versus 13.4%), conocimiento deiciente disminuyó en 35.9% (92.2% versus 59.1%). La actitud regular au-mentó en 37.0% (27.0% versus 37.0%), actitud mala disminuyó 30.4% (32.8% versus 22.8%). Discusión: La intervención educativa mejoró conocimiento y actitud en relación a HT y EHI. La HT disponible en HE puede mejorar el desenlace de EHI. Se recomienda fortalecer las medidas educativas institucionales sobre el protocolo de HT...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Asfixia Neonatal/complicações , Educação Profissionalizante
20.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884756

RESUMO

In recent decades, both in the Russian Federation and in the Sverdlovsk oblast decreasing of population size of adolescents and deterioration of their physical development and health status were established. In Russia, the organization of medical care of college students is insufficiently organized and requires additional improvements. The selective assessment of activities of medical offices in six colleges in Yekaterinburg was implemented. The sociological surveys were organized on the basis of the international HBSC questionnaire to study opinions of the minors about organization of medical care in colleges (653 students interviewed) and prevalence of health risk factors among students (1142 students were interviewed). In the Sverdlovsk region in 2018, only 53.6% of colleges were licensed for carrying out medical activities. According to the study, medical care in colleges was provided by medical assistant of medical office. This condition resulted in that not all the students underwent preventive examinations or underwent them not in required fullness. The medical personnel of colleges provided no analysis of health status of adolescents and health education is insufficient. The analysis of the data of sociological surveys established high prevalence of behavioral risk factors among underage students. Almost half of respondents noted the presence of harmful habits and only quarter of respondents paid attention to healthy diet. The percentage of respondents claimed that they tasted and consumed "spices" and "surfactants" was high against the background of low awareness of dangers of these habits. To amend this situation, it is necessary to organize auditing of quality of medical care of students in colleges, to analyze quality of preventive examinations, to develop a set of preventive measures of promoting health of students of colleges, based on their motivation and psychological characteristics, involving students themselves in the process, applying interactive forms.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Educação Profissionalizante , Estudantes , Adolescente , Humanos , Federação Russa , Universidades
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