Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 385
Filtrar
1.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 23(4): 173-178, ago. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195078

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los procesos de planificación del aprendizaje son altamente complejos, tanto para estudiantes como para docentes. Para decidir qué hacer en el aula, los docentes deben considerar el perfil de egreso de la carrera y los programas de la asignatura, pero no está claro cómo finalmente definen sus propósitos antes de realizar una clase. OBJETIVO: Analizar el proceso de definición de propósitos desde los cuales el docente planifica las actividades de enseñanza de programas de pregrado de la salud. Sujetos y métodos: Estudio cualitativo, según la teoría fundamentada. Se entrevistó a cuatro expertos en educación médica y a 25 docentes, previo consentimiento informado. Para el análisis se realizó codificación axial. RESULTADOS: Los propósitos de los docentes suelen expresarse en términos afines al modelo por competencias y están arraigados en la concepción de 'qué se suele enseñar', afectado por lo establecido formalmente en el plan de estudios. Su operacionalización está fuertemente influida por las concepciones personales y profesionales y las experiencias del académico. Para el docente, esto aumenta la relevancia de su labor, aunque ello signifique un menor seguimiento de las directrices definidas por su universidad. CONCLUSIÓN: El docente ejerce un rol activo en la definición de los propósitos de enseñanza, lo que es coherente con lo esperado por un docente reflexivo. Sin embargo, queda abierta la discusión de cómo los problemas en la definición de los planes de estudio formales lo llevan a realizar frecuentes adaptaciones personales


INTRODUCTION: Learning processes planning is highly complex, both for students and teachers. Prior to decide what to do in the classroom, teachers should consider graduate profile and courses programs. But it is unclear how they finally define their purposes before taking a class. AIM: To analyze the process of purposes definition that underlies teaching activities election for undergraduate health programs. Subjects and methods.Qualitative study, according to the grounded theory. Four experts in medical education and 25 teachers were interviewed, prior informed consent. For data analysis, axial coding was performed. RESULTS: Teachers' purposes are usually expressed in terms related to competency model. They are rooted in the conception of 'what is usually taught'. It is also affected by what is formally established in the curriculum. But its operationalization is strongly affected by personal and professional conceptions and teachers' experiences. For teachers, this increases the relevance of their work, although the guidelines defined by his university are less used. CONCLUSION: Teachers showed an active role in teaching purposes definition, which is consistent with what is expected by a reflexive teacher. However, the discussion of what problems in formal curricula leads him to make frequent personal adaptations remains open


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Docentes de Medicina/organização & administração , Currículo , Competência Profissional/normas , Prática Profissional/organização & administração , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Educação Profissionalizante/organização & administração , Educação Profissionalizante/normas
4.
Ergonomics ; 63(3): 243-252, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795846

RESUMO

In 2019, the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) discipline turned 70; to celebrate, an international group of academics and educators have reflected on the status of HFE tertiary education across the globe. This paper draws on presentations and discussions from the 20th Triennial International Ergonomics Association (IEA) conference and considers the implications for HFE education programmes. Past, current, and future challenges are outlined and discussed with examples from different countries and programmes. This paper builds on 2012 strategy proposed by Dul and colleagues, to strengthen the demand, and application, of the HFE discipline and profession. It provides a considered set of reflections, noting the range of structural issues and financial pressures within the tertiary education system that create challenges for the viability of specialist programmes such as HFE. A need exists for the broader profession to collaborate and share innovations in HFE programme development, to ensure sustainable HFE education programmes. Practitioner summary: A range of structural issues and financial pressures exist within the tertiary education system that creates challenges for the viability of specialist programmes such as HFE. A need exists for the broader profession to collaborate and share innovations in HFE programme development, to ensure sustainable HFE education programmes. Abbreviation: HFE: Human Factors and Ergonomics; IEA: International Ergonomics Association; CIEHF: Chartered Institute of Ergonomics & Human Factors; UX: User Experience; CREE: Centre for Registration of European Ergonomist; BRICSplus: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa; MOOCS: Massive Open Online Courses; STST: socio technical systems theory; LMIC: low and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Currículo/normas , Educação Profissionalizante/normas , Ergonomia/normas , Previsões , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
5.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 20: e138, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581968

RESUMO

Inter-professional education (IPE) can support professionals in developing their ability to work collaboratively. This position paper from the European Forum for Primary Care considers the design and implementation of IPE within primary care. This paper is based on workshops and is an evidence review of good practice. Enablers of IPE programmes are involving patients in the design and delivery, providing a holistic focus, focussing on practical actions, deploying multi-modal learning formats and activities, including more than two professions, evaluating formative and summative aspects, and encouraging team-based working. Guidance for the successful implementation of IPE is set out with examples from qualifying and continuing professional development programmes.


Assuntos
Educação Profissionalizante/normas , Relações Interprofissionais , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Adulto , Consenso , Comportamento Cooperativo , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Participação do Paciente
6.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0218158, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369586

RESUMO

Physical education professionals aim to develop quality programmes for physical education. This study aimed to develop and validate a scale using professionals' perceptions of Quality Physical Education QPE in Asia using twenty-four items regarding QPE quality issues. The items covered status and roles, development of educational elements and supportive features in physical education. A sample of N = 799 sport and physical education professionals from eleven Asian cities participated in this questionnaire survey. Twenty-four items relating to QPE were examined via exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using maximum likelihood extraction and direct oblimin rotation methods. Nevertheless, only 20 items were extracted following the EFA examination. Items 1, 9, 14 and 18 were excluded because of low factor loadings. The remaining items were clustered into four subscales: Development and Supportive Elements for Quality Physical Education in Schools (DSFQPE; α = .918), Core Values of Quality Physical Education (CVPE; α = .908), Curriculum Arrangement of Physical Activities (CAPA; α = .884) and Provision and Norms in Physical Education (PNPE; α = .865). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α = .875) indicated excellent internal consistency for the overall measure. Furthermore, the 4 retained factors from the EFA were assessed via robust confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The 4-factor model demonstrated a good fit with the data (CMIN/DF = 3.450, CFI = .928, TLI = .916, PCFI = .801, RMSEA = .078). The study identified a 4-factor structure with internal consistency and acceptable interfactor correlations. The structure seemed to be applicable, including the twenty items identified as useful and necessary tools for the framework of analysis in the investigation of diverse settings for the study of quality physical education.


Assuntos
Educação Profissionalizante/normas , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e028206, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The development and pilot of a self-report questionnaire, to assess personal and professional development of healthcare professionals gained through experiences in low-income and middle-income countries. DESIGN: The instrument was developed from a core set of the outcomes of international placements for UK healthcare professionals. Principal component analysis and multidimensional item response theory were conducted using results of a cross-sectional pilot study to highlight items with the best psychometric properties. SETTING: Questionnaires were completed both online and in multiple UK healthcare professional events face-to-face. PARTICIPANTS: 436 healthcare professional participants from the UK (with and without international experience) completed a 110-item questionnaire in which they assessed their knowledge, skills and attitudes. MEASURES: The 110-item questionnaire included self-report questions on a 7-point Likert scale of agreement, developed from the core outcome set, including items on satisfaction, clinical skills, communication and other important healthcare professional knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours. Item reduction led to development of the 40-item Measuring the Outcomes of Volunteering for Education-Tool. Internal consistency was evaluated by the Cronbach's α coefficient. Exploratory analysis investigated the structure of the data using principal component analysis and multivariate item response theory. RESULTS: Exploratory analysis found 10 principal components that explained 71.80% of the variance. Components were labelled 'attitude to work, adaptability, adapting communication, cultural sensitivity, difficult communication, confidence, teaching, management, behaviour change and life satisfaction'. Internal consistency was acceptable for the identified components (α=0.72-0.86). CONCLUSIONS: A 40-item self-report questionnaire developed from a core outcome set for personal and professional development from international placements was developed, with evidence of good reliability and validity. This questionnaire will increase understanding of impact of international placements, facilitating comparisons of different types of experience. This will aid decision making about whether UK healthcare professionals should be encouraged to volunteer internationally and in what capacity.


Assuntos
Educação Profissionalizante/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Intercâmbio Educacional Internacional , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voluntários
8.
J Clin Nurs ; 28(21-22): 3759-3775, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216367

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To extract, examine and report the highest available levels of evidence from healthcare disciplines in the use of simulation-based education as substitution for clinical placement in prelicensure programmes. BACKGROUND: Simulation is widely employed across prelicensure health professional education to create safe, realistic clinical learning experiences for students. Whether simulation can be employed to substitute for actual clinical placement, and if so, in what proportion, replacement ratio and duration, is unclear. METHODS: A systematic review and quality appraisal of primary studies related to prelicensure students in all health disciplines, guided by the PRISMA checklist. RESULTS: Ten primary studies were included, representing 2,370 students from three health disciplines in four countries. Nine studies were experimental and quasi-experimental and methodological quality was assessed as moderate to high with good to very good inter-rater agreement. Direct substitution of simulation for clinical practice ranged from 5% to 50%. With one exception, replacement ratios were 1:1 and duration of replacement ranged from 21 hr-2 years. Levels of evaluation included measures of reaction, knowledge and behaviour transfer; no negative outcomes were reported. We appraised practicalities for design of substitution, design limitations and knowledge transfer to accreditation standards for prelicensure programmes. CONCLUSIONS: This review synthesised highest levels and quality of available evidence for substitution of simulation for clinical placement in health professional education. Included studies were heterogenous in simulation interventions (proportion, ratio and duration) and in the evaluation of outcomes. Future studies should incorporate standardised simulation curricula, widen the health professions represented and strengthen experimental designs. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Current evidence for clinical educational preparation does not appear to be translated into programme accreditation standards governing clinical practice experience for prelicensure programmes in relevant jurisdictions. Overall, a stronger evidence base is necessary to inform future curricula and policy development, to strengthen clinical practice in health.


Assuntos
Educação Profissionalizante/normas , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Treinamento por Simulação/organização & administração , Currículo/normas , Humanos , Licenciamento/normas
9.
Anat Sci Educ ; 12(4): 407-416, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127982

RESUMO

Benefits from the use of cadavers in anatomical education are well described. Historically, human embryos and fetal cadavers were used in anatomy education to understand development and congenital malformations. Recently, three-dimensional printed models produced from archival fetal specimens, and online repositories of images from archival collections of embryos and fetuses, have been used as an educational tool in human development courses. Given that the archival specimens were likely obtained prior to the era of informed consent, this raises questions about their appropriate and ethical use. Because some institutions in the United States retain archival collections of embryonic and fetal specimens that were once used as educational tools, their existence and utility require frequent reexamination against contemporary ethical frameworks to guide appropriate use or utilization. Four ethical rationales for uses of these collections are examined, including destruction, indefinite storage, use in research, and use in health professions education. Guidelines for the use of archival collections of human embryos and fetuses are presented. Indefinite storage and use in health professions education are supported, while use in research is also permitted, however, such use is limited and dependent on circumstance and purpose. The development of current digital repositories and three-dimensionally printed models based on archival collections that were collected without informed consent, or those promoting commercial opportunity, are not supported. New embryonic and fetal donations obtained with informed consent should include reference to potential uses with new technology and virtual, genetic, or imaging applications.


Assuntos
Feto Abortado , Educação Profissionalizante/ética , Embrião de Mamíferos , Embriologia/educação , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Cadáver , Educação Profissionalizante/métodos , Educação Profissionalizante/normas , Embriologia/ética , Embriologia/instrumentação , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Modelos Anatômicos , Princípios Morais , Impressão Tridimensional , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
10.
Augment Altern Commun ; 35(2): 156-166, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887839

RESUMO

A cross-sectional survey study was undertaken to describe the perceived competence, pre- and post-professional training, and practice of Filipino speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Printed and electronic questionnaires were distributed to all SLPs in the Philippines with at least 1 year of practice experience. A total of 152 (47%) questionnaires were returned. Based on these data, 108 respondents (71%) practiced AAC, but most (range = 59-89%) did not perceive themselves to be competent in working with various client populations with complex communication needs. A majority (range = 70-93%) of the respondents reported limited pre-professional training in all AAC content areas, and at least 82% strongly desired continuing education in almost all areas of AAC. Almost 90% of respondents only occasionally (53%) or rarely (36%) recommended AAC, and 82% considered it as a last resort. Major practice challenges reported were families' negative attitudes toward AAC and lack of AAC-specific interdisciplinary collaboration. Infrequent use of high-tech AAC was also reported. The findings suggest various ways through which AAC education and services in the Philippines may be enhanced. They also imply the need for further research on alternative service delivery models, as well as additional members of the AAC team.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Auxiliares de Comunicação para Pessoas com Deficiência , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/normas , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Educação Profissionalizante/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas , Padrões de Prática Médica , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/educação , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 16(3): 344-349, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832829

RESUMO

The pathway to becoming a qualified medical physicist (QMP) in the imaging physics disciplines includes several certification organizations. Imaging QMPs play an essential role in the safe practice of the diagnostic disciplines, and their qualifications are necessary for compliance with federal bodies and professional accreditation organizations. The future demand for imaging QMPs is largely unknown, but professional organizations that represent these groups agree that efforts should be made to increase the number of matriculating trainees. The number of imaging residency programs that provide the necessary professional experience to enter the certification pathway has increased substantially in recent years. Most of these programs follow a traditional academic hospital-based training model, but guidance on program construction from the accrediting body permits flexibility. Existing training models for medical physics imaging also include consortiums of affiliate partners and private consulting service groups. In this article, the authors briefly review the certification pathways for imaging QMPs, workforce estimates, and training models.


Assuntos
Certificação/normas , Diagnóstico por Imagem/normas , Educação Profissionalizante/normas , Física Sanitária/educação , Humanos , Modelos Educacionais , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
12.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 20(supl.1): 72-78, mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192861

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las prácticas académicas en los programas de psicología en Colombia constituyen una parte fundamental del currículo. Los consultorios psicológicos universitarios son un escenario en el cual se desarrolla esta actividad en el campo de la psicología clínica, por lo que se hace necesario revisar la información que se recauda allí, con vistas a supervisar la calidad de dichas prácticas. MÉTODO: Estudio exploratorio retrospectivo en el cual se analizaron los motivos de consulta, los diagnósticos, las estrategias de evaluación e intervención, las metas terapéuticas y los datos sociodemográficos de 708 historias clínicas diligenciadas entre 1999 y 2012 por estudiantes de últimos semestres en periodo de prácticas en una universidad colombiana. RESULTADOS: Se encontró que los diagnósticos están referidos en su mayoría a estresores psicosociales, más que a psicopatologías, y tanto las herramientas de diagnóstico como las estrategias de intervención no son coherentes con el diagnóstico registrado en la historia clínica. CONCLUSIONES: Es evidente la necesidad de fortalecer la formación básica en psicología clínica, en cuanto a sus métodos y alcances, de forma que se brinde una atención a los usuarios que tenga bases científicas, así como establecer protocolos de control para la supervisión de estudiantes en prácticas clínicas en la formación de pregrado


INTRODUCTION: Academic internships in psychology programs in Colombia are a fundamental part of the curriculum. University Psychological Services are a scenario in which this activity is developed in the field of clinical psychology, making it necessary to review the information collected there in order to monitor the quality of such practices. METHOD: A retrospective exploratory study in which the reasons for consultation, diagnoses, strategies of evaluation and intervention, therapeutic goals and sociodemographic data of 708 medical records were analysed, between 1999 and 2012, by students in the final semesters of the internship period in a Colombian university. RESULTS: It was found that the diagnoses mostly referred to psychosocial stressors rather than psychopathologies. The diagnostic tools and intervention strategies are not consistent with the diagnosis recorded in the clinical notes. CONCLUSIONS: The need to strengthen basic training in clinical psychology is evident, in terms of its methods and scope, in order to provide users with a scientific basis, as well as to establish control protocols for the supervision of students in Clinical internships in undergraduate training


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Registros Médicos , Administração de Consultório/organização & administração , Educação Profissionalizante/normas , Psicologia Clínica/educação , Colômbia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Psicologia Clínica/organização & administração , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Physiother Theory Pract ; 35(11): 1061-1077, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746184

RESUMO

Physical therapy educational programs are tasked to develop core values in their students as the foundation of professionalism. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an approach that intends to enrich exploration of issues in clinical decision making, understand how patient care is supported by other aspects of professional practice, and develop examination, intervention and communication skills. This qualitative study aimed to understand, interpret, and describe doctoral physical therapy students' perspectives of core value development in a modified PBL program. Twenty-seven of 49 students from a single class participated in the study at the time of graduation. Phenomenological methods via semi-structured focus group interviews were used to foster an in-depth understanding of students' experiences. Interviews were thematically organized by the constant comparison method and several strategies were used to establish trustworthiness. Eleven emerging themes represented the adjustment to PBL and essence of core value development from the students' perspective. An additional overarching theme "transformation" was also identified as students described a process of "transformation" from student to professional, supported by the curricular elements of the modified PBL process. These findings inform faculty on educational methods and curricular strategies, which may enhance the development of professional core values, regardless of curricular format.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Educação Profissionalizante/normas , Fisioterapia/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/normas , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
J Cancer Educ ; 34(1): 124-129, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895070

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is a significant health problem in many developing countries. Due to limited treatment facilities for cancer in Tanzania, a screening referral program was developed between two urban clinics and Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI), the only cancer treatment center in Tanzania. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program and to identify opportunities for professional education. The study included 139 patients who were referred to ORCI from the screening clinics of Magomeni and Temeke between January 2015 and May 2016. Abstracted data from the medical records included patient age, screening results, and treatment. Eight nurses performing screening at the three locations were interviewed about their screening experience. Over half of the referrals (51.9%) were false positives. False positive diagnosis was more common among younger patients (35.68 ± 8.6 years) (p < 0.001) and those referred from Magomeni (59.8%) (p < 0.01) than referrals of older patients (42.46 ± 11.1 years) or those from Temeke (33.3%). Interviews of nurses showed differences among clinics, including resources, experience, and documentation of screening results. The high false positive rates and the variation of accuracy of screening between the two clinics showed a need for professional education of nurses and improvement in the health systems. Continuous education of nurses may increase the effectiveness of cervical screening. Health system enhancement of screening facilities such as provision of Lugol's iodine, more space for screening, and consistency and completion of screening records are needed to increase the accuracy of cervical screening and referrals in Tanzania and other similar low-income countries.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Educação Profissionalizante/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Safety Res ; 67: 77-82, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553432

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fire and emergency service workers, including Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting members, may be called on to perform confined space entry and rescue operations. The purpose of the present study was to develop a comprehensive and valid understanding of the present state of confined space entry and rescue training effectiveness and resultant compliance or use of best practices among trained Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting personnel. METHOD: The study used a convergent, parallel mixed-methods approach. Qualitative data (n = 20) were collected via semi-structured interviews at four locations. Data were coded, analyzed and super-ordinate and sub-ordinate themes were derived. Quantitative data (n = 158) from Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting members were analyzed. RESULTS: Interviewees believed there is a lack of standardization in training, but believed training should not be completed in the same format every time. Several participants (50%) desired more realistic training. Other concerns were associated with staffing, personal readiness, and resource adequacy. With regard to survey outcomes, most respondents reported that their organizations completed confined space training (69.8%), but only 55.3% indicated this training was conducted as a full-scale exercise and nearly 40% indicated that rescue practice was not performed despite standards mandating annual rescue practice. Following training, 55.4% indicated training evaluation information was not presented. CONCLUSIONS: Participants mostly agreed their training effectively addressed OSHA requirements, such as how to test the atmosphere, the need for and use of personal protective equipment, how to identify pertinent permit information and methods to retrieve victims in limited space. Some gaps exist between current training practices and established training requirements and standards. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting organizations need to bolster aspects of their training, particularly with regard to standardizing training efforts, practicing rescues, providing evaluation feedback and written materials and providing adequate resources.


Assuntos
Acidentes Aeronáuticos , Aeronaves , Espaços Confinados , Educação Profissionalizante/normas , Emergências , Socorristas/educação , Fogo , Bombeiros , Humanos , Estados Unidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...