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3.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (43): 45-60, jul. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176764

RESUMO

En 2016 "Belén" fue condenada a 8 años de prisión, acusada de haber asesinado a su "bebé", a su "hijo", en base a dichos de testigos que encontraron un "feto" de aproximadamente 22 semanas tirado en el inodoro del baño del hospital. Estos desplazamientos de sentido de la figura de un "no nacido" son frecuentes entre quienes se oponen a la legalización del aborto, pero están también en la cultura de masas, el mercado del embarazo/maternidad, libros infantiles de educación sexual y relatos de mujeres. Presentamos una revisión bibliográfica sobre estas complejidades y un análisis de la sentencia judicial del Caso Belén para sumar a una historia socio cultural del no nacido y aportar a la discusión sobre derechos (no) reproductivos y justicia de género


In 2016, "Belén" was sentenced to 8 years in prison, accused of having murdered her "baby", her "son", based on statements by witnesses who found a "fetus" of approximately 22 weeks lying on the toilet of the hospital bathroom. These displacements of meaning of the figure of an "unborn" are frequent among those who oppose the legalization of abortion, but they are also present in the mass culture, the pregnancy/maternity market, children's books on sexual education and women's stories. We present a bibliographic review on these complexities and an analysis of the judicial decision of the Belén Case to collaborate to a socio-cultural history of the unborn and contribute to the discussion on (non) reproductive rights and gender justice


S'analitza l'avortament com un bé social des de les diferents mirades que té la societat pel que fa a l'avortament i les lleis que ho regulen. Es critica la posició dels diferents actors socials pel que fa a la posició de l'Església o la d'aquells que estan a favor de la vida. Aquests actors no haurien d'estar influenciats per les seves creences personals sinó per les necessitats de la població i de les polítiques públiques. S'estudia la necessitat de despenalitzar l'avortament per motius de salut pública i de la dignitat de les dones


Assuntos
Humanos , Aborto , Saúde Reprodutiva/ética , Saúde Reprodutiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Morte Fetal , Educação Sexual/ética , Educação Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Habitual
4.
Reprod Health ; 15(1): 12, 2018 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents have significant sexual and reproductive health needs. However, complex legal frameworks, and social attitudes about adolescent sexuality, including the values of healthcare providers, govern adolescent access to sexual and reproductive health services. These laws and social attitudes are often antipathetic to sexual and gender minorities. Existing literature assumes that adolescents identify as heterosexual, and exclusively engage in (heteronormative) sexual activity with partners of the opposite sex/gender, so little is known about if and how the needs of sexual and gender minority adolescents are met. METHODS: In this article, we have analysed data from fifty in-depth qualitative interviews with representatives of organisations working with adolescents, sexual and gender minorities, and/or sexual and reproductive health and rights in Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. RESULTS: Sexual and gender minority adolescents in these countries experience double-marginalisation in pursuit of sexual and reproductive health services: as adolescents, they experience barriers to accessing LGBT organisations, who fear being painted as "homosexuality recruiters," whilst they are simultaneously excluded from heteronormative adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. Such barriers to services are equally attributable to the real and perceived criminalisation of consensual sexual behaviours between partners of the same sex/gender, regardless of their age. DISCUSSION/ CONCLUSION: The combination of laws which criminalise consensual same sex/gender activity and the social stigma towards sexual and gender minorities work to negate legal sexual and reproductive health services that may be provided. This is further compounded by age-related stigma regarding sexual activity amongst adolescents, effectively leaving sexual and gender minority adolescents without access to necessary information about their sexuality and sexual and reproductive health, and sexual and reproductive health services.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/provisão & distribução , Educação Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , África Austral/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/normas , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/normas , Educação Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação Sexual/organização & administração , Educação Sexual/normas , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estigma Social , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
6.
Asclepio ; 68(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2016. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-158653

RESUMO

A fines del siglo XIX y principios del XX las enfermedades venéreas despertaron especial atención en los discursos médicos, periodísticos y políticos. Las normativas municipales en torno a la cuestión de la prostitución y a un conjunto de problemas propios de ciudades, que como Rosario sufrieron un proceso de modernización brusca, daban cuenta de lo mencionado. La prostitución aparecía vinculada en las representaciones epocales con las enfermedades venéreas, en especial, la sífilis y la blenorragia, caracterizadas junto con el alcoholismo y la tuberculosis como algunos de los grandes males sociales evitables. La prostitución era percibida como el principal foco de difusión de éstas. En este trabajos analizamos discursos sobre las enfermedades venéreas, "secretas", como también se las conocía por entonces, los miedos que despertaban y algunas prácticas profilácticas desplegadas a los efectos de proteger los cuerpos individuales y el cuerpo social de la ciudad en el período de vigencia del sistema de prostitución reglamentada en Rosario (1874-1932) (AU)


In late 19th and early 20th century venereal diseases received special attention in the medical, journalistic and political speeches. Local regulations regarding the issue of prostitution and the tipical problems of cities which, like Rosario, underwent a process of sudden modernization, accounted for this special attention. Prostitution appeared in epochal representations associated with venereal diseases, especially syphilis and gonorrhea, witch, together with alcoholism and tuberculosis, were characterized as some of the major preventable social ills. Prostitution was perceived as the main source of sexually transmitted infections. In this work we analyze discourses on venereal diseases also called "secret" at that time; we also analyse the fears these instilled in society and the prophylactic practices adopted to protect the individual bodies and the social body of the city when the regulated prostitution system was in force in Rosario (1874-1932) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/história , Trabalho Sexual/história , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/história , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/história , Política de Saúde/história , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Argentina/epidemiologia , Sexualidade/história , Comportamento Sexual/história , Cistite/epidemiologia , Cistite/história , Cistite/prevenção & controle , Educação Sexual/história , Educação Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência
7.
Glob Health Promot ; 23(1): 61-74, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25432963

RESUMO

Health promotion programs are commonly viewed as value-free initiatives which seek to improve health, often through behavior change. An opposing view has begun to emerge that health promotion efforts, especially ones seeking to impact health policy and social determinants of health, are vulnerable to political contexts and may depend on who is in power at the time. This community-based participatory research study attempts to understand these interactions by applying a conceptual model focused on the power context, diverse stakeholder roles within this context, and the relationship of political levers and other change strategies to the sustainability of health promotion interventions aimed at health policy change. We present a case study of a health promotion coalition, New Mexico for Responsible Sex Education (NMRSE), as an example of power dynamics and change processes. Formed in 2005 in response to federal policies mandating abstinence-only education, NMRSE includes community activists, health promotion staff from the New Mexico Department of Health, and policy-maker allies. Applying an adapted Mayer's 'power analysis' instrument, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews and triangulated political-context analyses from the perspective of the stakeholders.We identified multiple understandings of sustainability and health promotion policy change, including: the importance of diverse stakeholders working together in coalition and social networks; their distinct positions of power within their political contexts; the role of science versus advocacy in change processes; the particular challenges for public sector health promotion professionals; and other facilitators versus barriers to action. One problem that emerged consisted of the challenges for state employees to engage in health promotion advocacy due to limitations imposed on their activities by state and federal policies. This investigation's results include a refined conceptual model, a power-analysis instrument, and new understandings of the intersection of power and stakeholder strategies in the sustainability of health promotion and health in all policies.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Educação Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adolescente , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/normas , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , New Mexico , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Política , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Educação Sexual/métodos , Educação Sexual/organização & administração
8.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol ; 28(5): 354-61, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26148786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The United States has one of the highest teen birth rates among developed countries. Interstate birth rates and abortion rates vary widely, as do policies on abortion and sex education. The objective of our study is to assess whether US state-level policies regarding abortion and sexual education are associated with different teen birth and teen abortion rates. METHODS: We carried out a state-level (N = 51 [50 states plus the District of Columbia]) retrospective observational cross-sectional study, using data imported from the National Vital Statistics System. State policies were obtained from the Guttmacher Institute. We used descriptive statistics and regression analysis to study the association of different state policies with teen birth and teen abortion rates. RESULTS: The state-level mean birth rates, when stratifying between policies protective and nonprotective of teen births, were not statistically different-for sex education policies, 39.8 of 1000 vs 45.1 of 1000 (P = .2187); for mandatory parents' consent to abortion 45 of 1000, vs 38 of 1000 when the minor could consent (P = .0721); and for deterrents to abortion, 45.4 of 1000 vs 37.4 of 1000 (P = .0448). Political affiliation (35.1 of 1000 vs 49.6 of 1000, P < .0001) and ethnic distribution of the population were the only variables associated with a difference between mean teen births. Lower teen abortion rates were, however, associated with restrictive abortion policies, specifically lower in states with financial barriers, deterrents to abortion, and requirement for parental consent. CONCLUSION: While teen birth rates do not appear to be influenced by state-level sex education policies, state-level policies that restrict abortion appear to be associated with lower state teen abortion rates.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Política de Saúde , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Espontâneo , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Consentimento dos Pais , Políticas , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Educação Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento Sexual , Estados Unidos
10.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 20(1): 47-56, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25181256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To share Portugal's experience with school-based sexuality education, and to describe its implementation at a local level, following an ecological model and using a mixed methodology approach. The study also examines the impact of the latest policies put into effect, identifying potential weaknesses and strengths affecting the effectiveness of sexuality education enforcement. METHODS: A representative sample of 296 schools in Portugal was analysed. Teachers representing the school completed a questionnaire and were asked to share any kind of official document from their sexuality education project (such as curriculum content). A subsample of these documents was analysed by two coders. Quantitative analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The majority of Portuguese schools delivered sexuality education, in line with Portuguese technical guidelines and international recommendations. There were common procedures in planning, implementation and evaluation of sexuality education. Some strengths and weaknesses were identified. Results highlighted the impact of the various systems on the planning, enforcement and evaluation of sexuality education in school. CONCLUSIONS: The latest policies introduced valuable changes in school-based sexuality education. A way of assessing effectiveness of sexuality education is still needed.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Currículo , Humanos , Portugal , Educação Sexual/tendências , Sexualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Homosex ; 61(12): 1687-711, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25090579

RESUMO

Although South Africa is one of the most progressive countries in the world in terms of constitutional and legislative rights for LGBT individuals, education is one of many social arenas where these ideals are not carried out. Interviews with 25 practicing teachers revealed very little description of practice, but widely divergent understandings around sexual diversity that drew on various authoritative discourses, including religious teachings, educational policy, science, and the powerful human rights framework of the South African constitution. Implications for teacher education include directly engaging with these discourses and providing training, teaching materials, and practical guidelines based on existing policy.


Assuntos
Educação Sexual , Comportamento Sexual , Currículo , Educação/organização & administração , Feminino , Homossexualidade , Direitos Humanos/educação , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Política Pública , Religião e Sexo , Educação Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação Sexual/organização & administração , África do Sul , Ensino/organização & administração
14.
New Bioeth ; 20(1): 72-98, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24979877

RESUMO

The international community is currently debating whether international law requires States to educate adolescents about their sexuality. Various nongovernmental organizations, United Nations Special Rapporteurs, and treaty-monitoring bodies assert a right to comprehensive sex education, a controversial approach to sex education that arguably encourages adolescents to experiment with their sexuality. This assertion of a right to comprehensive sex education is erroneous and misleading. International human rights are created in two ways: by treaty and by custom. Treaties do not mention comprehensive sex education, or any other form of sex education or training. Custom, found in international consensus documents and other declarations of political will, and confirmed by State practice, holds no universal agreement on sex education. Because neither treaty nor custom creates a right to comprehensive sex education, no such right exists.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Cooperação Internacional , Educação Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Sexualidade , Adolescente , Congressos como Assunto , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Direitos Humanos/psicologia , Direitos Humanos/normas , Direitos Humanos/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Sexual/ética , Educação Sexual/normas , Educação Sexual/tendências , Nações Unidas , Saúde da Mulher
15.
J Adolesc Health ; 54(3 Suppl): S21-3, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24560071

RESUMO

The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) developed a systematic approach to review for medical accuracy the educational materials proposed for use in Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) programs. This process is also used by the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) for review of materials used in the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program. This article describes the review process, explaining the methodology, the team implementing the reviews, and the process for distributing review findings and implementing changes. Provided also is the definition of "medically accurate and complete" as used in the programs, and a description of what constitutes "complete" information when discussing sexually transmitted infections and birth control methods. The article is of interest to program providers, curriculum developers and purveyors, and those who are interested in providing medically accurate and complete information to adolescents.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/normas , Educação Sexual/normas , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Anticoncepção/métodos , Currículo , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Educação Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Materiais de Ensino/normas , Estados Unidos
18.
Psychiatr Danub ; 24(1): 38-43, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22447084

RESUMO

Mental retardation denotes sub-average intellectual functioning, based on IQ, i.e. the inability of normal learning, accompanied by behavioral and developmental disorders. Persons with impairments (cognitive, motor, sensory or psychiatric) have often been, both through human history and today victims of discrimination and deprived of their basic human rights, both in the public and the private life spheres. Since the end of the 20th century, throughout the developed world, many disabled persons can accomplish their dreams and rights. However, the issue of sexuality is still an obstacle in realizing oneself as a whole person, of course in accordance with personal psychophysical abilities. The greatest problem is present in persons with severe disablement, considered not apt enough for information on sexuality and for expressing themselves as persons with their own sexual needs. Thus it is desirable to observe each disabled person individually and flexibly enough in order to establish parameters for the functioning of an intimate affair on the level of understanding and assent. The legal system must protect the most vulnerable and ensure for them the right of choice and consent, as well as the possibility of fulfilling their sexual needs, so that they could love and be loved. Naturally, the system must be built on foundations that satisfy the needs of its users, but also of persons engaged in work with them. Sex education should contain information regarding biological, socio-cultural and spiritual dimensions of sexuality, including cognitive, affective and behavioral domains. Unfortunately, very few educational programs with such aims provide sex education, not only for the disabled young population but also for the healthy. This review article is based on international investigations and Croatian legislative postulates. Its aim is to focus the attention of both professionals and non-professionals on this delicate problem.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/psicologia , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/psicologia , Croácia , Ética Médica , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Preconceito , Educação Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Esterilização Involuntária/legislação & jurisprudência , Esterilização Involuntária/psicologia
19.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 58(1): 48-52, 2012.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22392316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present legal milestones to ensure the Brazilian adolescent autonomy indealing with their sexual and reproductive health. METHODS: Literature review of national legislation published on the official sites of governmental organs (Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education) and Class Associations (Federal Council of Medicine [Conselho Federal de Medicina--CFM] and the Federal Council of Nursing--COFEN). RESULTS: We found 8 legislations, of which 3 were from Class Associations (COFEN and CFM), one Interministerial Ordinance (Ministries of Health and Education), one Technical Note of the National STD/AIDS Program, and 3 Federal Laws. Many of the legal guarantees directly affect the adolescent population (guarantee of schooling during pregnancy and puerperal period or maternity leave, condom distribution, no discrimination in the school environment on the basis of serology). They are important tools for the preservation of sexual and reproductive rights, privacy of medical care, search for reliable health information, and access to inputs such as condoms and contraceptive methods. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the legislation listed in the present study demonstrated that these legal milestones are essential to ensure the safe and healthy experience of sexuality, and all health and education professionals involved in adolescent counseling should know them comprehensively.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Sexualidade , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autonomia Pessoal
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 58(1): 48-52, jan.-fev. 2012.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-617108

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Apresentar marcos legais brasileiros que garantam ao adolescente autonomia no trato com sua saúde sexual e reprodutiva. MÉTODOS: Levantamento bibliográfico das legislações nacionais publicadas em site dos órgãos oficiais (Ministério da Saúde e Educação) e Associações de Classe (Conselho Federal de Medicina - CFM - e Conselho Federal de Enfermagem - COFEN). RESULTADOS: Encontraram-se oito legislações sendo três de Associação de Classe (CFM e COFEN), uma Portaria Interministerial (Ministério da Saúde e Educação), uma Nota Técnica do Programa Nacional de DST/AIDS e três Leis Federais. Muitas das garantias legais afetam diretamente a população adolescente (garantia de escolarização durante a gestação e período puerperal ou licença maternidade, distribuição de preservativos, não discriminação por sorologia em ambiente escolar). São instrumentos importantes de preservação dos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos, da privacidade no atendimento médico, na busca por informações seguras de saúde e no acesso a insumos como preservativos e métodos contraceptivos. CONCLUSÃO: As análises das legislações levantadas demonstraram que estes marcos legais são imprescindíveis na garantia da vivência da sexualidade de forma mais segura e saudável, e todo profissional de saúde envolvido no acompanhamento de adolescentes deve conhecê-los profundamente.


OBJECTIVE: To present legal milestones to ensure the Brazilian adolescent autonomy indealing with their sexual and reproductive health. METHODS: Literature review of national legislation published on the official sites of governmental organs (Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education) and Class Associations (Federal Council of Medicine [Conselho Federal de Medicina - CFM] and the Federal Council of Nursing - COFEN). RESULTS: We found 8 legislations, of which 3 were from Class Associations (COFEN and CFM), one Interministerial Ordinance (Ministries of Health and Education), one Technical Note of the National STD/AIDS Program, and 3 Federal Laws. Many of the legal guarantees directly affect the adolescent population (guarantee of schooling during pregnancy and puerperal period or maternity leave, condom distribution, no discrimination in the school environment on the basis of serology). They are important tools for the preservation of sexual and reproductive rights, privacy of medical care, search for reliable health information, and access to inputs such as condoms and contraceptive methods. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the legislation listed in the present study demonstrated that these legal milestones are essential to ensure the safe and healthy experience of sexuality, and all health and education professionals involved in adolescent counseling should know them comprehensively.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Sexualidade , Educação Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Autonomia Pessoal
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