Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.800
Filtrar
1.
Am J Public Health ; 110(6): 900-906, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298178

RESUMO

Objectives. To examine spillover effects of job skills training (vs basic services only [e.g., adult basic education, job readiness training]) on substance misuse among low-income youths with employment barriers.Methods. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a longitudinal cohort study of youths born between 1980 and 1984 in the United States. Based on respondents' reports of substance misuse (past-month binge drinking and past-year marijuana and other illicit drug use) from 2000 to 2016, we estimated substance misuse trajectories of job skills training (n = 317) and basic services (n = 264) groups. We accounted for potential selection bias by using inverse probability of treatment weighting.Results. Compared with the basic services group, the job skills training group showed notable long-term reductions in its illicit drug misuse trajectory, translating to a 56.9% decrease in prevalence rates from 6.5% in year 0 to 2.8% in year 16.Conclusions. Job skills training can be an important service component for reducing substance misuse and improving employment outcomes among youths with economic disadvantages and employment barriers.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Criança , Escolaridade , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Estudos Longitudinais , Pobreza , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Educação Vocacional
2.
Arq. bras. psicol. (Rio J. 2003) ; 72(1): 173-186, jan.-abr. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1114679

RESUMO

O estudo exploratório e qualitativo do qual este artigo faz um recorte teve como objetivo caracterizar as estratégias de aprendizagem de estudantes de Ensino Técnico brasileiro. A amostra compreendeu 20 estudantes do primeiro ano do Ensino Técnico. Os participantes foram submetidos a uma entrevista semiestruturada sobre o seu modo de aprendizagem (a maneira como aprendem) e a sua prática de análise crítica (o grau de análise crítica empregue na aprendizagem). As respostas foram sujeitas a uma análise temática, que sugere uma replicação da estratégia de superfície (mecanização da aprendizagem e reduzida análise crítica), da estratégia de profundidade (compreensão e elevada análise crítica), da estratégia de organização (enfoque nos conteúdos que serão avaliados) e da estratégia intermédia (memorização e compreensão dos conteúdos). Foram igualmente encontradas variações daquelas estratégias.


The exploratory and qualitative study in which this article makes a cut had the objective of characterizing the learning strategies of Brazilian Vocational Education students. The sample comprised 20 students from the first year of a Technical Education course. Participants underwent a semi-structured interview about their learning mode (the way they learn) and their use of critical analysis (the degree of critical analysis employed in learning). The responses were subject to a thematic analysis, which suggests a replication of the surface strategy (mechanization of learning - reduced critical analysis), deep strategy (comprehension - high degree of critical analysis), achieving strategy (focus on the contents that will be evaluated) and the intermediate strategy (memorization and understanding of contents). Variations of these strategies were also found.


El estudio exploratorio y cualitativo del cual este artículo hace un recorte tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las estrategias de aprendizaje de estudiantes de Enseñanza Técnica brasileña. La muestra comprendió 20 estudiantes del primer año de la Enseñanza Técnica. Los participantes fueron sometidos a una entrevista semiestructurada sobre su modo de aprendizaje (la manera como aprenden) y su práctica de análisis crítico (el grado de análisis crítico empleado en el aprendizaje).Las respuestas se sometieron a un análisis temático, que sugiere una replicación de la estrategia de superficie (mecanización del aprendizaje y reducido análisis crítico), de la estrategia de profundidad (comprensión y alto análisis crítico), de la estrategia de organización (enfoque en los contenidos que serán evaluados) y de la estrategia intermedia (memorización y comprensión de los contenidos). También se encontraron variaciones de esas estrategias.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Ensino , Educação Vocacional , Educação Profissionalizante , Aprendizagem , Brasil
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200014, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159625

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary health care must assume the centrality of care so that health systems address and solve the health needs of the population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of primary health care from the perspective of health professionals, including those associated with the Mais Médicos Brasil Program, verifying associations between quality of services and professional qualification. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study where interviews with health professionals were carried out. The quality of care was measured by means of interviews about the experience of doctors and nurses with the services, using the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brasil). The presence and the extension of the primary health care attributes of the Southwest II region of Goiás state, constituted by 10 municipalities, were investigated. RESULTS: The lowest APS Overall Score was for the first contact access attribute (3.71). The bivariate analysis showed statistical difference between the variables profession and the essential, derived and general scores. Doctors of the More Doctors Program had higher average scores (7,68 essential; 9,11 derivative; 8,04 general) when compared to other medical professionals and nurses. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of permanent evaluation of health services, especially primary care, due to its importance and centrality to the organization of other levels of care. Only from this monitoring is possible a better management orientation for strategic and resolutive investments.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Educação Vocacional , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Médicos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968667

RESUMO

Health literacy has been identified as an important and changeable intermediary determinant of health equity. Vocational education and training (VET) schools are a relevant setting for health behavior interventions seeking to diminish health inequities because many VET students come from low socio-economic status backgrounds. This study examines VET students' health literacy and its association with health behavior based on a cross-sectional survey among 6119 students from 58 VET schools in Denmark in 2019. Two scales from the Health Literacy Questionnaire was used to assess domains of health literacy. Data were analyzed using Anova and logistic regression. The study population consisted of 43.4% female, and mean age was 24.2 years (range 15.8-64.0). The health literacy domain 'Actively managing my health' mean was 2.51, SD 0.66, and 'Appraisal of health information' mean was 2.37, SD 0.65. For both domains, being female, older age, attending the VET educational program Care-health-pedagogy, and higher self-rated health were associated with higher scale scores. In the adjusted analyses, lower scale scores were associated with less frequent breakfast, daily smoking, high-risk alcohol behavior and moderate-to-low physical activity. Our results show that low health literacy is associated with unhealthy behaviors in this population. Our results support and inform health literacy research and practice in educational institutions and services.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Educação Vocacional , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fumar , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1486, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Students living with a chronically ill family member may experience significant pressure, stress, and depression due to their caregiving situation. This may also lead to them delaying or dropping out of school when the combination of being a caregiver and their education program are too demanding. This survey study aims to explore the consequences for students of bachelor or vocational education programs when they are growing up with a chronically ill family member and the influence of various background characteristics and risk factors. METHODS: A survey was sent to 5997 students (aged 16-25 years) enrolled in bachelor or vocational education programs in the north of the Netherlands. The content of the survey was based on a literature study and consultation with experts. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, and logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 1237 students (21%) responded to the survey. A sub group of 237 (19%) students (mean age 21(2.2); 87% female) identified themselves as growing up with a chronically ill family member. More than half (54.9%) of these students indicated that they experienced negative consequences in daily life. A significant association (OR .42, p < .02) was found for these consequences and the level of education for which attending vocational education yields a higher risk. In addition, growing up with a mentally ill family member was associated with a 2.74 (p = .04) greater risk of experiencing negative consequences in daily life compared to students living with a family member with a physical disorder or multiple disorders. CONCLUSION: Since a substantial number of students growing up with a chronically ill family member indicate serious physical, mental, and social consequences as a result of this care situation, awareness for this specific age-group is needed. Students with a mentally ill family member and students undertaking vocational education appear to be especially at risk. Further research is required in order to gain insight that is more in-depth into the exact type of problems that these students encounter and the specific needs that they have regarding support.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Educação Vocacional , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Fam Pract ; 20(1): 139, 2019 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postgraduate vocational training in family medicine (FM) is essential for physicians to build capacity and develop quality primary care. Inadequate standards in training and curriculum development can contribute to poor recruitment and retention of doctors in primary care. This study aimed to investigate: 1) the satisfaction level of doctors regarding vocational training in family medicine and associated demographics; and 2) the satisfaction level of doctors regarding their family medicine career and associated factors. METHOD: This is a cross sectional study of all family medicine physicians across all government-funded primary care clinics (GOPCs). The study questionnaire consisted of items from a standardized and validated physician survey named the Physician Worklife Survey (PWS) (Konrad et al., Med Care, 1999). We selected three scales (7 items) relating to global job satisfaction, global career satisfaction and global specialty (family medicine) satisfaction with additional items on training and demographics. All significant variables in bivariate analyses were further examined using stepwise logistic regression. RESULTS: Out of 424 eligible family medicine physicians, 368 physicians successfully completed the questionnaire. The response rate was 86.8%. Most participants were male (52.6%), were aged between 35 and 44 years (55.5%), were FM specialists (42.4%), graduated locally (86.2%), and had postgraduate qualifications. Eighty-two percent (82%) of participants were satisfied with their training. Having autonomy and protected time for training were associated with satisfaction with FM training. Satisfaction with family medicine as a career was correlated with physicians' satisfaction with their current job. Doctors who did not enroll in training (p < 0.001) and physicians who were older (p = 0.023) were significantly less satisfied. Stepwise multivariate regression showed that doctors who subjectively believed their training as "broad and in depth' had higher career satisfaction (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Overall, the satisfaction level of physicians on current family medicine training in Hong Kong was high. Having autonomy and protected time for training is associated with higher training satisfaction levels. Perceiving FM training as "broad and in-depth" is associated with higher family medicine career satisfaction.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Satisfação no Emprego , Educação Vocacional , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Clínicos Gerais/educação , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 22(5): 227-233, sept.-oct. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187495

RESUMO

Introducción: La sensibilidad ética como componente de la vocación médica necesita ser evaluada con criterios e indicadores que permitan establecer comparaciones de mejora o deterioro. Sujetos y métodos: Diseño en dos fases: observacional transversal al comienzo del sexto semestre del grado y al finalizar el séptimo semestre, y de intervención, antes y después de la docencia (asignaturas de Comunicación, Ética y Legislación I y II). Instrumento de medida: actividad docente grupal voluntaria (corregida mediante una parrilla de evaluación validada por consenso entre el equipo docente/investigador), consistente en el análisis de un video con guion estructurado donde los participantes debían detectar individualmente y redactar de forma libre las cuestiones éticas que encontraban mientras se reproducía. Ámbito: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza (216 alumnos, de tercer y cuarto curso). Resultados: 179 estudiantes, 72 en tercero (33%) y 97 en cuarto (45%), realizaron el ejercicio, siendo válidas 169 respuestas, con información apareada (antes-después) de 34 estudiantes (20,11%). Al contrastar las dos muestras transversales no apareadas, los alumnos de cuarto identificaron más cuestiones éticas (30,38%) que los de tercero (20,12%) y cualitativamente más sutiles. La muestra de estudiantes con seguimiento longitudinal confirma el hallazgo: la media en cuarto es del 11,62%, y en tercero, del 9,53%. Conclusiones: Es útil analizar el impacto de las herramientas docentes implementadas en el aula, lo que confirma una mayor sensibilidad (detección de cuestiones éticas) por los alumnos tras la formación en ética


Introduction: The ethical sensitivity as a component of the medical vocation needs to be evaluated with criteria and indicators that allow for comparisons of improvement or deterioration. Subjects and methods: Two phases design: cross-sectional observational at the beginning of the sixth semester of the degree and at the end of the seventh semester, and intervention, before and after teaching (subjects Communication, Ethics and Legislation I and II). Instrument of measurement: voluntary group teaching activity (corrected through an evaluation grid validated by consensus between the teaching/research team) consisting of the analysis of a video with a structured script where the participants had to individually detect and write freely the ethical questions they encountered while it was playing. Scope: Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza (216 students, third and fourth year). Results: 179 students, 72 in third (33%) and 97 in fourth (45%), performed the exercise with 169 responses valid, with paired information (before-after) of 34 students (20.11%). When contrasting the two unpaired cross samples, the fourth graders identified more ethical questions (30.38%) than those of third (20.12%) and qualitatively more subtle. The sample of students with longitudinal follow-up confirms the finding: the average in fourth is 11.62% and in third of 9.53%. Conclusions: It is useful to analyze the impact of the teaching tools implemented in the classroom, confirming a greater sensitivity (detection of ethical issues) by the students after the ethics training


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Vocacional/ética , Educação Médica/métodos , Educação Médica/ética , Aprendizagem/ética , Estudos Transversais , Estudantes de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Intervalos de Confiança
9.
Worldviews Evid Based Nurs ; 16(5): 371-380, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of evidence-based practice (EBP) to increase the quality and safety of care. However, EBP implementation research has predominantly taken place in hospitals and hardly in nursing homes or home care. In these care settings, patients are attended by nursing assistants and registered vocationally trained nurses. A good EBP starting point is to assess their current attitude toward and use of EBP. However, current questionnaires are not valid for assistants and nurses with vocational education. AIMS: To adapt the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) and the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (EBPQ) to a Dutch questionnaire for nursing assistants and registered vocationally trained nurses European Qualification Framework level 3-4 employed in home care or nursing homes. METHODS: Translation, adaptation through cross-cultural validation, pretesting, exploratory factor analysis, and evaluation of psychometric properties among a group of nursing assistants and registered vocationally trained nurses. RESULTS: Cross-cultural validation led to modified items of EBPQ and EBPAS. The sample comprised 273 nurses. Analysis of both instruments showed a robust factor structure. EBPAS-ve: internal consistency: α = 0.76; intra-rater reliability: ICC = 0.52. EBPQ-ve: α = 0.75; ICC = 0.60. Convergent validity (correlation EBPAS-ve and EBPQ-ve's subscale Attitude): r = .300 (p < .01). Construct validity: significantly higher scores (p < .01) in the group with higher education. LINKING EVIDENCE TO ACTION: Psychometric qualities of both instruments were satisfactory, although we recommend refinement of EBPAS-ve's subscale Divergence and extra instructions for the EBPQ's subscale Attitude. To our knowledge, this is the first adaptation of an EBP measurement instrument for nursing assistants and registered vocationally trained nurses. The questionnaires appeared to be feasible and showed multiple valid and reliable properties, including a satisfactory intra-rater reliability. Both questionnaires may facilitate the implementation of EBP as they contribute to a richer understanding of the attitude toward and use of EBP in nursing homes and home care.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/normas , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Assistentes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Psicometria/normas , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistentes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tradução , Educação Vocacional/normas
10.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 30(4): 817-833, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563173

RESUMO

The article describes the rehabilitation services provided at Christian Medical College Vellore, a tertiary care medical college hospital in South India. The department was started by Dr Mary Verghese, who on completion of her medical training sustained spinal cord injury with resulting paraplegia. Following a section on the initial beginnings of the department, the current status of the department offering comprehensive rehabilitation by the multidisciplinary team is highlighted. The article ends with the challenges faced, including limitations in providing affordable solutions, architectural and attitudinal barriers, and inadequate number of rehabilitation physicians and comprehensive rehabilitation centers in the country.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/tendências , Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/história , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/tendências , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índia , Médicas , Educação Vocacional
11.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(4): 979-987, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze education and practice of nursing technicians in health promotion, from the perspective of teaching nurses of technical course and Primary Health Care nurses. METHOD: an exploratory study with qualitative data analysis, carried out in the city of São Paulo, through semi-structured interviews with nine public technical professors and 16 nurses from the basic health network. Data thematic analysis was carried out. RESULTS: three thematic categories have emerged: Conceptions and experiences on health promotion; Nursing technician's practice in health promotion; and Nursing technician education on health promotion. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: it is necessary to review the centrality given to technicalism in the education and practice of nursing technicians, contemplating the health promotion and seeking the development of professional competence for the construction of transformative practices aimed at valuing the autonomy and proactivity of the people in health and quality of life production.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/normas , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Assistentes de Enfermagem/normas , Percepção , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Brasil , Docentes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Docentes de Enfermagem/tendências , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Educação Vocacional/métodos , Educação Vocacional/normas
12.
Work ; 64(1): 117-134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matching an individual's capabilities, interests and needs with corresponding job demands and characteristics is an established procedure in vocational rehabilitation (VR). Yet, a systematic exposition of specific factors affecting the determination and attainment of a person-job match in VR practice is currently missing. OBJECTIVE: To examine factors, assessments and interventions related to job matching (JM) in VR of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) by using a literature-based conceptual JM framework. METHODS: Applying a qualitative descriptive design, data were collected by overt non-participant observations across the VR process of two individuals with SCI, representing major return-to-work scenarios (returning to the pre-injury job and preparing for vocational retraining). RESULTS: Person-related, job-related and environmental factors were identified that either played a direct or indirect role in determining and attaining a person-job match. The factors were evaluated by different work-related and medical assessments and were targeted by a number of JM-related interventions. CONCLUSIONS: While our conceptual framework may serve as a generic blueprint to facilitate JM approaches in VR practice, the specific factors identified in our study are particularly valuable for developing JM applications aimed at promoting sustainable return to work for persons with SCI.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Vocacional/métodos , Retorno ao Trabalho , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraplegia/reabilitação , Quadriplegia/reabilitação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reabilitação Vocacional/psicologia , Suíça , Educação Vocacional
13.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 20(4): 249-255, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191583

RESUMO

La profesión médica tiene un marcado sentido vocacional que está estrechamente vinculado a su dimensión ética; sin embargo, existen dudas sobre el papel que los estudios de grado están ejerciendo en su desarrollo. Con la finalidad de favorecer la reflexión al respecto, se celebró un seminario con estudiantes y profesores desarrollado en 3fases: a) libre exposición de los alumnos sobre lo que consideraban que es la vocación médica; b) presentación por parte de los profesores del marco teórico de la educación médica, seguido del visionado de varias escenas de películas dirigidas por Steven Spielberg que facilitan la reflexión sobre el significado de los componentes éticos y humanos de la medicina, y c) discusión abierta entre alumnos y profesores. Se analizan las principales conclusiones: conviene crear espacios para la reflexión sobre la dimensión vocacional de la medicina a lo largo de los estudios del grado, lo cual, de algún modo, ya se debería considerar en los procedimientos de selección y acceso; en la tarea docente es fundamental el ejemplo de los formadores, así como una tutorización individualizada que «cuide» el desarrollo vocacional; es necesario promover una formación que vaya más allá de la adquisición de conocimientos y habilidades, prestando atención a la gestión de las emociones, el acompañamiento ante los problemas éticos y la educación de las actitudes; el contacto precoz con la actividad clínica, ya desde el comienzo de los estudios se valora como un factor decisivo para motivar a los alumnos ante la inmensa carga teórica que deben afrontar


The medical profession has a marked vocational sense that is closely linked to its ethical dimension. However, there are doubts about the role that undergraduate studies are playing in their development. In order to encourage reflection on this issue, a seminar was held with students and teachers, developed in 3phases: a) free presentation by students about what they considered to be the medical vocation; b) presentation by professors of the theoretical framework of medical education, followed by the viewing of several scenes of films directed by Steven Spielberg that facilitate reflection on the meaning of the ethical and human components of medicine, and c) open discussion between students and teachers. The main conclusions were analysed: it is worth creating spaces for reflection on the vocational dimension of medicine throughout undergraduate studies. This, in some way, should already be considered in the selection and access procedures to medical school. In the teaching task it is essential that the lecturers are seen as role models, as well as providing individualised tutoring that includes vocational development. Thus, it is necessary to promote training that goes beyond the acquisition of knowledge and skills, paying attention to the management of emotions, the approach to the ethical problems, and the education of attitudes. Early contact with clinical activity, from the beginning of studies is considered a decisive factor to motivate students before the immense theoretical burden they have to face


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Vocacional , Profissionalismo/educação , Filmes Cinematográficos , Educação Médica , Capacitação Profissional , Emoções
14.
Aust J Rural Health ; 27(5): 427-432, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241239

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Recruitment and retention of rural doctors remains a challenge in Australia. The Queensland Rural Generalist Program was developed to address this challenge and provides a range of tailored professional development opportunities to support rural medical training, recruitment and retention. The Rural Generalist Vocational Preparation Workshop was developed to maintain connection with trainees during a known attrition risk period and address a gap in training that focused on competencies required for rural practice. DESIGN: The Rural Generalist Vocational Preparation Workshop, designed using adult learning principles, includes an optimal balance between theory, scenario-based learning and facilitated group discussions. A cross-sectional survey design was employed to evaluate the workshops delivered between 2015 and 2017. SETTING: The workshops were attended by Queensland Rural Generalist Program trainees in the year prior to undertaking a vocational training position in a rural hospital or general practice. Participants were from 10 Hospital and Health Services in the Queensland public health sector at the time of attendance. KEY MEASURES FOR IMPROVEMENT: An evaluation survey captured participant feedback about the workshop, its value, impact and their intention to implement changes in practice. STRATEGIES FOR CHANGE: Fifty-one trainees attended the workshops across four locations. EFFECTS OF CHANGE: Eight-eight per cent of participants reported intentions to implement changes to practice in: pursuit of career options and enhanced team work, leadership skills and networking. LESSONS LEARNT: Evaluation results indicated that Rural Generalist Vocational Preparation Workshop was a highly valued opportunity. It provided future rural medical practitioners with professional support and networking opportunities, promoted identity formation and stimulated rural career planning.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Competência Profissional , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Educação Vocacional , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Queensland
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 813, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco is the main cause of non-communicable disease and premature death globally. Implementing restrictive school tobacco policies such as smoke-free-school-hours (SFSH) may have the potential to reduce smoking among Vocational Education and Training (VET) school students. To be effective, school tobacco policies that largely involve strict and consistent enforcement by both managers and teaching teaching staff must be implemented. This study investigated the attitudes towards the implementation of SFSH among the managers and teaching staff at Danish VET schools. METHODS: The analyses were based on cross-sectional survey data collected with an online survey among managers and teaching staff at Danish VET schools. The data was collected from March to June 2017. RESULTS: Managers and teaching staff (n = 571) from 71 out of 87 Danish VET schools (81.6%) took part in the survey. In the adjusted analysis, teaching staff were twice as likely as managers to have a favourable attitude towards SFSH. Furthermore, being female and of increasing age correlated with having a favourable attitude. A trend towards schools in favour of SFSH having more health promotion facilities, policy and practice, was identified. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Existing health promotion facilities and activities at the schools were associated with a favorable attitude among the management towards implementing SFSH. Thus, implementing other health promotion activities and policies might be an important first step to establish readiness to implement SFSH.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/legislação & jurisprudência , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Política Antifumo , Educação Vocacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 31(3): 224-236, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145002

RESUMO

Young men in South Africa are at high-risk for HIV, substance abuse, and gender-based violence. This article presents qualitative results from a pilot study testing soccer leagues and vocational training to engage young-adult township men to deliver preventive interventions, including rapid HIV and alcohol/drug testing, shifting attitudes toward gender-based violence, and promoting other prosocial behaviors. Three groups participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews on experiences with the program: (1) a subset of 15 participants, (2) 15 family members, and (3) five intervention coaches. Results suggest that participants first reduced substance use on tournament days and then gradually reduced to practice days and beyond. Families suggested that "keeping young men occupied" and encouragement of prosocial behaviors was critical to risk reduction and led to increased community respect for the men. Coaches noted that behavioral and attitudinal changes were incremental and slow. The use of incentives was problematic and more research is needed to understand how incentives can be used in interventions of this nature.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação Sexual/organização & administração , Futebol , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Educação Vocacional , Adolescente , Adulto , Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 63(12): 2194-2212, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994375

RESUMO

Education and employment programs may be effective at reducing problem behaviors among at-risk young adults. This pilot study evaluated whether participants in a Conservation Corps program (N = 100) showed changes in antisocial behavior, gang membership, and substance use during the program. Participants were young adults between 18 and 24 years who were predominantly male (60%) and ethnic minority (62% Latino; 31% African American). Over the course of the 22-week program, participants showed significant decreases in self-reported antisocial behavior and gang involvement, and approximately 28% earned a high school diploma. However, only 61% completed the program, and subgroup analyses suggested that decreased gang membership and antisocial behaviors were mostly driven by program completers. These limited pilot results suggest that the Conservation Corps offers vulnerable young adults opportunities for education advancement and a possible pathway to criminal desistance. However, education and employment programs should make retention a priority.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Evasão Escolar/educação , Educação Vocacional , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Comportamento Problema , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
18.
Perspect Psychiatr Care ; 55(4): 632-635, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990902

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effective parameters on individual working performance, daily working order, and even on choosing a vocation. DESIGN AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 288 students from Inönü University Medical School and Physical Education Vocational High School by applying the evaluation form, the Multidimensional Anger Scale, the Wender Utah Attention Rating Scale, the 25-item short form of the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Scale. FINDINGS: In the BESYO students, the ratio of attention disturbances were higher, whereas in medical school students the ratio of sleep disturbances were higher. We also found that the quality of sleep affects daily functionality significantly. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This study demonstrates the importance of regulating intense mental processes in sleep quality and consequently functional regulation.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Ira/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/fisiopatologia , Faculdades de Medicina , Autocontrole , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estudantes , Educação Vocacional , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nurs Forum ; 54(3): 396-402, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The insufficiency of health literacy negatively affects the national economy as it leads to increased health service expenditure. It is very important for individuals to have accurate health-related information to reduce these negative effects. AIM: The aim of the study is to examine the health literacy of nursing students and its effective factors. METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out with students from the nursing department of a vocational school of health sciences between September and October 2018 in Turkey. A semi-structured questionnaire regarding the descriptive features of the participants and the European Health Literacy Scale were used for data collection. RESULTS: The study included 283 nursing students; 29.3% had a problematic-limited health literacy level. The study found a statically significant difference between student year, high school graduation and family's income level and the total mean score of the HLS-EU scale. CONCLUSION: The subject of health literacy should be integrated into the educational program of nursing students. The nurses are the most important workforce in health services, and awareness about this subject should be raised.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde/normas , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia , Educação Vocacional/métodos , Educação Vocacional/tendências
20.
Psychiatr Pol ; 53(1): 81-92, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The research objective was to compare the course of illness among patients with schizophrenia undergoing rehabilitation in Occupational Therapy Workshops (OTW) or employed in the Vocational Development Center "Pensjonat u Pana Cogito" (VDC), with particular focus on quality of life (QoL), and to analyse the relations between QoL and general, social, and cognitive functioning, psychopathological condition and insight in the two groups. METHODS: The sample comprised 52 subjects (VDC = 25 and OT = 27). The following tools were used: the LQoLP (for quality of life assessment) by Oliver, the PANSS, GAF, and SOFAS scales, the MoCA, RAVLT and RHLB cognitive tests, and the insight questionnaire "My thoughts and feelings". RESULTS: Differences were found between the groups, to the VDC group's advantage, in such areas of subjective QoL as: family relationships (p . 0.05), somatic health (p . 0.05) and selfesteem (p . 0.05). In the VDC group, QoL correlated negatively with symptoms of distress and positively with overall insight into symptoms, while in the OTW group it correlated negatively with cognitive function and positively with insight as a reaction to information from others. CONCLUSIONS: For people with schizophrenia obtaining and retaining employment in a VDC translates into better outcomes in important areas of quality of life such as family relationships, overall health, and self-esteem. Poorer QoL was associated with the severity of symptoms, in particular depressive symptoms. People employed in the VDC benefited to a greater extent from autonomous control of symptoms, while among the OTW group an important role was played by others.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional/organização & administração , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Reabilitação Vocacional/métodos , Esquizofrenia/reabilitação , Oficinas de Trabalho Protegido/organização & administração , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Educação Vocacional/organização & administração
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA