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2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566832

RESUMO

AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic forced closure of most U.S. university campuses in March 2020, obliging millions of students to finish their semesters via remote learning. This study examines whether and how students' prior and current experiences of digital inequality-defined as constrained access to the internet and internet-connecting devices-were associated with their remote learning experiences. METHOD: An anonymous, online survey of 2,913 undergraduate college students from 30 U.S. universities completing their spring term remotely was conducted between April and May 2020. Hypothesis testing utilized a structural equation model with cluster-bootstrapped standard errors and p-values, to account for students being clustered by university. RESULTS: Findings revealed that students' challenges with internet connectivity and digital devices during remote learning were associated with lower remote learning proficiency (RLP). Difficulty communicating with professors and teaching assistants was also associated with lower RLP. Prior experience with online coursework was associated with higher RLP, and digital inequality challenges during the year prior to the pandemic with lower RLP. Moreover, students who reported greater financial hardship since the start of the pandemic experienced significantly more connectivity, device, and faculty communication challenges during remote learning, and had significantly lower RLP. CONCLUSIONS: Many students will continue to learn remotely in some form until the pandemic recedes. We identify key factors associated with students' remote learning proficiency: (1) consistent, high-speed internet connectivity and functioning devices to connect to it, and (2) the ability to relate to and communicate easily with professors and teaching assistants. This study identifies potential barriers to effective remote learning, as well as possible opportunities to improve students' experiences.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Acesso à Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes de Medicina , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24821, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607848

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted teaching in a variety of institutions, especially in medical schools. Electronic learning (e-learning) became the core method of teaching the curriculum during the pandemic. After 8 weeks of only online learning, a survey was conducted to investigate perception of this type of learning among medical students.A survey was conducted by distributing an online questionnaire to Polish medical students. Data gathered from the survey were analyzed with routine statistical software.Eight hundred four students answered the questionnaire. According to respondents' answers, the main advantages of online learning were the ability to stay at home (69%), continuous access to online materials (69%), learning at your own pace (64%), and comfortable surroundings (54%). The majority of respondents chose lack of interactions with patients (70%) and technical problems with IT equipment (54%) as the main disadvantages. There was no statistical difference between face-to-face and online learning in terms of opinions on the ability of the learning method to increase knowledge (P = .46). E-learning was considered less effective than face-to-face learning in terms of increasing skills (P < .001) and social competences (P < .001). Students assessed that they were less active during online classes compared to traditional classes (P < .001). E-learning was rated as enjoyable by 73% of respondents.E-learning is a powerful tool for teaching medical students. However, successful implementation of online learning into the curriculum requires a well thought-out strategy and a more active approach.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 120, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undergraduate medical education was severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. As traditional clinical rotations were suspended, medical students quickly began alternative, novel educational experiences. Third-year medical students at an academic medical center were given the opportunity to join inpatient eConsult teams within the department of medicine. This study describes the development and implementation of this program as well as the experiences of student and faculty participants. METHODS: Student eConsult participation was rapidly developed and implemented within medical subspecialty teams in either infectious diseases (ID) or nephrology. Twelve third-year medical students and 15 subspecialty attendings participated in this program during an eight-week period from April 6 through May 29, 2020. Breadth of student clinical experience was assessed via review of clinical documentation and surveys. Participating students and attending physicians completed surveys to reflect upon their impressions of the program. Surveys were returned by nine students and eight faculty members. Survey responses were summarized with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Over an eight-week period, student consultants wrote 126 notes on 100 patients; 74 of these patients (74%) were hospitalized with COVID-19. Student experiences were largely positive with most strongly agreeing that attendings promoted interactive and engaged learning (N = 8 of 8, 100%), that the experience helped to expand their knowledge about consultant roles (N = 6, 75%), and that they would participate in a remote eConsult program again if given the opportunity (N = 6, 75%). Faculty also were largely positive about the experience with most agreeing or strongly agreeing with the importance of teaching medical students about telehealth (N = 7 of 8, 88%) and eConsults (N = 6, 75%). In narrative responses, students and faculty agreed that teaching was a strength of the program whereas lack of in-person contact was a challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid development of an inpatient eConsult-based educational experience for third-year medical students was feasible and successful. Student-consultants saw a range of pathology including COVID-19 and related complications. Students were satisfied with the program. They were able to develop a strong relationship with attendings while learning about the role of a consultant. Faculty agreed with the importance of teaching students about telehealth and eConsults specifically.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudantes de Medicina , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Fluxo de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 86, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of remote online delivery of summative assessments has been underexplored in medical education. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all end of year applied knowledge multiple choice question (MCQ) tests at one UK medical school were switched from on campus to remote assessments. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of student experience with remote exam delivery and compared test performance in remote versus invigilated campus-based forms of similar assessments for Year 4 and 5 students across two academic years. RESULTS: Very few students experienced technical or practical problems in completing their exam remotely. Test anxiety was reduced for some students but increased for others. The majority of students preferred the traditional setting of invigilated exams in a computer lab, feeling this ensured an even playing field for all candidates. Mean score was higher for Year 4 students in the remotely-delivered versus campus-based form of the same exam (76.53% [SD 6.57] vs. 72.81% [6.64]; t438.38 = 5.94, p = 0.001; d = 0.56), whereas candidate performance was equivalent across both forms for Year 5 students. CONCLUSIONS: Remote online MCQ exam delivery is an effective and generally acceptable approach to summative assessment, and could be used again in future without detriment to students if onsite delivery is not possible.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Educação a Distância/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Ansiedade , Comportamento do Consumidor , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudantes/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 13, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has necessitated a sudden transition to remote learning in medical schools. We aimed to assess perceptions of remote learning among pre-clinical medical students and subsequently to identify pros and cons of remote learning, as well as uncover gaps to address in ongoing curricular development. METHODS: A survey was distributed to first- and second-year medical students at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine in March 2020. Frequencies of responses to structured multiple-choice questions were compared regarding impacts of remote learning on quality of instruction and ability to participate, value of various remote learning resources, living environment, and preparedness for subsequent stages of training. Responses to open-ended questions about strengths and weaknesses of the remote curriculum and overall reflections were coded for thematic content. RESULTS: Of 268 students enrolled, 104 responded (53.7% of first-year students and 23.9% of second-year students). Overall, students felt that remote learning had negatively affected the quality of instruction and their ability to participate. Most (64.1%) preferred the flexibility of learning material at their own pace. Only 25.5% of respondents still felt connected to the medical school or classmates, and feelings of anxiety and isolation were noted negatives of remote learning. Most second-year students (56.7%) felt their preparation for the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 exam was negatively affected, and 43.3% felt unprepared to begin clerkships. In narrative responses, most students appreciated the increased flexibility of remote learning, but they also identified several deficits that still need to be addressed, including digital fatigue, decreased ability to participate, and lack of clinical skills, laboratory, and hands-on learning. CONCLUSIONS: Videocasted lectures uploaded in advance, electronic health record and telehealth training for students, and training for teaching faculty to increase technological fluency may be considered to optimize remote learning curricula.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Currículo , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , /transmissão , California , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 15, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, the use of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) has rapidly expanded and diversified. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a growing demand for distance and online learning strategies to support and even replace learning experiences previously afforded by clinical placements and clerkships. An intriguing but under-researched modality is the use of medical reality television to provide authentic experiences of patient care. This strategy does not feature in published medical educational literature, though promising research is emerging from other disciplines. METHODOLOGY: A programme of learning using medical reality television clips to facilitate case-based learning was developed according to the principles of 'anchored instruction', a technology-based educational theory. Clips were taken from the UK television show '24 hours in A&E'. Medical students' learning experiences were investigated using a qualitative approach addressing the following research questions: - What is the perceived emotional experience of medical students when watching reality television in an educational context? - How do medical students relate their experience of watching reality television in a formal educational setting to their perceived learning needs in the clinical environment? A case study research methodology was adopted within the interpretivist paradigm. Data were triangulated from semi-structured interviews with students and non-participant observation of the teaching session. Field notes and transcripts were analysed through an inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: In response to the medical reality television, a diverse range of emotions were expressed including: excitement, amusement, concern, nervousness, sadness and joy. Students identified gaps in their clinical knowledge such as interpreting results, practical aspects of prescribing and end of life care. Key themes were increased student engagement and a promotion of holistic care practices. DISCUSSION: Students perceived reality television as a highly realistic and relatable medium and an enjoyable, memorable way to contextualise learning from the classroom to real life, a finding mirrored in previous studies in other fields. The high degree of emotion expressed may explain the improved subjective memorability of the cases. CONCLUSION: Medical reality television offers a unique means of engaging students by providing authentic experiences of patient care and should be valued alongside other technology-enhanced learning strategies.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Televisão , /prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência ao Paciente , Reino Unido
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 14, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the United States (US) medical education system with the necessary, yet unprecedented Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) national recommendation to pause all student clinical rotations with in-person patient care. This study is a quantitative analysis investigating the educational and psychological effects of the pandemic on US medical students and their reactions to the AAMC recommendation in order to inform medical education policy. METHODS: The authors sent a cross-sectional survey via email to medical students in their clinical training years at six medical schools during the initial peak phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Survey questions aimed to evaluate students' perceptions of COVID-19's impact on medical education; ethical obligations during a pandemic; infection risk; anxiety and burnout; willingness and needed preparations to return to clinical rotations. RESULTS: Seven hundred forty-one (29.5%) students responded. Nearly all students (93.7%) were not involved in clinical rotations with in-person patient contact at the time the study was conducted. Reactions to being removed were mixed, with 75.8% feeling this was appropriate, 34.7% guilty, 33.5% disappointed, and 27.0% relieved. Most students (74.7%) agreed the pandemic had significantly disrupted their medical education, and believed they should continue with normal clinical rotations during this pandemic (61.3%). When asked if they would accept the risk of infection with COVID-19 if they returned to the clinical setting, 83.4% agreed. Students reported the pandemic had moderate effects on their stress and anxiety levels with 84.1% of respondents feeling at least somewhat anxious. Adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) (53.5%) was the most important factor to feel safe returning to clinical rotations, followed by adequate testing for infection (19.3%) and antibody testing (16.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the education of US medical students in their clinical training years. The majority of students wanted to return to clinical rotations and were willing to accept the risk of COVID-19 infection. Students were most concerned with having enough PPE if allowed to return to clinical activities.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/epidemiologia , /psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 110(1): 30-36, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406929

RESUMO

Entrustable Professional Activities in Graduate Medical Education in Psychiatry: A Promising Concept Abstract. Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) are competency-based learning goals derived from observable clinical activities. In undergraduate medical education, they have now been adopted throughout Switzerland as part of the so-called PROFILES catalog (Principal Relevant Objectives and Framework for Integrated Learning and Education in Switzerland). The nine core EPAs to be mastered in undergraduate medical education can serve as a basis for introducing EPAs in graduate medical education as well. We will discuss this approach in the context of graduate medical education in psychiatry and psychotherapy from the perspective of different training contexts and a pilot example. In this position paper, we describe a promising opportunity to improve graduate medical training through the implementation of EPAs, both in terms of the quality of training and thus of patient care, as well as in terms of the attractiveness of the specialty for future residents.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Internato e Residência , Psiquiatria , Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Suíça
18.
Acad Med ; 96(1): 108-112, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394662

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Combined baccalaureate-MD programs exist to fulfill a variety of educational missions, including to promote the development of physician-scientists, increase workforce diversity, promote primary care careers, and meet the needs of underserved patients. The authors sought to determine the demographics of combined program graduates, as well as their intention to practice in primary care (IPPC) and intention to work with the medically underserved (IWMU), as compared with graduates of traditional MD programs. METHOD: Data from the 2010-2017 Association of American Medical Colleges Graduation Questionnaire, a national survey of graduating medical students, were recategorized (e.g., as combined program or traditional program) before analysis. Logistic regression models on the 2 primary outcomes (IPPC and IWMU) were conducted to estimate odds ratios for the effects of covariates and predictors (e.g., gender, underrepresented in medicine [URM] group member, type of medical degree program). RESULTS: Data from a total of 109,028 respondents were included (3,182 from combined and 105,846 from traditional programs). Compared with students in traditional programs, those in combined programs were more likely to be younger (age at graduation ≤ 29: 3,143, 98.8% vs 89,688, 84.7%) and female (1,813, 57.0% vs 52,013, 49.1%) but less likely to identify as a URM group member (276, 8.7% vs 14,757, 13.9%). In an adjusted logistic regression model, graduating from a combined program, identifying as female, and IWMU predicted significantly greater odds of IPPC, while identifying as a URM, identifying as female, and having debt predicted significantly greater odds of IWMU. Graduating medical students who indicated family medicine as a career specialty were more likely to indicate an IWMU. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students graduating from combined programs were more likely to indicate an IPPC but were no more likely to indicate an IWMU than traditional program graduates.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acad Med ; 96(1): 113-117, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394663

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Teaching by way of asking questions is a time-honored practice that has taken on the negative connotation of "pimping" among medical students and has made some faculty hesitant to ask students questions during clerkship rotations. Yet, quantitative studies exploring student perspectives on this practice are limited. This study aimed to solicit student and faculty views and investigate faculty perceptions of students' preferences. METHOD: Students who completed their internal medicine clerkship during the 2017-2018 academic year (n = 165) and were from the 2020 graduating class and their supervising faculty (n = 144) at the University of Michigan Medical School were asked to complete a Likert response survey in April 2019. The survey solicited perspectives on questions probing medical knowledge posed to students by faculty. Surveys were constructed using an iterative process, and data were analyzed using t tests and linear regressions. RESULTS: A total of 140 (85%) students and 112 (78%) faculty participated. Of those, 125 (89%) students and 109 (97%) faculty agreed that probing questions are valuable for student education, but only 73 (65%) faculty perceived that students agreed with this statement (P < .001). In addition, 115 (82%) students preferred to be asked too many questions than none at all. Fifty-five (39%) students agreed that they feel humiliated when they answer a question incorrectly. However, only 7 (5%) students agreed that faculty ask questions to humiliate them, and only 20 (14%) preferred that faculty stop asking questions if they answer a question incorrectly. CONCLUSIONS: Students valued probing questions more than faculty perceived, which argues against a withdrawal from the Socratic teaching method in the clinical arena. The students' experience of humiliation when answering incorrectly requires further study and perhaps can be tempered by more explicit framing of the role of the questioning process.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Docentes/psicologia , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Filosofia Médica , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1857322, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327877

RESUMO

Many challenges could occur that result in the need to handle an increase in the number of medical student clinical placements, such as curricular transformations or viral pandemics, such as COVID 19. Here, we describe four different institutions' approaches to addressing the impact of curricular transformation on clerkships using an implementation science lens. Specifically, we explore four different approaches to managing the 'bulge' as classes overlap in clerkships Curriculum leaders at four medical schools report on managing the bulge of core clinical placements resulting from reducing the duration of the foundational sciences curriculum and calendar shifts for the respective clerkship curriculum. These changes, which occurred between 2014 and 2018, led to more students being enrolled in core clinical rotations at the same time than occurred previously. Schools provided respective metrics used to evaluate the effectiveness of their bulge management technique. These data typically included number of students affected in each phase of their curricular transformation, performance on standardized examinations, and student and faculty feedback. Not all data were available from all schools, as some schools are still working through their 'bulge' or are affected by COVID-19. There is much to be learned about managing curricular transformations. Working on such endeavors in a learning collaborative such as the AMA Accelerating Change in Medical Education Initiative provided support and insights about how to survive, thrive and identifying lessons learned during curricular transformation.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico , Currículo , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Humanos
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