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5.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(7): 659-663, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659828

RESUMO

The principles of evidence-based medicine and the "choosing wisley" initiatives create a foundation for patient-centred medicine, which can prevent an overuse or undertreatment for patients. In order to achieve nationwide implementation in Germany, it makes sense to anchor the necessary skills, in particular scientific skills, more firmly in medical studies and to test them in the state exams. With the "Masterplan Medizinstudium 2020", undergraduate medical education should focus more on the teaching and learning of skills and abilities, instead of on the strong tradition of imparting facts and knowledge. Innovative examination formats which are based on the "choosing wisley" recommendations of the DGVS, such as key feature cases and OSCE examinations, as well as examinations on patients in the future, are integral to the M4 state examination included in the current draft of Medical Licensing Regulations (ÄApprO) and will help with the nationwide implementation of these recommendations.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Competência Clínica , Avaliação Educacional , Alemanha , Humanos
6.
N Z Med J ; 133(1518): 19-32, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683429

RESUMO

AIM: To extend a previous investigation published in the New Zealand Medical Journal in 2017 into the state of quality improvement and patient safety teaching within health professional curricula and inform further investigation. This detailed analysis of actual curricula investigated the extent to which the nine quality and safety domains outlined by New Zealand's Health Quality & Safety Commission (HSQC) are included in eight health professional degrees in disciplines covered by the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance (HPCA) Act as they were delivered to 2,869 students in 2019. An extended set of terms was identified for exploring the key concepts. METHOD: The key concepts within the nine quality and safety domains previously published by HSQC were identified and used to conduct electronic searches of undergraduate curricula. A detailed analysis of the findings indicated that a range of terms, beyond those used in the descriptions in the 2017 study, were utilised to convey the key concepts. An extended list of terms was developed, and further analyses undertaken to check the context of them and ensure relevance. The final analysis identified the terms from the extended list across curricula. Further cross-checking was undertaken to verify the meaning and context of them. RESULTS: The development of an extended list of terms relating to the quality and safety domains enabled a detailed analysis of eight undergraduate health professional curricula preparing students for registration under the HPCA. All the quality and safety domains are represented within health professional degrees and one curriculum in particular was identified as an exemplar in relation to the extent the domains were incorporated. The extended list of terms provides a tool for exploring these domains in other curricula and institutions. CONCLUSION: This detailed analysis of curricula presents a more reassuring picture of the presence of quality improvement and patient safety within undergraduate education in Aotearoa New Zealand than had been previously presented following interviews with educators. An extended list of terms relating to the HSQC domains identified during this analysis adds to the interprofessional vocabulary for considering quality and safety as curricula are continuously evaluated and refined. The curriculum of one discipline provides an exemplar of how key concepts may be incorporated across all levels of a programme of study.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 616-618, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521987

RESUMO

In hospitals and medical schools as densely populated sites with high risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is vital to adjust the teaching and training strategy for medical students to ensure curriculum completion with safety. This article aims to introduce the experience of teaching and training for medical students under the epidemic situation at Department of Surgery, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University and Zhongshan Hospital. The content includes exploring diversified online teaching models for undergraduate surgery courses and clinical practice, carrying out online graduate education and dissertation plans, and strengthening comprehensive education of medical humanity combined with knowledge of COVID-19 prevention. Through implementation of the above teaching strategies, scheduled learning plans of medical students can be well completed in an orderly, safe and quality-ensured manner. Our experience provides practical solution of medical teaching and could be advisable for other medical colleges and teaching hospitals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/educação , Educação a Distância/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/normas , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/normas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
8.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(2): 431-438, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our study assesses the patients' opinion about gynecological examination performed by undergraduate students (UgSts). This assessment will be used in improving our undergraduate training program. A positive opinion would mean a lower chance of a patient refusing to be examined by a tutor or student, taking into account vaginal examination (VE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective cross-sectional survey on 1194 patients, consisting of outpatient and inpatient at the departments of obstetrics and gynecology from November 2015 to May 2016. The questionnaire consisted of 46 questions. Besides demographic data, we assessed the mindset of patients regarding the involvement of undergraduate student (UgSt) in gynecological and obstetrical examinations. We used SPSS version 23 for the statistical analysis. For reporting the data, we followed the STROBE statement of reporting observational studies. RESULTS: The median age was 38 years having a median of one child. 34% presented due to obstetrical problems, 38% due to gynecological complaints, and 19% due to known gynecological malignancies. Generally, we retrieved a positive opinion of patients towards the involvement of students in gynecological and obstetrical examination under supervision in 2/3 of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: There is no reason to exclude medical UgSts from gynecological and obstetrical examinations after obtaining a written or oral consent.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Ginecologia/educação , Obstetrícia/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(3): 177-186, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195105

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enseñanza de la oncología en el pregrado de medicina resulta todavía insuficiente, y esto se manifiesta durante la interacción de los estudiantes en espacios de promoción de salud tanto en la comunidad como en la audiencia sanitaria. OBJETIVO: Implementar un curso electivo para la realización de audiencias sanitarias sobre cáncer por estudiantes de medicina. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó un estudio cuasi-experimental de tipo pre-prueba y post-prueba, en Ciego de Ávila, de enero de 2016 a febrero de 2017, en cuatro etapas: caracterización, diseño, valoración y evaluación de efectividad. En la caracterización se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 120 estudiantes de medicina de tercero, cuarto y quinto año. Se diseñó el curso electivo y se valoró por 15 expertos, a través de la metodología Delphi. Para evaluar la efectividad se trabajó con 30 estudiantes de cuarto año de medicina, quienes recibieron el curso y emitieron su criterio sobre el mismo. RESULTADOS: Los estudiantes se sentían motivados por aprender sobre el tema e incorporarse a la ejecución de audiencias sanitarias. Refirieron no poseer los conocimientos necesarios, identificando el plan de estudio y la falta de cursos electivos como limitaciones para su aprendizaje. El curso electivo se concibió como un curso de siete módulos temáticos y fue valorado positivamente por expertos. Tras su aplicación, en la post-prueba la nota media fue de 4,41 puntos, frente a 3,06 en la pre-prueba. CONCLUSIONES: El curso electivo logró satisfacer necesidades de aprendizaje, alcanzó pertinencia e impacto y posibilitó que los estudiantes de medicina se incorporaran a la ejecución de audiencias sanitarias


INTRODUCTION: The teaching of oncology to medical undergraduates is still insufficient. This is manifested during the interaction of the students in spaces of promotion of health in the community. OBJECTIVE: To implement an elective course for performing of health audits on cancer for students of Medicine. METHODOLOGY: A quasi-experimental study was carried out in Ciego de Ávila, from January 2016 to February 2017, in four stages: characterisation, design, valuation, and evaluation of effectiveness. As regards the characterisation, a descriptive study was carried out on 120 third, fourth, and fifth year medical students. The elective course was designed and evaluated by 15 experts, using Delphi methodology. The effectiveness evaluation was carried out as quasi-experiment with 30 fourth year students who received the course and provided their opinions on it. RESULTS: The students were motivated to learn about the topic and to incorporate it into the execution of health audits. They referred to not to possessing the necessary knowledge, identifying the study plan and the lack elective courses for their learning. The elective course was conceived as a course of seven thematic modules, and it was positively valued by experts. After its application, searches obtained a mean of 4.41 points compared with 3.06 before application. CONCLUSIONS: The elective course was able to satisfy learning needs. It achieved relevancy and impact, and it helps students to incorporate it into to the execution of health audits


Assuntos
Humanos , Currículo/normas , Educação Médica/normas , Ensino/educação , Ensino/normas , Oncologia/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Avaliação Educacional , Competência Clínica , Técnica Delfos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Med Educ Online ; 25(1): 1757883, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352355

RESUMO

Medical schools should use a variety of measures to evaluate the effectiveness of their clinical curricula. Both outcome measures and process measures should be included, and these can be organized according to the four-level training evaluation model developed by Donald Kirkpatrick. Managing evaluation data requires the institution to employ deliberate strategies to monitor signals in real-time and aggregate data so that informed decisions can be made. Future steps in program evaluation includes increased emphasis on patient outcomes and multi-source feedback, as well as better integration of existing data sources.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico/organização & administração , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Estágio Clínico/normas , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Faculdades de Medicina/normas
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20230, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443354

RESUMO

Disaster medicine education in medical curricula is scarce and frequently nonexistent. It is reasonable to initiate educational approaches for physicians in this field at the medical school level. An understanding of disaster medicine and the health care system during massive casualty incidents has been recommended as an integral part of the medical curriculum in the United States and Germany.The goal of the reformed curriculum was to develop a longitudinal integrated disaster and military medicine education program extending from the first year to the sixth year based on previously separated clinical and military medicine topics. Emergency medicine physicians, military emergency medical technicians, and Tactical Combat Casualty Care instructors formed an interprofessional faculty group and designed a learning curriculum.A total of 230 medical students participated in the revised disaster preparedness curriculum. Satisfaction survey response rates were high (201/230, 87.4%). Most of the free-text comments on the program were highly appreciative. The students considered the number of teaching hours for the whole program to be adequate. The students showed significant improvements in knowledge and judgment regarding disaster medicine after the program.We found that medical students were highly interested, were appreciative of, and actively participated in this longitudinal integrated disaster and military medicine education program, but gaps existed between the students' scores and the educators' expectations. The educators believed that the students needed more disaster preparedness knowledge and skills.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres/educação , Medicina Militar/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo , Medicina de Desastres/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Humanos , Medicina Militar/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Grad Med Educ ; 12(2): 145-149, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322345

RESUMO

Background: Two criteria that have been investigated for evaluating orthopedic surgery residency candidates are achieving an "honors" grade during a surgery clerkship and the total number of honors grades received in all clerkships. Unfortunately, the rate of honors grades given and the criteria for earning an honors grade differ between medical schools, making comparison of applicants from different medical schools difficult. Objective: We measured the rate of honors grades in clerkships at different medical schools in the United States to examine the utility of clerkship grades in evaluating orthopedic surgery residency applicants. Methods: Adequate data via the Electronic Residency Application Service were available for 86 of 142 Association of American Medical Colleges medical schools from the 2017 Match cycle. Descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed to identify differences in grade distributions within each clerkship and in school ranking for research by U.S. News & World Report. Results: For the surgery clerkship, the median rate of honors grades given was 32.5% (range 5%-67%). There was a high rate of interinstitutional variability in all clerkships. We were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between research ranking and percentage honors grades given for individual clerkships. Conclusions: A standardized method for grading medical students during clinical clerkships does not exist, resulting in a high degree of interinstitutional variability. Surgery clerkship grades are an unreliable measure for comparing orthopedic surgery residency applicants from different medical schools. Standardized measures of applicant evaluation might be helpful in the future.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estágio Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/educação , Faculdades de Medicina/normas , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina , Estados Unidos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244658

RESUMO

As nearly all doctors deal with patients requiring palliative care, it is imperative that palliative care education starts early. This study aimed to validate a national, palliative care competency framework for undergraduate medical curricula. We conducted a Delphi study with five groups of stakeholders (palliative care experts, physicians, nurses, curriculum coordinators, and junior doctors), inviting them to rate a competency list. The list was organized around six key competencies. For each competency, participants indicated the level to which students should have mastered the skill at the end of undergraduate training. Stability was reached after two rating rounds (N = 82 round 1, N = 54 round 2). The results showed high levels of agreement within and between stakeholder groups. Participants agreed that theoretical knowledge is not enough: Students must practice palliative care competencies, albeit to varying degrees. Overall, communication and personal development and well-being scored the highest: Junior doctors should be able to perform these in the workplace under close supervision. Advance care planning scored the lowest, indicating performance in a simulated setting. A wide range of stakeholders validated a palliative care competency framework for undergraduate medical curricula. This framework can be used to guide teaching about palliative care.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação em Enfermagem , Cuidados Paliativos , Currículo/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Humanos , Estudantes
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