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1.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(3): 277-284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985430

RESUMO

Background: Improving quality of health services and providing safe care require well-trained and skilled workforce. The inclusion of components of patient safety in graduate training curricula, followed by adherence to curricula in teaching programs, can improve the quality of health-care services. Objectives: To review the existing training curricula for five subgroups of health workforce (Allopathic doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians, pharmacists, and nurse midwives) and to document the components and identified variables of patient safety covered. Methods: A mixed-methods study was conducted during July 2017-March 2018. Data were collected through desk review, field visits, in-depth interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and focused group discussions (FGDs). A total of 24 variables were identified by the experts to review the training curricula. Results: Seven states, 28 institutes, and 42 health-care facilities were visited. A total of 516 staff from different health cadres participated in the study through 54 interviews, 156 self-administered questionnaires, and 24 FGDs. Of 24 patient safety variables considered, 16 were covered in the medical and nursing, 9 in laboratory technician and pharmacist, and 5 in midwives' curricula. The teaching material on the patient safety, for most categories of staff, was not available in consolidated form, and there was no standardization. Conclusion: There is a need for the development of comprehensive training material cum operational modules on patient safety, suitably adopted as per the learning needs of different subgroups of health staff. The need for strengthening patient safety has been further underscored as the health workforce is fighting the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. The initiatives on patient safety will contribute to improved overall quality of health services, which in turn would advance universal health coverage.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Segurança do Paciente , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Currículo , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade
2.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(4): 325-339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804400

RESUMO

Graduate job placement is an important issue for emergency management higher education programs, practitio-ners, and students. Yet, despite considerable discussion about the topic, no line of empirical research has emerged. This article begins to address this gap by reporting the findings of an exploratory study that examined the actual job placement of students who recently graduated with a bachelor's degree in emergency management and the extent to which their placement was consistent with their intent. This study found that the vast majority of recent graduates are indeed securing jobs they want, but, for about half, the jobs they want are not emergency management. There is sig-nificant diversity in the career-paths and sectors being pursued by graduates. This article discusses the potential impli-cations of these findings as well as the critical need for further research in this area.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação , Emprego , Escolha da Profissão , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Dent Hyg ; 94(4): 6-12, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753519

RESUMO

Purpose: Scholarly inquiry and research are core competencies for graduate dental hygiene education as defined by American Dental Education Association (ADEA). The purpose of this study was to examine how graduate dental hygiene programs in the United States (US) are meeting these competencies.Methods: The study sample consisted of the graduate programs in the US that award a terminal degree specific to dental hygiene (n=14). Graduate program directors were invited via email to participate in an electronic survey. The survey questions were developed based on the ADEA graduate dental hygiene education competency for scholarly inquiry and research. Descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentages were used to analyze the data. Exploration of relationships between variables were conducted using correlational analyses and t-tests.Results: A response rate of 71% was achieved (n=10). There was a significant difference in the minimum number of scholarly activity requirements between programs with lower student enrollments (M=4.43, SD=1.61) versus those with higher enrollments (M=2.00, SD=0; t(8)=2.51, p=.036). A negative correlation was found between the submission of a manuscript to a peer reviewed journal and the number of students accepted per year in the graduate program (r (10)= -.655, p <.05), indicating that students graduating from programs with larger enrollments were less likely to submit their scholarly work for publication.Conclusions: All program directors reported requiring students to participate in at least one scholarly activity as defined in the ADEA Core Competencies for Graduate Dental Hygiene Education. Program size was the biggest variable in relationship to the number of scholarly requirements. Schools with smaller enrollments required their students to participate in over twice the number of scholarly activities as compared to programs with larger enrollments. More research is needed to evaluate how graduate level dental hygiene programs are meeting the ADEA competencies.


Assuntos
Higienistas Dentários , Higiene Bucal , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236327, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756557

RESUMO

Maximising research productivity is a major focus for universities world-wide. Graduate research programs are an important driver of research outputs. Choosing students with the greatest likelihood of success is considered a key part of improving research outcomes. There has been little empirical investigation of what factors drive the outcomes from a student's PhD and whether ranking procedures are effective in student selection. Here we show that, the research environment had a decisive influence: students who conducted research in one of the University's priority research areas and who had experienced, research-intensive, supervisors had significantly better outcomes from their PhD in terms of number of manuscripts published, citations, average impact factor of journals published in, and reduced attrition rates. In contrast, students' previous academic outcomes and research training was unrelated to outcomes. Furthermore, students who received a scholarship to support their studies generated significantly more publications in higher impact journals, their work was cited more often and they were less likely to withdraw from their PhD. The findings suggest that experienced supervisors researching in a priority research area facilitate PhD student productivity. The findings question the utility of assigning PhD scholarships solely on the basis of student academic merit, once minimum entry requirements are met. Given that citations, publication numbers and publications in higher ranked journals drive university rankings, and that publications from PhD student contribute approximately one-third of all research outputs from universities, strengthening research infrastructure and supervision teams may be more important considerations for maximising the contribution of PhD students to a university's international standing.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação , Universidades , Dissertações Acadêmicas como Assunto , Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Humanos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Pesquisa , Estudantes
6.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 650-657, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: More than 16 000 graduate degrees in public health are awarded annually. Yet only 14% of the governmental public health workforce has formal public health training of any kind, and 8% has a master of public health (MPH) degree. We characterized the differences among governmental staff members with master's degrees across US health departments. METHODS: We used data from the 2017 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey, a national survey of state and local public health departments (43 669 responses; response rate, 48%). We examined the characteristics of the workforce by educational attainment and compared respondents who had obtained a "terminal" (ie, highest degree obtained) MPH degree with respondents who had obtained a terminal non-public health (non-PH) master's degree. RESULTS: Respondents who had a non-PH master's degree were as likely as respondents who had an MPH degree to hold a supervisory role (43% vs 41%; P = .67). We found only 1 significant difference between the 2 groups: respondents aged ≤40 with a terminal MPH degree were significantly less likely than respondents aged ≤40 with a non-PH master's degree to earn more than the national average salary (adjusted odds ratio = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.47-0.97; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: We found only marginal differences in career outcomes for people working in governmental public health who had a terminal MPH degree vs a terminal non-PH master's degree. This finding does not necessitate a full reconsideration of the MPH as it relates to governmental public health practice but a greater recognition that there are multiple paths into practice.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/estatística & dados numéricos , Empregados do Governo/educação , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/educação , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 84(6): ajpe8158, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665729

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus identified in 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted pharmacy graduate and postgraduate education. This crisis has resulted in a cosmic shift in the administration of these programs to ensure core values are sustained. Adjustments may be needed at a minimum to ensure that postgraduate trainees complete program requirements while maintaining safety. Moving forward, additional issues may arise that will need to be addressed such as admissions and program onboarding, acclimating students to new training environments, and managing inadequate resources for distance education, distance practice, and remote versus in-person research opportunities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação de Pós-Graduação/organização & administração , Educação em Farmácia/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Educação a Distância , Educação de Pós-Graduação/normas , Educação em Farmácia/normas , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Pandemias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Residências em Farmácia/organização & administração , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Ensino/organização & administração , Telemedicina/organização & administração
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233415, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730264

RESUMO

Structured doctoral education is increasingly preferred compared to the individual model. Several science policy organisations give recommendations on how to structure doctoral education. However, there is little research on to what extent these recommendations find their way into practice. In our study, we first compared European and German recommendations on doctoral education with, second, the institutional regulations of structured doctoral programmes (N = 98) in the life sciences at twelve different German universities. Additionally, we third asked doctoral graduates (N = 1796) of these structured doctoral programmes and graduates of individual doctoral studies about their experience in doctoral education. Fourth, we contrasted the regulations of structured doctoral programmes with the reported experiences of their graduates. We found significant deviations of the reported practices of graduates from the regulations of their organisations, regarding the student admission, supervision and curricular activities of doctoral candidates. The efficacy of structured versus traditional doctoral education should be examined based on reported practice rather than on the respective written regulations.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle Social Formal , Estudos de Coortes , Alemanha , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 19(3): ar25, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663115

RESUMO

Graduate students represent both a significant component of the instructional team for biology departments as well as being students themselves learning to become academics. However, little is known about how biology graduate students perceive the relationships among their academic roles, particularly research and teaching. The present study used a cross-sectional survey to elicit the perceptions biology graduate students hold about the relationship between research and teaching. This work is an important first step in understanding the socialization processes of graduate students. Findings indicated that the majority of biology graduate students (65.5% of n = 255) hold synergistic perceptions of research and teaching. This is in spite of the mixed messages that biology graduate students hear about this relationship, including both "Teaching detracts from research" and "Teaching supports research." Findings from this study have implications for multiple stakeholders in graduate education, including professional developers who need to be cognizant of the messages that are received and internalized by biology graduate students while engaged in professional development opportunities. Results also suggest that work is needed to address how messages are prioritized and internalized during graduate school.


Assuntos
Biologia/educação , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Percepção , Pesquisa , Estudantes , Ensino , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 23(3): 111-115, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193876

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las nuevas generaciones de estudiantes y las distintas problemáticas de las asignaturas instan a modificar las actividades formativas hacia nuevas formas utilizando tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. OBJETIVO: Identificar la opinión de los alumnos de primer y segundo año de la carrera de medicina, Universidad de Valparaíso, respecto del uso de un sistema inalámbrico de respuesta (clicker) y Kahoot en el aula. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo, fenomenológico. Para la producción de información se realizaron 2 grupos focales con un total de 18 participantes, los cuales se transcribieron según el principio de verbatim. El análisis utilizado fue de contenido. Se efectuó triangulación de la información con técnica de investigadores. RESULTADOS: El uso de clickers y Kahoot se ha valorado positivamente. Se produjo información acerca de las ventajas e inconvenientes de cada una de las tecnologías. Ambas logran focalizar la atención de los estudiantes y aumentan su sensación de disfrute, aprendizaje y calidad de vida al ser estrategias de gamificación. CONCLUSIÓN: Ambas estrategias tienen la potencialidad de modificar favorablemente los ambientes del aula, con ventajas y limitaciones que deben ser conocidas por los docentes. Es relevante insertarlas dentro de estrategias educativas coherentes para potenciar los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje


INTRODUCTION: The new generations of students and different issues related to class subjects have driven us to modify our educational activities towards new strategies using information and communications technology (ICT) in the classroom. AIM: To identify the undergraduate students' opinion in first and second year of medicine at the Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile, regarding the use of clickers and Kahoot in the classroom. Subjects and methods: Qualitative and phenomenological research. In order to gather information two focus groups were organised with a total of 18 participants, the answers from the interview were transcribed using the verbatim principle. The study used a content analysis and triangulation method. RESULTS: The use of ICT in the classroom has been considered positive. The research found information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the use of clickers and Kahoot. Both types of technology were able to keep the students' attention, increasing the sense of enjoyment of the lesson, learning and quality of life as they are using games as a teaching strategy. CONCLUSION: Both strategies have the potential to modify the classroom environment in a positive manner, with advantages and limitations that should be known by educators. It is relevant to insert them into coherent educational strategies to improve the learning-teaching processes


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Médica/métodos , Educação Continuada/organização & administração , Inovação Organizacional , Educação de Pós-Graduação/organização & administração , México , Educação Médica/história
14.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(2): 473-483, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102911

RESUMO

A interface entre a comunicação e a saúde é construída coletivamente, envolvendo uma miríade de interlocutores em contextos sociais determinados, com o objetivo final de tornar efetivos os direitos à comunicação e à saúde, previstos na Constituição Federal de 1988. Para promover este encontro, bem como capacitar profissionais de ambas as áreas, a Escola de Saúde Pública de Minas Gerais (ESP-MG) oferece o curso de Pós-graduação em Comunicação e Saúde, no qual a disciplina Teorias da Comunicação tem destaque, uma vez que é primordial conhecer os fundamentos da comunicação humana e a dinâmica da Comunicação Social, com ênfase no campo teórico-prático conhecido como Comunicação e Saúde (CeS). Este artigo relata a experiência do curso a partir da disciplina Teorias da Comunicação, de modo a situá-la como conhecimento essencial não somente para os comunicadores, mas também para os profissionais de saúde.


The interface between communication and health is built collectively, involving a myriad of interlocutors in determined social contexts, with the ultimate goal of making the communication and health rights established in the 1988 Federal Constitution effective. In order to promote this exchange, as well as training professionals from both areas, the School of Public Health of Minas Gerais (SP-MG) offers the postgraduate course in Communication and Health, in which the Theories of Communication discipline is highlighted, since it is essential to know the fundamentals of human communication and the dynamics of Social Communication, with emphasis on the theoretical-practical field known as Communication and Health (CES). This article reports the experience of the course from the Theories of Communication subject, in order to situate it as essential knowledge not only for communicators, but also for health professionals.


La interfaz entre la comunicación y la salud se construye colectivamente, involucrando una miríada de interlocutores en contextos sociales determinados, con el objetivo final de hacer efectivos los derechos a la comunicación ya las saludes previstas en la Constitución Federal de 1988. Para promover este encuentro, como la capacitación de profesionales de ambas áreas, la Escuela de Salud Pública de Minas Gerais (ESP-MG) ofrece el curso de Postgrado en Comunicación y Salud, en el cual la disciplina Teorías de la Comunicación tiene destaque, ya que es fundamental conocer los fundamentos de la comunicación humana y la dinámica de la Comunicación Social, con énfasis en el campo teórico-práctico conocido como Comunicación y Salud (CeS). Este artículo relata la experiencia del curso a partir de la disciplina Teorías de la Comunicación, para situarla como conocimiento esencial no sólo para los comunicadores, sino también para los profesionales de la salud.


Assuntos
Humanos , Brasil , Saúde Pública , Educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Comunicação em Saúde , Escolas para Profissionais de Saúde , Comunicação Social , Acesso à Informação , Direito à Saúde
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): 217-: I-221, II, jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1117381

RESUMO

Introducción. El jefe de residentes es una figura estratégica en el liderazgo y cohesión entre los residentes.Objetivo. Caracterizar actividades desarrolladas por jefes de residentes e identificar logros y dificultades.Métodos. Se realizó una encuesta; sobre variables demográficas, actividades desarrolladas, situaciones más y menos gratificantes, necesidad de capacitación.Resultados. Contestaron el 88 % de los jefes de residentes; el 46 % fueron mujeres. Las actividades fueron asistenciales (el 26 %), gestión académica (el 25 %), docentes (el 24 %), administrativas (el 16 %) e investigación (el 10 %).La situación más gratificante fue el desarrollo del rol docente, y la menos gratificante, las dificultades en el manejo de relaciones interpersonales. El 57 % reconoció la falta de capacitación, y el 95 % recomendaría realizar la jefatura de residentes.Conclusión. La situación más gratificante fue el desarrollo del rol docente, y la menos gratificante, las dificultades en el manejo de relaciones interpersonales


Introduction. The chief resident plays a strategic role in terms of leadership and cohesion among residents.Objective. To characterize the activities developed by chief residents and identify their achievements and difficulties.Methods. A survey about demographic outcome measures, activities performed, most and least gratifying situations, and training needs was completed.Results. In total, 88 % of chief residents completed the survey; 46 % were females. Activities were related to health care (26 %), academic management (25 %), teaching (24 %), administration (16 %), and research (10 %). The most gratifying situation was playing a teaching role, and the least gratifying one were difficulties in the management of interpersonal relations. A lack of training was recognized by 57 %, whereas 95 % would recommend becoming a chief resident.Conclusion. The most gratifying situation was playing a teaching role, and the least gratifying one were difficulties in the management of interpersonal relations


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensino , Hospitais de Ensino , Liderança , Papel (figurativo) , Inquéritos e Questionários , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Docentes , Internato e Residência
16.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S151-S152, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525384

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed competing demands on many graduate students working at practica. Though graduate programs seek to minimize potential sources of exposure to the virus, some practicum sites rely on students as essential staff. At the same time, although some students may wish to eliminate this source of potential exposure to the virus, other students may consider the opportunity to fulfill their practicum duties at a time of crisis an important part of their educational experience. Guidance published by the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers regarding internship students provides at least a starting point for programs to develop policies that allow students to make informed decisions about their practicum training. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psicoterapia , Adulto , Educação de Pós-Graduação/ética , Educação de Pós-Graduação/organização & administração , Humanos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516342

RESUMO

Young biomedical PhD scientists are needed in a wide variety of careers. Many recent efforts have been focused on revising training approaches to help them choose and prepare for different careers. However, very little is known about how biomedical PhD students decide on and "differentiate" into careers, which limits the development of new training models. This knowledge gap also severely limits efforts to increase the representation of women and some racial/ethnic groups in academic research careers. Previous studies have used cross-sectional surveys of career interests and ratings, and have not been designed to identify career intentions. They also are limited by single-time data and response bias, having typically asked participants to recount decisions made years in the past. This report draws on annual, in-depth interviews with 147 biomedical PhD students from the start of the PhD to graduation. Qualitative content analysis methods were used to fully understand scientific development and career intentions over time. Longitudinal analysis reveals a striking level of fluidity and complexity in career intentions over time. Contrary to previous studies and the dominant narrative, data do not show generalized shifts away from academic careers. In addition to those who are consistent in this intention from the start, nearly as many students shift toward research academic careers as away from them, and only modest differences exist by gender and race/ethnicity. Thus, the dominant narrative misses the high fraction of individuals who acquire or sustain their intention to purse an academic research career during training. Efforts to increase diversity in academia must capitalize on and support those who are still considering and evolve toward an academic career. Efforts to revise research training should incorporate knowledge of the tremendous fluidity in when and how career differentiation occurs.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolha da Profissão , Educação de Pós-Graduação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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