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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20200150, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1115945

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to describe Covid-19 mobile applications available for download on smartphones. Method: a cross-sectional study with 52 mobile applications on Covid-19, obtained from virtual stores for smartphones with Android and iOS operating systems. Fisher's exact test and Cramér's V were used. Results: of the applications, 45 (86.6%) were developed in 2020, 51 (98.1%) were free, and 49 (94.2%) did not have accessibility for people with disabilities. It was observed that, in 23 countries, 17 (32.7%) applications in English and 14 (26.9%) in Portuguese were created, with a choice of 11 languages, relating to nine subthemes on Covid-19, the majority on "case monitoring" and "symptoms, prevention, and care", with 17 (32.7%) each. There was an association between the target audience and the subtheme of "symptoms, prevention, and care", and between patient monitoring and professional training. Conclusion: Covid-19 mobile applications were available in countries on five continents, in the main languages of communication and free of charge; however, with limited accessibility for people with disabilities.


RESUMEN Objetivo: describir aplicaciones móviles sobre Covid-19 disponibles para descargar en teléfonos inteligentes. Método: estudio transversal realizado con 52 aplicaciones móviles sobre Covid-19 obtenidas en las tiendas virtuales para teléfonos inteligentes con sistemas operativos Android e iOS. Se emplearon la Prueba Exacta de Fisher y el coeficiente V de Cramér. Resultados: del total de aplicaciones, 45 (86,6%) fueron desarrolladas en el año 2020, 51 (98,1%) eran gratuitas, y 49 (94,2%) no ofrecían accesibilidad para personas con discapacidades. Se observó que, en 23 países, se diseñaron diversas aplicaciones, 17 (32,7%) en inglés y 14 (26,9%) en portugués, con opción de 11 idiomas, relacionadas con nueve subtemas sobre Covid-19. La mayoría sobre "monitorización de casos" y sobre "síntomas, prevención y cuidados", con 17 (32,7%) aplicaciones en cada subtema. Se registró una asociación entre el público objetivo y el subtema de "síntomas, prevención y cuidados", y también entre la monitorización de pacientes y la capacitación profesional. Conclusión: se registró disponibilidad de aplicaciones móviles sobre Covid-19 en países de los cinco continentes, en los principales idiomas de comunicación, y en forma gratuita; no obstante, con accesibilidad limitada para personas con discapacidades.


RESUMO Objetivo: descrever aplicativos móveis sobre Covid-19 disponíveis para download em smartphones. Método: estudo transversal com 52 aplicativos móveis sobre Covid-19, obtidos nas lojas virtuais para smartphones com sistema operacional Android e iOS. Utilizou-se o Teste Exato de Fisher e V de Cramér. Resultados: dos aplicativos, 45 (86,6%) foram desenvolvidos em 2020, 51 (98,1%) eram gratuitos e 49 (94,2%) não possuíam acessibilidade para pessoas com deficiência. Observou-se que foram criados, em 23 países - 17 (32,7%) em inglês e 14 (26,9%) em português, com opção de 11 idiomas, aplicativos referentes a nove subtemas sobre a Covid-19, a maioria sobre "monitoramento de casos" e "sintomas, prevenção e cuidados", com 17 (32,7%) cada. Ocorreu associação entre o público-alvo e o subtema "sintomas prevenção e cuidados", e entre monitoramento de pacientes e capacitação profissional. Conclusão: os aplicativos móveis sobre Covid-19 encontravam-se disponíveis em países dos cinco continentes, nos principais idiomas de comunicação, de forma gratuita, entretanto, com escassa acessibilidade para pessoas com deficiência.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tecnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Aplicativos Móveis , Smartphone , Educação em Saúde
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20200106, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101977

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the COVID-19 pandemic and what we have (re)learned from the world experience of adopting prevention measures recommended by the World Health Organization as well as the epidemiological overview in the world, in Latin America and in Brazil. Results: the World Health Organization has pointed out that the path to reduce the speed of circulation of the virus, control and decrease in the number of cases and deaths resulting from this pandemic can only be accomplished with mass adoption of fundamental measures that include hand hygiene, alcohol gel use, cough etiquette, cleaning surfaces, avoiding agglomerations and social distancing. The epidemiological curve of the disease clearly shows the devastating proportions in Italy, Spain and the United States, surpassing China in death records, due to the delay in adopting the aforementioned measures. In Brazil, the rapid progression in relation to the world and Latin America points to an important increase in the number of cases. Conclusion: this is possibly the most serious pandemic in recent human history, and its course can be influenced by the rigor in adopting individual and collective behavioral measures.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la pandemia de COVID-19 y lo que hemos (re)aprendido de la experiencia mundial para la adopción de las medidas de prevención recomendadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, así como el panorama epidemiológico en el mundo, en América Latina y en Brasil. Resultados: la Organización Mundial de la Salud ha señalado que el camino hacia la reducción de la velocidad de circulación del virus, el control y la reducción del número de casos y muertes resultantes de esta pandemia solo se puede lograr con la adopción masiva de medidas fundamentales que incluyan la higiene de las manos, uso de alcohol en gel, etiqueta respiratoria, limpieza de superficies, evitando hacinamiento y distancia social. La curva epidemiológica de la enfermedad muestra claramente las proporciones devastadoras en Italia, España y Estados Unidos, superando a China en los registros de defunciones, debido a la demora en la adopción de estas medidas. En Brasil, la rápida progresión en relación con el mundo y América Latina apunta a un aumento importante en el número de casos. Conclusión: esta pandemia es posiblemente la más grave en la historia humana reciente y su curso puede verse influenciado por el rigor en la adopción de medidas de comportamiento individuales y colectivas.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a pandemia da Covid-19 e o que temos (re)aprendido com a experiência mundial para adoção das medidas de prevenção preconizadas pela Organização Mundial de Saúde bem como o panorama epidemiológico no mundo, na América Latina e no Brasil. Resultados: a Organização Mundial de Saúde tem apontado que o caminho para a redução da velocidade de circulação do vírus, o controle e queda do número de casos e óbitos decorrentes dessa pandemia só poderá ser alcançado com adoção em massa de medidas fundamentais que incluem higienização das mãos, uso do álcool em gel, etiqueta respiratória, limpeza de superfícies, evitar aglomerações e distanciamento social. A curva epidemiológica da doença mostra claramente as proporções devastadoras na Itália, Espanha e nos Estados Unidos, superando a China em registros de óbitos, devido ao atraso na adoção dessas medidas. No Brasil, a progressão rápida em relação ao mundo e à América Latina aponta um importante aumento do número de casos. Conclusão: essa pandemia possivelmente é a mais grave da história recente da humanidade e seu curso pode ser influenciado pelo rigor na adoção de medidas comportamentais individuais e coletivas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Prevenção de Doenças , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Betacoronavirus , Isolamento de Pacientes , Distância Social , Comportamento , Educação em Saúde
3.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180399, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101980

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of educational interventions in improving the quality of life of people with arterial hypertension. Method: an integrative literature review which included studies that conducted educational interventions aimed at the hypertensive public to improve quality of life. The search was performed in the following databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, IBECS, CUMED, BDENF, SciELO and CINAHL, without restriction of language, date and sample size. For this, the following descriptors were crossed: "hipertensão" (hypertension), "educação em saúde" (health education) and "qualidade de vida" (quality of life). 619 articles were retrieved and after the selection and analysis process, a total of 10 made up this review. Data extraction and analysis were performed with the help of validated instruments and the result summarized. Results: Most studies were developed on a quasi-experimental basis, using generic instruments to measure quality of life with significant improvement after educational interventions, with group technology being the most used educational strategy. Just one study used a specific instrument to evaluate hypertensive patients. Conclusion: these results may direct the interventions to be implemented by health professionals in managing arterial hypertension. Further investigations are needed to identify and verify the most effective interventions for hypertensive patients, considering heterogeneous profiles and aiming at improving quality of life.


RESUMO Objetivo: evaluar la eficacia de las intervenciones educativas en el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de personas con hipertensión arterial. Método: revisión integradora de la literatura que incluyó estudios que han realizado intervenciones educativas direccionadas al público hipertenso con el objetivo de mejorar su calidad de vida. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS, IBECS, CUMED, BDENF, SciELO e CINAHL, sin restricción de idioma, fecha ni tamaño de muestra. A tal efecto, se utilizaron los descriptores "hipertensión", "educación en salud" y "calidad de vida". Se tomaron 619 artículos y luego de un proceso de selección y análisis esta revisión se compone de un total de 10. La extracción y el análisis de datos se realizaron con el auxilio de instrumentos validados e se procedió a la síntesis de los resultados. Resultados: la mayor parte de los estudios se desarrolló con carácter casi experimental mediante el uso instrumentos genéricos para medir la calidad de vida, con significativa mejoría después de realizadas las intervenciones educativas, siendo la tecnología grupal la estrategia educacional más utilizada. Apenas un estudio utilizó un instrumento específico para la evaluación de hipertensos. Conclusión: estos resultados pueden direccionar las intervenciones que deben llevarse a cabo por profesionales de la salud en el manejo de la presión arterial. Es necesario profundizar las investigaciones para identificar y verificar las intervenciones más eficientes en pacientes hipertensos, considerando perfiles heterogéneos a fin de mejorar su calidad de vida.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a efetividade de intervenções educativas na melhora da qualidade de vida de pessoas com hipertensão arterial. Método: revisão integrativa da literatura que incluiu estudos que realizaram intervenções educacionais direcionadas ao público hipertenso com vistas à melhora da qualidade de vida. Busca realizada nas bases de dados: MEDLINE, LILACS, IBECS, CUMED, BDENF, SciELO e CINAHL, sem restrição de idioma, data e tamanho amostral. Para tal, cruzaram-se os descritores: "hipertensão", "educação em saúde" e "qualidade de vida". Foram resgatados 619 artigos e após o processo de seleção e análise, um total de 10 compuseram esta revisão. A extração e análise dos dados foram realizadas com auxílio de instrumentos validados e o resultado sumarizado. Resultados: a maioria dos estudos foi desenvolvida em caráter quase experimental, utilizando-se de instrumentos genéricos para mensuração da qualidade de vida com melhora significativa após a realização de intervenções educativas, sendo a tecnologia grupal a estratégia educacional mais utilizada. Apenas um estudo utilizou instrumento específico para avaliação em hipertensos. Conclusão: estes resultados podem direcionar as intervenções a serem implementadas por profissionais de saúde no manejo da hipertensão arterial. Futuras investigações são necessárias para identificar e verificar as intervenções mais eficazes aos pacientes hipertensos, considerando perfis heterogêneos e visando à melhora da qualidade de vida.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Doença Crônica , Hipertensão , Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Revisão , Pressão Arterial , Análise de Dados
4.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190075, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101973

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the dialogical educative process as a strategy to prepare the relatives of children with special health needs in the transition from hospital to home. Method: qualitative study developed from the Creative Sensitive Method, carried out between February and June 2018 at the Inpatient Unit of a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Family caregivers of nine children with special health needs in transition from hospital to home were included in the study, totaling nine participants. The empirical material was evaluated through the analysis of the French discourse. Results: the educative process allowed the relatives to unveil demands for technological and medicative care, modified habitual elements, clinically complex care and social demands to be worked on by the nurse in the transition from hospital to home. From the analysis, the following category emerged: The educative process as a strategy to prepare the relatives of children with special health needs in the transition from hospital to home. The dialogue was produced, however, without exhausting the I-You relationship, maintaining the dialogicity in the group and encouraging the exchange between the different realities of the relatives. Conclusion: the educative dialogic process is an adequate strategy to prepare the relatives of children with special health needs in the hospital-home transition, where the nurses act as coordinators, suggesting a minimum program-related content.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar el proceso educativo dialógico como estrategia de preparación de los familiares de niños con necesidades especiales en la transición del hospital a la casa. Método: estudio cualitativo desarrollado a partir del Método Creativo Sensible, realizado entre febrero y junio de 2018 en la Unidad de Pacientes Internados de un hospital público situado en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro. El estudio se realizó con familiares cuidadores de nueve niños con necesidades especiales en transición del hospital hacia la casa, compuesto por el total de 9 participantes. El material empírico se evaluó por medio del análisis de discurso francés. Resultados: el proceso educativo permitió que los familiares develaran demandas de cuidados, tecnológicas y medicamentosas, cuidados habituales modificados, cuidados clínicamente complejos y demandas sociales que deben ser trabajadas por el enfermero en la transición del hospital hacia la casa. Del análisis, emergió la categoría: el proceso educativo como estrategia de preparación de los familiares de niños con necesidades especiales en la transición del hospital a la casa. El diálogo se produjo, sin embargo, sin agotar la relación yo-tu, manteniendo el carácter dialógico en el grupo e incentivando el intercambio entre las diferentes realidades de los familiares. Conclusión: el proceso educativo dialógico es una estrategia adecuada para preparar los familiares de niños con necesidades especiales de salud en la transición hospital-casa, en el cual los enfermeros actúan como coordinadores, sugiriendo un contenido programático mínimo.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o processo educativo dialógico como estratégia de preparo dos familiares de crianças com necessidades especiais de saúde na transição do hospital para casa. Método: estudo qualitativo desenvolvido a partir do Método Criativo Sensível, realizado entre fevereiro e junho de 2018 na Unidade de Pacientes Internos de um hospital público localizado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Familiares cuidadores de nove crianças com necessidades especiais de saúde em transição do hospital para casa integraram o estudo, totalizando nove participantes. O material empírico foi avaliado por meio da análise do discurso francesa. Resultados: o processo educativo permitiu que os familiares desvelassem demandas de cuidados tecnológicas e medicamentosas, habituais modificados, cuidados clinicamente complexos e demandas sociais a serem trabalhados pelo enfermeiro na transição do hospital para a casa. Da análise, emergiu a categoria: o processo educativo como estratégia de preparo dos familiares de crianças com necessidades especiais de saúde na transição do hospital para casa. O diálogo foi produzido, porém, sem esgotar a relação eu-tu, mantendo a dialogicidade no grupo e incentivando o intercâmbio entre as diferentes realidades dos familiares. Conclusão: o processo educativo dialógico é uma estratégia adequada para preparar os familiares de crianças com necessidades especiais de saúde na transição hospital-casa, no qual os enfermeiros atuam como coordenadores, sugerindo um conteúdo programático mínimo.


Assuntos
Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermagem Pediátrica , Doença Crônica , Crianças com Deficiência , Família , Saúde Pública , Educação em Saúde , Cuidadores
5.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180471, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059140

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the knowledge of the elderly assisted by the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS) about HIV/AIDS infection in a health unit, before and after an educational intervention. Method: a quasi-experimental study analyzing the changes related to the knowledge about HIV/AIDS of 60 elderly individuals divided into two groups, who participated in an educational intervention, in an outpatient clinic of a SUS rehabilitation center in the second half of 2016. To evaluate the effectiveness of the teaching/learning process, a semi-structured questionnaire called QHIV3I was applied before and after the intervention. For data analysis, the generalized version of McNemar's chi-square test was used. Results: comparing the knowledge of the elderly before and after the educational intervention showed a higher number of correct answers, with a minimum percentage of 3.34% and a maximum of 75%. Significant statistical differences were found in one of the questions in the concept, transmission and treatment domains; and in the two vulnerability questions. Conclusion: it was found that the educational intervention contributed to the improvement of knowledge about HIV/AIDS in the elderly population. Thus, it is reasserted that the health promotion policy finds its essential foundation in health education strategies.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar el conocimiento de los ancianos atendidos por el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) acerca de la infección por VIH/SIDA en una unidad de salud, tanto antes como después de una intervención educativa. Método: estudio cuasi-experimental en el que se analizaron los cambios relacionados con el conocimiento sobre VIH/SIDA de 60 ancianos subdivididos en dos grupos y que participaron de una intervención educativa en el área de atención ambulatoria de un centro especializado en rehabilitación del SUS, durante el segundo semestre de 2016. Para evaluar la eficacia del proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje se aplicó un cuestionario semiestructurado denominado QHIV3I, antes y después de la intervención. En el análisis de los datos se utilizó la versión generalizada de la prueba de chi-cuadrado de McNemar. Resultados: en la comparación de los conocimientos de los ancianos antes y después de la intervención educativa se evidenció una mayor cantidad de respuestas correctas, con un porcentaje mínimo de 3,34% y uno máximo de 75%. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en una de las preguntas de los dominios de concepto y de transmisión y tratamiento, además de en las dos preguntas sobre vulnerabilidad. Conclusión: se constató que la intervención educativa contribuyó a mejorar los conocimientos sobre VIH/SIDA en la población de la tercera edad. Esto reafirma que la política de promoción de la salud encuentra sus fundamentos esenciales en las estrategias de educación en salud.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o conhecimento dos idosos atendidos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) acerca da infecção do HIV/aids numa unidade de saúde, antes e após intervenção educativa. Método: estudo quase-experimental, em que se analisou as mudanças relativas ao conhecimento sobre HIV/aids de 60 idosos subdivididos em dois grupos, que participaram de intervenção educativa, num ambulatório de um centro especializado em reabilitação do SUS no segundo semestre de 2016. Para avaliar a eficácia do processo de ensino/aprendizagem, aplicou-se questionário semiestruturado denominado QHIV3I, antes e após a intervenção. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se a versão generalizada do teste qui-quadrado de McNemar. Resultados: a comparação dos conhecimentos dos idosos antes e depois da intervenção educativa evidenciaram maior número de acertos, com percentual mínimo de 3,34% e máximo de 75%. Diferenças estatísticas significativas foram encontradas em uma das questões nos domínios conceito, transmissão e tratamento; e nas duas questões sobre vulnerabilidade. Conclusão: constatou-se que a intervenção educativa contribuiu para o aprimoramento de conhecimentos sobre HIV/aids na população idosa. Com isso, reafirma-se que a política de promoção da saúde encontra nas estratégias de educação em saúde seu alicerce essencial.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Saúde do Idoso , Educação em Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , HIV , Sistema Único de Saúde , Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Promoção da Saúde , Aprendizagem
6.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(3): 304-307, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of health education with children popular oral science short drama on 10-year-old children's oral health knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP), and provide evidence for oral health education methods for children. METHODS: A oral health education short drama for children was filmed. 10-year-old children from a primary school in Minhang district, Shanghai were selected as the study subjects. The groups were asked to watch the drama on campus at enrollment and the first month for health education. Self-made questionnaires were used to conduct corresponding oral health KAP surveys at the time of enrollment, the first month and the sixth month. The survey results were compared using SPSS 21.0 software package for t test and Chi-square test, to compare the changes in oral health KAP scores and the accuracy of each question before and after oral health education. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-four children were followed-up. Before the intervention, the subjects' oral health knowledge, attitude, and behavior scores were (21.02±12.54), (74.48±19.87), (31.90±22.39), and (57.05±17.56), (85.06±14.97), (55.03±29.32) at the first month; and (71.76±16.27), (91.49±12.40), (73.99±27.46) at the 6th month, respectively. Compared with those before the intervention, significant increases were observed (P<0.001). Before the intervention, there was no significant difference in KAP scores between different genders, but there were significant differences in knowledge and behavior scores at 1 and 6 months after intervention between different genders(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: School oral health education through children oral science short drama has a good effect on improving the knowledge, attitude and behavior of oral health care for 10-year-old children, and it is more effective when repeat.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Criança , China , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Educação em Saúde Bucal , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(4): 579-585, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005122

RESUMO

Not only do epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), and the current Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) cause the loss of millions of lives, but they also cost the global economy billions of dollars. Consequently, there is an urgent need to formulate interventions that will help control their spread and impact when they emerge. The education of young girls and women is one such historical approach. They are usually the vulnerable targets of disease outbreaks - they are most likely to be vehicles for the spread of epidemics due to their assigned traditional roles in resource-limited countries. Based on our work and the work of others on educational interventions, we propose six critical components of a cost-effective and sustainable response to promote girl-child education in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por Coronavirus , Identidade de Gênero , Saúde Global , Educação em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/educação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4185-4195, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027355

RESUMO

This study discusses the reorganization of the Community Health Workers (CHWs) work process as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, considering its importance as a link between the community and the health services in the field of basic care. The literature review comes from the following databases: Virtual Health Library, Scientific Electronic Library Online, and the Brazilian Scientific Publications Portal databases in open access and document review of technical and normative notes from the Municipal Health Secretariats in Brazil. The analysis was based on the premises of Primary Health Care and on the axes of the CHW work, especially cultural competence and community orientation, aiming to discuss the changes introduced in this work regarding the following aspects: 1) health teams support, 2) use of telehealth, and 3) health education. This study concluded that the Covid-19 pandemic demanded reorganization of the work process and assistance flows in the field of basic care. In order for the CHW to continue developing their activities it is necessary to guarantee decent working conditions, training and continuing education, including the concern about the possible discontinuity of other care needed to ensure the population health care in the territory.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Coleta de Dados , Educação em Saúde , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Telemedicina
11.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 744-754, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the knowledge, attitude and practice(KAP) of nutrition label for community residents in Shanghai and the effects of health education interventions, and to explore the factors affecting the knowledge, attitude and practice(KAP), and to provide theoretical bases for relevant policies. METHODS: Using stratified random sampling to randomly select at least 20 residents before and after the intervention in each community in Shanghai. A baseline survey was carried out in early March 2016. The survey included basic information and the knowledge、attitude and practice of nutrition label. Using a combination of online and offline method such as issuing posters, folding pages, conducting lectures on knowledge, tweeting on WeChat public accounts, etc. , for a 4-month intervention, and an assessment survey was conducted in June. The same questionnaire was used before and after the intervention. RESULTS: The awareness rate of nutrition labels among community residents in Shanghai increased from 63. 0% before the intervention to 87. 4% after the intervention. The proportion of those who felt it necessary to label nutrition labels increased from 77. 7% before the intervention to 88. 3%. When purchasing prepackaged food, the proportion of people who often read nutrition labels increased from 32. 2% before intervention to 51. 8%, and the above differences were statistically significant(P<0. 05). After the intervention, the mastery of nutrition labeling knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of men were positively changed(P<0. 05). After the intervention, residents in the suburban areas have significantly improved their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to nutrition labeling(P<0. 05). The improvement effects of residents in the suburbs was lower than that in the other two types of areas(P<0. 05). Logistic regression analysis showed that intervention, female, high education, living in the central city, knowing the nutrition label, and thinking that it is necessary to label the nutrition label are the protective factors of looking at the nutrition label when buying foods. CONCLUSION: Health education can effectively improve the awareness rate of prepackaged food nutrition labels, relevant attitudes and behavior changes of residents in Shanghai communities. After intervention, the knowledge and behavior of nutrition labels in Shanghai communities are at a high level. Men, low-education low-income and residents in remote areas are the key population for future health education related to nutrition labels.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , China , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 749-754, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of comprehensive intervention measures mainly consisting of salt reduction health education and labeling less salt foods among catering units. METHODS: The total of 36 catering units were selected randomly and divided into intervention group A, B and control group in August of 2015. Health education was initiated in the intervention group A, including the training of knowledge on salt reduction for managers, cooks and service personnel of catering units every month; distribution of special salt control spoon for cooks; the arrangement of environment of salt reduction in catering units. And health education and labeling less salt foods was provided to the intervention group B, The control group C did not actively provide any intervention. The cook records the quantity of low-salt dishes sold, salt collection and the number of persons per meal in according to the requirements. Questionnaire survey and physical examination were performed to evaluate the effects of comprehensive intervention measures among catering units in the three groups of staffs in the catering units in a baseline study and an evaluation survey six months after the intervention. RESULTS: Compared with group C, the knowledge, attitude and behavior of salt reduction was significantly improved in intervention group A and B(P<0. 05). The behavior towards salt reduction improved much better in group B than in group A(P<0. 05), and using salt spoon when cooking and recommending less salt food to customer improved 32. 1%(χ~2=51. 72, P<0. 05)and 24. 2%(χ~2=30. 01, P<0. 05)separately. The proportion of sales of low salt dishes in the unit canteen has increased steadily, reaching 16. 8% while the proportion of sales has dropped to 9. 2% in the hotel by the end of the intervention period(χ~2=44. 66, P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: The level of knowledge of reducing salt was improved by health education, and labeling less salt foods can promote reducing salt related behavior. The effect of comprehensive intervention measures for salt reduction in unit canteen is better than in the hotel. It was suggested that comprehensive intervention measures mainly consisting of salt reduction health education and labeling less salt foods should be used together in the catering units.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Humanos , Refeições , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the knowledge of basic education students before and after educational intervention on Basic Life Support in a situation of adult cardiorespiratory arrest. METHOD: quasi-experimental study conducted with 335 students from three elementary schools. Data was collected using an instrument that captured sociodemographic data and knowledge about Basic Life Support. Subsequently, they were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics. RESULTS: students' knowledge in the post-test (p <0.05) was significantly higher than in the pre-test. The average of the pre-test scores was 4.12 ± 1.7 and, in the post-test it was 6.53 ± 1.9 (p = 0.00). CONCLUSION: the results demonstrated effectiveness of the intervention with the expansion of knowledge about Basic Life Support in cardiorespiratory arrest. The results reinforce the importance of Nursing in health education actions in elementary schools.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Adulto , Criança , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Estudantes
14.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(3): 483-485, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880394

RESUMO

As a global crisis, COVID-19 has underscored the challenge of disseminating evidence-based public health recommendations amidst a rapidly evolving, often uncensored information ecosystem-one fueled in part by an unprecedented degree of connected afforded through social media. In this piece, we explore an underdiscussed intersection between the visual arts and public health, focusing on the use of validated infographics and other forms of visual communication to rapidly disseminate accurate public health information during the COVID-19 pandemic. We illustrate our arguments through our own experience in creating a validated infographic for patients, now disseminated through social media and other outlets across the world in nearly 20 translations. Visual communication offers a creative and practical medium to bridge critical health literacy gaps, empower diverse patient communities through evidence-based information and facilitate public health advocacy during this pandemic and the 'new normal' that lies ahead.


Assuntos
Recursos Audiovisuais , Betacoronavirus , Gráficos por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Pública
15.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(5): 6-11, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978760

RESUMO

In this article, technologies that have been widely adopted and used in the field of allied health education in recent years are identified and introduced. These technologies may be distinguished based on education content and approach into the following three categories: online-offline digital education, which uses massive open online courses, CD-ROM, and similar learning tools; mobile learning, which uses mobile phones, tablets, and other devices to connect to the Internet of things; and digital simulation education, which uses virtual reality, virtual patient simulation, serious gaming, and gamification. Preliminary positive findings regarding the effectiveness of using the above technologies have been reported in the literature. Therefore, to better understand the impact of new technology, it is recommended that relevant medical/nursing educators should continue introducing practical courses to evaluate their impact on learning. However, funding limitations and the declining birthrate / population aging are two key threats to education that remain to be effectively addressed and overcome.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/educação , Comunicação , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Tecnologia da Informação , Humanos
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1467, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the leading public health problem globally, especially in low-resource countries (LRCs). Breast cancer screening (BCS) services are an effective strategy for early determining of breast cancer. Hence, it is imperative to understand the utilisation of BCS services and their correlated predictors in LRCs. This study aims to determine the distribution of predictors that significantly influence the utilisation of BCS services among women in LRCs. METHODS: The present study used data on 140,974 women aged 40 years or over from 14 LRCs. The data came from country Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) between 2008 and 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to investigate the significant predictors that influence the use of BCS services. RESULTS: The utilisation of BCS services was 15.41%, varying from 81.10% (95% CI: 76.85-84.73%) in one European country, to 18.61% (95% CI: 18.16 to 19.06%) in Asian countries, 14.30% (95% CI: 13.67-14.96%) in American countries, and 14.29% (95% CI: 13.87-14.74%). Factors that were significantly associated to increase the use of BCS services include a higher level of education (OR = 2.48), advanced age at first birth (> 25 years) (OR = 1.65), female-headed households (OR = 1.65), access to mass media communication (OR = 1.84), health insurance coverage (OR = 1.09), urban residence (OR = 1.20) and highest socio-economic status (OR = 2.01). However, obese women shown a significantly 11% (OR = 0.89) lower use of BSC services compared to health weight women. CONCLUSION: The utilisation of BCS services is low in many LRCs. The findings of this study will assist policymakers in identifying the factors that influence the use of BCS services. To increase the national BCS rate, more attention should be essential to under-represented clusters; in particular women who have a poor socioeconomic clusters, live in a rural community, have limited access to mass media communication, and are have a low level educational background. These factors highlight the necessity for a new country-specific emphasis of promotional campaigns, health education, and policy targeting these underrepresented groups in LRCs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
17.
Trials ; 21(1): 809, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early reports indicate that COVID-19 may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission in 5-26% and overall mortality can rise to 11% of the recognised cases, particularly affecting the elderly. There is a lack of evidence-based targeted pharmacological therapy for its prevention and treatment. We aim to compare the effects of a World Health Organization recommendation-based education and a personalised complex preventive lifestyle intervention package (based on the same WHO recommendation) on the outcomes of the COVID-19. METHODS: PROACTIVE-19 is a pragmatic, randomised controlled clinical trial with adaptive "sample size re-estimation" design. Hungarian population over the age of 60 years without confirmed COVID-19 will be approached to participate in a telephone health assessment and lifestyle counselling voluntarily. Volunteers will be randomised into two groups: (A) general health education and (B) personalised health education. Participants will go through questioning and recommendation in 5 fields: (1) mental health, (2) smoking habits, (3) physical activity, (4) dietary habits, and (5) alcohol consumption. Both groups A and B will receive the same line of questioning to assess habits concerning these topics. Assessment will be done weekly during the first month, every second week in the second month, then monthly. The composite primary endpoint will include the rate of ICU admission, hospital admission (longer than 48 h), and mortality in COVID-19-positive cases. The estimated sample size is 3788 subjects per study arm. The planned duration of the follow-up is a minimum of 1 year. DISCUSSION: These interventions may boost the body's cardiovascular and pulmonary reserve capacities, leading to improved resistance against the damage caused by COVID-19. Consequently, lifestyle changes can reduce the incidence of life-threatening conditions and attenuate the detrimental effects of the pandemic seriously affecting the older population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been approved by the Scientific and Research Ethics Committee of the Hungarian Medical Research Council (IV/2428- 2 /2020/EKU) and has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT04321928 ) on 25 March 2020.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Ensaios Clínicos Adaptados como Assunto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
18.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 42-51, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994615

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of dietitian-led education on using the low fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyols (FODMAP) diet in adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Christchurch, New Zealand. METHODS: Patients with IBS (n=25) were referred by their general practitioner to attend a group education programme. The number recruited and subsequent attendance were used to evaluate feasibility. The Structured Assessment of Gastrointestinal Symptoms (SAGIS) questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were compared at baseline and at follow-up. Semi-structured telephone interviews assessed the acceptability of the education programme. RESULTS: Of the 25 recruited participants, 17 attended the group education programme. The SAGIS score decreased significantly (p<0.05) between baseline (mean 1.844) and follow-up (mean 0.607). Similarly, there was non-significant trend of lower HADS anxiety and depression scores from baseline to follow-up. Symptomatic improvement was reported by 13 participants (76.5%), while two participants (11.8%) did not improve and two others (11.8%) had not implemented the diet. Overall, participants were positive and grateful for the improvement the diet had made to their symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: A dietitian-led low FODMAP group education programme in Christchurch adults with IBS was found to be both feasible and effective.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/dietoterapia , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 63-70, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994617

RESUMO

AIMS: To empower a large whanau (extended family) with a history of severe premature heart disease and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). METHODS: After broad consultation a Hui was held to discuss how to better manage this issue to ensure present and future generations were appropriately screened and treated. RESULTS: A closed social media page with detailed information on how to manage and screen FH that includes a family tree (for those who consent) has been created. The whanau, facilitated by health professionals, have ownership of their health. This has led to an uptake of screening and treatment for FH with whanau who are now able to inform local health professionals about their disorder. CONCLUSION: FH is the most common dominant genetic disorder in humans and causes premature heart disease and death. Current approaches are dependent on index patients presenting for cascade screening and do not incorporate the needs and views of the extended whanau. Establishing a partnership with the whanau and giving back control of health information is crucial to ensure equity. A national systematic programme is also needed to manage this condition with important health outcomes that can be averted if treated from a young age.


Assuntos
Família/etnologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/etnologia , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/etnologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/terapia , Programas de Rastreamento , Nova Zelândia
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 663, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that health care students and practitioners are not immune to stigma towards people living with HIV (PLHIV). This attitude could lead to poor quality of care if it remains uncorrected. However, little is known about dietetic students' acceptance of PLHIV despite their substantial role in treatment. This study aimed to measure the extent of knowledge and stigma towards PLHIV among dietetic students and to determine the associated factors using the attribution theory. METHODS: Students from three dietetics schools in Indonesia (n = 516) were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Survey questions covered demographic information, interaction with PLHIV, access to information sources, cultural values, and beliefs as predictor variables. The outcome variables were comprehensive knowledge of HIV, HIV and nutrition-specific knowledge, and attitudes. Analyses with linear regression and the stepwise selection were performed to determine factors related to the outcome. RESULTS: The levels of HIV comprehensive knowledge and HIV-nutrition specific knowledge among dietetic students were low, as indicated by the average score of 19.9 ± 0.19 (maximum score = 35) and 8.0 ± 0.11 (maximum score = 15), respectively. The level of negative attitudes towards PLHIV was high, with 99.6% of participants reported having a high stigma score. Types of university affiliation (public or private), beliefs and values, exposure to HIV discourse, access to printed media, and years of study were significantly related to HIV comprehensive knowledge (p < 0.05). Nutrition-specific knowledge was also correlated with university affiliation, beliefs and values, participation in HIV discussion, and years of study (p < 0.05). HIV comprehensive knowledge, university affiliation, discussion participation, and ethnicities were associated with attitudes (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Awareness and acceptance of PLHIV must be further improved throughout dietetic training to ensure patients' quality of care since students represent future dietary care providers. Considering the consistent findings that affiliation to education institution correlates with HIV knowledge and attitude, some examinations concerning the curriculum and teaching conduct might be necessary.


Assuntos
Dietética/educação , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estigma Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Indonésia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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