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1.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 36-49, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077143

RESUMO

Hearing loss affects many people worldwide, and it hinders speech, language, and social development. Consanguineous marriage is the most prevalent social custom that leads to an increased prevalence of congenital anomalies. Premarital Counseling and Genetic Screening (PMSGC) educational program is urgently needed to empower deaf and hard hearing girls. This study aimed to investigate the effect of educational intervention based on the empowerment model on deaf and hard hearing females' self-efficacy, knowledge, and attitude toward PMSGC. A Quasi-experimental research design was conducted on 64 deaf and hard hearing female students. The data collection instrument comprised four parts: basic data and personal/family history, PMSGC quiz, Likert attitude scale, and general self-efficacy scale. Data were collected from September to December 2020. The empowerment educational intervention was conducted in four sequential phases; needs assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. The intervention addressed the students' knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy. The results showed that 76.6% of the study participants had consanguineous marriage between their parents, 64.1% had a history of hereditary deafness in first-degree relatives. There were statistically significant differences between the total knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy before and after intervention (p <0.001). In detail, 76.6% of the participants had good knowledge after the intervention compared to only 12.5% before it. Besides, 81.3% of the study participants had a positive attitude toward PMSGC before the intervention compared to 95.3% after it. Self-efficacy was low (25.0%) or moderate (75%) before the intervention compared to moderate (45.3%) or high (42.2%) after the intervention. Educational intervention based on the empowerment model significantly increased the deaf and hard hearing population's self-efficacy, knowledge, and attitude toward PMSGC. The use of the empowerment model in health education should be encouraged and taught to the medical and paramedical students.


Assuntos
Surdez , Aconselhamento Genético , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Perda Auditiva , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Exames Pré-Nupciais , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/genética , Empoderamento , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/genética , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(3): 371-375, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080477

RESUMO

Anti-Asian racism and violence dramatically increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, recent studies and reports are showing that the health and well-being of Asian Americans are negatively affected. To address this urgent problem, the field of health education and public health must be equipped with the critical frameworks and concepts to analyze racism and White supremacy and how it affects the health and well-being of Asian Americans. We argue that using an ethnic studies lens in health education can help educators, researchers, and practitioners teach and train health educators to address racism experienced by Asian Americans during COVID-19 in relation to their health. We will discuss the elements of ethnic studies and demonstrate how to use it as a lens in understanding health disparities in the Asian American population influenced and exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/educação , COVID-19/etnologia , Competência Cultural , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Racismo/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Estados Unidos
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1057, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) degree is an advanced and terminal professional degree that prepares the future workforce to engage in public health research, teaching, practice, and leadership. The purpose of the present research was to discuss the desirable future direction and optimal education strategies for the DrPH degree in the United States. METHODS: A total of 28 Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH)-accredited DrPH programs in the United States was identified through the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health (ASPPH) Academic Program Finder. Then, a qualitative analysis was conducted to obtain perspectives from a total of 20 DrPH program directors through in-depth interviews. RESULTS: A DrPH program should be recognized as equal but different from an MPH or a PhD program and strengthen the curriculum of methodology and leadership education. It is important that a DrPH program establishes specific partnerships with other entities and provide funding for students. In addition, rather than being standardized nationwide, there is value in each DrPH program maintaining its unique character and enabling students to be open to all career pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The future of DrPH programs in the twenty-first century should aim at effective interdisciplinary public health approaches that draw from the best of both academic and applied sectors. A DrPH program is expected to provide academic, applied public health, and leadership training for students to pursue careers in either academia or the public/private sector, because public health is an applied social science that bridges the gap between research and practice.


Assuntos
Educação Profissional em Saúde Pública , Faculdades de Saúde Pública , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública/educação , Estados Unidos
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1095, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A Mobile Safety Center (MSC) provides safety resources to families to prevent pediatric injury. The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of an MSC on home safety behaviors. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study with 50 parents and guardians recruited at community events attended by an MSC. Participants completed a pre-test assessing demographics and home safety behaviors prior to participating in the MSC's home safety educational program. We conducted follow-up with participants 4 weeks (follow-up 1) and 6 months (follow-up 2) after their visit to the MSC to reassess home safety behaviors. We used descriptive statistics in addition to Friedman, Wilcoxon sum-rank, and Fisher's exact testing to analyze respondent demographics and changes in home safety practices. Friedman and Wilcoxon sum-rank testing was performed only for participants who completed all surveys. RESULTS: Of our 50 participants, 29 (58%) completed follow-up 1, 30 (60%) completed follow-up 2, and 26 (52%) completed both. Participants were more likely to have a fire-escape plan at follow-up 1 than on the pre-test (p = 0.014). They were also more likely to have the Poison Control Hotline number accessible in their cellphone or near a home phone at follow-up 1 compared to the pre-test (p = 0.002) and follow-up 2 compared to the pre-test (p < 0.001). Families with at least one household member who smoked or used e-cigarettes at any point during the study (n = 16 for the total population, n = 9 for those who completed both surveys) were less likely to have more than two smoke detectors installed at home during the pre-test (p = 0.049). However, this significantly changed across timepoints (p = 0.018), and while 44.4% reported more than two detectors during the pre-test, 88.9% reported this at both follow-ups. CONCLUSIONS: Home safety education through an MSC positively changed some reported safety behaviors and maintained these changes at long-term follow-up. By encouraging the adoption of better home safety practices, education at an MSC may decrease pediatric injury rates.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Incêndios , Acidentes Domésticos/prevenção & controle , Criança , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Segurança
5.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 39-53, ene.-jun. 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1155513

RESUMO

A ansiedade materna é um tema relevante de pesquisa no âmbito da relação mãe-bebê, pois esse sentimento pode trazer repercussões para mãe e o desenvolvimento do bebê. Este estudo de casos múltiplos, de caráter qualitativo, teve como objetivo investigar a ansiedade materna em mães de bebês de seis a 10 meses, buscando identificar sua repercussão na díade mãe-bebê. Os achados demonstraram a presença de complicações na gravidez e no pós-parto e de eventos estressantes durante esses períodos. Em todos os casos analisados, observou-se ansiedade materna na gravidez e nos primeiros cuidados com o bebê. Sentimentos como medo, angústia, dúvidas e preocupações, relatados pelas mães, desencadearam comportamentos ansiosos, refletindo na relação mãe-bebê. A partir dos relatos deste estudo, observa-se a importância do apoio para o empoderamento das mães, para que elas assumam o papel materno com mais confiança. Salienta-se a necessidade de intervenções desde a gestação para o manejo da ansiedade materna, bem como práticas de educação em saúde visando à promoção da saúde mental materno-infantil


Maternal anxiety is an important topic of research regarding the mother-child relationship because this feeling can impact the mother and the baby's development. This qualitative study, of a multiple-case design, aimed to investigate maternal anxiety in mothers of babies aged between six and 10 months, trying to identify its impact on the mother-child dyad. The findings showed the occurrence of complications in pregnancy and the postpartum period and stressful events during these periods. In all analyzed cases, the presence of maternal anxiety during pregnancy and the newborn early care was verified. Feelings such as fear, anguish, doubts, and concerns, reported by mothers, triggered anxious behaviors, reflecting on the mother-baby relationship. From the reports of this study, the importance of support for the empowerment of mothers was observed, so that they can assume the maternal role with more confidence. It points out the need for intervention programs since pregnancy for the management of maternal anxiety, as well as health education practices aiming to promote maternal and child mental health.


La ansiedad materna es un tema relevante de investigación en el ámbito de la relación madre-hijo, ya que este sentimiento puede tener repercusiones en la madre y en el desarrollo del bebé. Este estudio cualitativo, de casos múltiples, investigó la ansiedad materna en madres de niños de seis a 10meses, buscando identificar su impacto en la díada madre-hijo. Los resultados revelaron la presencia de complicaciones en el embarazo y en el posparto, y de eventos estresantes durante estos momentos. En los casos analizados, se observó ansiedad materna durante el embarazo y en el cuidado temprano del bebé. Sentimientos como el miedo, la angustia, las dudas y las preocupaciones, relatados por las madres, desencadenaron comportamientos ansiosos, reflejándose en la relación madre-bebé. A partir de los informes de este estudio se observa la importancia del apoyo para el empoderamiento de las madres, para que asuman ese rol con más confianza. Son necesarias intervenciones desde el embarazo para el tratamiento de la ansiedad materna, así como prácticas de educación con la finalidad de promoción de la salud mental materna y infantil.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Ansiedade , Complicações na Gravidez , Terapêutica , Comportamento , Educação em Saúde , Parto , Período Pós-Parto , Relações Mãe-Filho
6.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(2): 145-153, maio-ago. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252386

RESUMO

A adolescência é considerada um rito de passagem da fase infantil para a adulta. Nessa fase muitos hábitos e atitudes sofrerão variações na idade adulta, tornando-se mais difíceis de serem contornados. Para transformar essa realidade, faz-se necessário implementar estratégias educativas que por meio da supervisão de profissionais que facilitem os adolescentes a expressarem sentimentos, trocarem experiências, proporcionando atitudes de respeito e reflexão sobre os temas abordados. O artigo trata de um relato de experiência cujo objetivo é analisar as atividades de educação e promoção da saúde planejadas e implementadas por um grupo de residentes participantes da Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde da Família da UNEB em parceria com um GT de adolescentes na USF Professor Humberto Castro Lima, localizado no bairro de Pernambués, Salvador-Ba, no ano de 2018. As ações realizadas no grupo tiveram como objetivo, incentivar o autoconhecimento, protagonismo, desenvolvimento pessoal, social, coletivo e reflexão do processo saúde/doença. Como resultados destaca-se a contribuição do grupo para a promoção da saúde dos jovens, a construção do vínculo entre os adolescentes com a unidade, a contribuição para o protagonismo no processo ensino-aprendizagem e a sensibilização dos adolescentes para a adoção de práticas preventivas. Conclui-se que a implementação de práticas educativas de caráter participativo, reflexivo, dialógico, dinâmico e problematizador se tornou cada vez mais necessária. Pôde-se perceber a potencialidade dessa estratégia que transcende o modelo biomédico, visando à atenção integral do sujeito, bem como o atendimento às demandas e necessidades dos usuários através da escuta, da construção conjunta do conhecimento, de modo que esses possam ser participativos no processo de mudança de atitudes diante do cuidado com a saúde.(AU)


Adolescence is considered a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood. In this phase, many habits and attitudes will suffer variations as going into adulthood, becoming more difficult to be circumvented. In order to transform this reality, educational strategies should be implemented so that, through the supervision of professionals, can help adolescents to express their feelings, exchange experiences, providing attitudes of respect and reflection on the topics addressed. This article is a report on an experiment which had the objective of analyzing the education and health promotion activities planned and implemented by a group of residents participating in the Multi-professional Residency in Family Health at UNEB in partnership with a Working Group of adolescents at USF Professor Humberto Castro Lima, located in the neighborhood of Pernambués, in the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, in 2018. . The actions carried out in the group aimed at fostering self-knowledge, leadership, personal, social, collective development, and reflections on the health/disease process. As a result, the authors highlight the contribution of the group to the promotion of young people's health, the construction of the bond between adolescents and the health unit, the contribution to becoming protagonists in the teaching-learning process, and the raising of the adolescents' awareness on the adoption of preventive practices. It can be concluded that the implementation of educational practices of a participatory, reflective, dialogical, dynamic, and problem-solving character is increasingly necessary. It was possible to perceive the potential of this strategy that transcends the biomedical model, aiming at the integral care of the subject, as well as meeting the demands and needs of users through listening, and the joint construction of knowledge so that they can participate in the process of changing attitudes towards health care.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Adolescente , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 469, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although great progress has been made in the prevention and treatment of AIDS, there are still a considerable number of new infections annually, especially in adolescents. With the advance of technology, game-based education has gradually become an important tool for changing healthy behaviors among youth. METHODS: A protocol for conducting a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the "AIDS Fighter · Health Defense", a game-based AIDS education project aimed at improving the ability of adolescents to prevent AIDS. During the four-week intervention, participants will receive: 1) A virus combat game; 2) Goal setting to eliminate HIV; 3) Questions to be answered to be resurrected in the game; 4) Points ranking; 5) Recognition and Rewards. The primary outcomes include changes in participants' knowledge, stigma attitude, and risk behaviors attitude related to AIDS after four weeks of intervention. The secondary outcomes are the participants' AIDS-related risk behaviors three and six months after the intervention. DISCUSSION: AIDS Fighter· Health Defense may be an innovative approach to help adolescents improve AIDS prevention capabilities, fill the gap in game-based AIDS prevention education in China, and gain experience of AIDS management. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000040195 . Registered 25 November 2020.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Atitude , Conscientização , HIV , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Jogos de Vídeo , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 304, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental and substance use disorders account for 30 % of the non-fatal disease burden and 10 % of the overall disease burden but the treatment gap is daunting. With just one psychiatrist per 200,000 populations in Nepal, the only convincing way to improve access to the services quickly is by mobilizing non-specialized medical practitioner. A robust mental health component within the training curriculum of general medical doctors could produce medical graduates with adequate knowledge and skills to deliver basic mental health service. We reviewed the mental health curricula for medical students of all the medical universities in Nepal. METHODS: Information on existing mental health curricula was collected from the faculty of the respective universities with respect to content coverage, teaching methods and evaluation patterns. The mental health curricula were described in relation to teaching duration, duration of clinical rotation, duration of internship, and the relative weight of mental health in examination marks. Teaching methods were classified broadly as passive and active. Assessment methods were documented. Content coverage of the curricula was evaluated with respect to history taking and general physical examination, the priority mental health conditions, topics on behavioural sciences, and child mental health or other topics. RESULTS: The duration of teaching on mental health in general medical doctor training in Nepalese medical universities ranges from 25 to 92 h. All medical universities have a relative focus on the priority mental neurological and substance use disorders. The clinical rotation on mental health is mostly two weeks, except in one university where it can be extended up to 4 weeks with an elective clinical rotation. The relative weight of summative assessment ranges from 0.21 to 2.5 % total marks of the entire training. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable disparities exist in course content, teaching/learning modalities and assessments for mental health across Nepalese medical universities. The relative proportion of mental health in medical curricula as well as teaching/learning and assessments are far below ideal in these universities. These findings suggest a need for increasing time allocation, adopting newer teaching learning methods, and also having a mandatory clinical rotation during training and during internship.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Universidades , Criança , Currículo , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Nepal
9.
Emergencias ; 33(3): 181-186, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The time lapse between onset of symptoms and a call to an emergency dispatch center (pain-to-call time) is a critical prognostic factor in patients with chest pain. It is therefore important to identify factors related to delays in calling for help. OBJECTIVES: To analyze whether age, gender, or time of day influence the pain-to-call delay in patients with acute STsegment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were extracted from a prospective registry of STEMI cases managed by 39 mobile intensive care ambulance teams before hospital arrival within 24 hours of onset in our region, the greater metropolitan area of Paris, France. We analyzed the relation between pain-to-call time and the following factors: age, gender, and the time of day when symptoms appeared. We also assessed the influence of pain-to-call time on the rate of prehospital decisions to implement reperfusion therapy. RESULTS: A total of 24 662 consecutive patients were included; 19 291 (78%) were men and 4371 (22%) were women. The median age was 61 (interquartile range, 52-73) years (men, 59 [51-69] years; women, 73 [59-83] years; P .0001). The median pain-to-call time was 60 (24-164) minutes (men, 55 [23-150] minutes; women, 79 [31-220] minutes; P .0001). The delay varied by time of day from a median of 40 (17-101) minutes in men between 5 pm and 6 pm to 149 (43-377) minutes in women between 2 am and 3 am. The delay was longer in women regardless of time of day and increased significantly with age in both men and women (P .001). A longer pain-to-call time was significantly associated with a lower rate of implementation of myocardial reperfusion (P .001). CONCLUSION: Pain-to-call delays were longer in women and older patients, especially at night. These age and gender differences identify groups that would benefit most from health education interventions.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ambulâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor no Peito/epidemiologia , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reperfusão Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Paris/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/psicologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia
10.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200276, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a proposal for making and distributing masks for population in risk, with guidance on the stages of making them and the care in handling them based on the development of educational video and infographic. METHOD: Experience report on the stages of the process of training people to make fabric masks for the population at risk, between March and June 2020, in a city in the interior of São Paulo. RESULTS: 1,650 masks were made and distributed to vulnerable population groups from different contexts and tutorial video and infographic were elaborated and released to enable people to make their own masks with resources available at home. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: It was possible to manufacture and distribute masks for the population at risk and develop educational actions to contain the disease, given the advance of confirmed cases and deaths by Covid-19, corroborating the role of nursing in health education.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Máscaras/provisão & distribuição , Populações Vulneráveis , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/instrumentação , Educação em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Têxteis , Gravação em Vídeo
11.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the experience lived in an interdisciplinary follow-up care center for mastectomized women at a public university in São Paulo during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Experience report on the health care provided in the health center for mastectomized women. RESULTS: The care was provided three times a week by an interdisciplinary health team. The mentioned areas that cover the women care in the center: Physical, Psychological, Social Support and Health Education. CONCLUSIONS: The attention by an interdisciplinary team becomes prevalent in the care of mastectomized women, since cancer and its treatment produce various changes in women's lives in the short and long term, so follow-up and support must be biopsychosocial, covering all areas that may be affected, especially during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/reabilitação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mastectomia/reabilitação , Pandemias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Centros de Reabilitação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/etiologia , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/psicologia , Terapia Focada em Emoções , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Mastectomia/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e047512, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to (1) identify Graduate Public Health (GPH) programmes with an integrated practicum, (2) determine current practice for practicum design and (3) use the information to make recommendations to inform the design of Public Health Graduate programme practicums. DESIGN: Scoping review. DATA SOURCES: Academic Ranking World Universities 2019 was used to identify top 10 institutions in each geographical hub offering GPH programmes. Each GPH programme website was searched for practicum information. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: GPH programmes offering a practice-based component as a requirement in their curriculum. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: One reviewer screened GPH websites for eligibility and extracted data. Verification of data for accuracy and completeness was done on 10% of the sample by the second author. Data were compiled into an Excel file and were analysed to describe the duration, timing, credit, contact hours, preceptor requirements, prerequisites, objectives, deliverables and methods of evaluation of the practice-based component. RESULTS: Out of the 108 GPH programmes screened, a total of 35 programmes were included. There was a significant variation in required practicum duration ranging from 4 to 16 weeks. Only 31% specifically outlined prerequisites to be completed before the initiation of the practicum. More than half (57%) had a published list of core competencies. A majority of practicum did not provide criteria for appropriate preceptors (63%) and their responsibilities (66%). All programmes listed assessment criteria however the majority (57%) did not specify if the practicum was graded or a for-credit component. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of practical components into curricula is inconsistent. This research resulted in 14 recommendations intended to guide GPH practicum design. We propose that this study be used as a tool to spark a global dialogue about best practices in GPH education through the identification of common practices and opportunities for improvement.


Assuntos
Currículo , Saúde Pública , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Universidades
13.
Health Promot Pract ; 22(1_suppl): 27S-30S, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942654

RESUMO

A cross-sector collaboration among a community-based organization, a prison arts program, and state departments of Public Health, Education, and Correction was established to address critical health education prevention efforts for at-risk high school-aged youth. The Tell Me What You See initiative utilizes artwork and poetry created by incarcerated youth to promote sexually transmitted disease (STD), HIV, and hepatitis prevention with students in public high schools and juvenile justice facilities. This innovative intervention integrates functional health knowledge and skills-based education through an art-based interdisciplinary approach reaching various populations of youth in multiple settings across a state. Evaluation results indicated that the materials effectively engage youth and open up a critical dialogue among peers and adults by addressing the role personal behavior can have in the prevention of STDs, hepatitis, and HIV. Lessons learned and recommendations are provided.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Escolaridade , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25505, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The argument on the efficacy of medical nutritional therapy and comprehensive nutritional care remains to be resolved. Therefore, we conducted this protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy between medical nutritional therapy and comprehensive nutritional care for patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols reporting guidelines and the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration to conduct this study. Reviewers will search the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE online databases using the key phrases "gestational diabetes mellitus," "comprehensive nutrition care," and "medical nutritional therapy" for all cohort studies published up to May 20, 2021. There is no restriction in the dates of publication or language in the search for the current review. The studies on cohort study focusing on comparing medical nutritional therapy and comprehensive nutrition care for GDM patients will be included in our meta-analysis. The outcomes include blood glucose levels, complications, weight change, and incidence of cesarean section. Where disagreement in the collection of data occurrs, this will be resolved through discussion. RESULTS: We hypothesized that these 2 methods would provide similar therapeutic benefits. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/SC8HJ.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Dieta Saudável , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Glicemia/análise , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Aconselhamento/métodos , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Período Pós-Prandial , Gravidez , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(3): 187-201, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014110

RESUMO

Food insecurity negatively affects HIV prevention and care, and sustainable interventions are needed. Here we describe the development of an integrated urban gardens and peer nutritional counseling intervention to address food insecurity and nutrition among people with HIV, which included: (1) peer nutritional counseling, (2) gardening training, and (3) garden-based nutrition and cooking workshops. The intervention was developed using community-based participatory research over multiple years and stages of data gathering and implementation and evaluation. Lessons learned include the importance of cross-sectoral partnerships to achieve multifaceted, integrated, and sustainable interventions and a shared commitment among partners to an ongoing cycle of action-oriented research, and the need for home-based and community-based gardens to enhance food security and social support. The development process successfully combined an evidence-based framework and community engagement to yield a multicomponent yet integrated food security and nutrition intervention appropriate for people with HIV and potentially adaptable for other chronic conditions.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Aconselhamento/métodos , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Jardins , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Jardinagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Apoio Social , População Urbana
16.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057538

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption in Germany continues to be high relative to its European neighbors. A long-term reduction of alcohol consumption can result in a reduction of the morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol. For many years now, the Federal Centre for Health Education (BZgA) has directed its focus in the field of addiction prevention on alcohol prevention and implemented three national multilevel campaigns intended for this target group. "Null Alkohol - Voll Power" (No Alcohol - Full Power) addresses adolescents between the ages of 12 and 16 and the campaign "Alkohol? Kenn dein Limit." (Alcohol? Know Your Limit.) comprises two separate campaigns dedicated to adults and 16- to 20-year-olds, respectively. Further, the BZgA provides sports clubs with the opportunity to participate in a program entitled "Alkoholfrei Sport genießen" (Enjoying Sports Without Alcohol). In this contribution, these measures and their foundational concepts are presented.The campaigns are interconnected to form a prevention chain that serves to bundle the individual efforts. All are based on the principles of social marketing and are continually quality checked. At the center of these efforts lies internet communication, complemented by direct communication in the lives of the target groups as well as mass communication in the form of billboards, TV and radio spots, ads, and print media. The BZgA is able to implement these programs in schools, clubs, and at the municipal level because of the good cooperation and coordination it maintains with the individual federal states. For decades now, the BZgA has conducted monitoring in the form of regular representative surveys, among others, on the subject of alcohol consumption behavior among 12- to 25-year-olds in Germany. The results show that although overall alcohol consumption may be on the decline over the long term, it still remains high.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Educação em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Alemanha , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa
17.
Health Promot Pract ; 22(1_suppl): 101S-110S, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942653

RESUMO

Physically active children have lower rates of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and depression than their inactive counterparts, and further evidence suggests that integrating physical activity breaks into the school day improves children's classroom behavior, fitness, and cognitive functions. The current article focuses on the development and implementation of free, scalable, short activity breaks called H.Y.P.E. The Breaks! (Helping Young People Energize)-a series of 2-, 6-, and 10-minute-long dance and hip-hop-based physical activity videos, which can be used in the classroom or at home. H.Y.P.E. The Breaks! is deconstructed through the lens of the multisensory multilevel health education model, which leverages art, culture, and science in the design and implementation of health programs, and highlights the importance of framing and operationalizing program components across the different behavioral levels of influence of the socioecological model. The article also discusses the uptake of H.Y.P.E. The Breaks! during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic, when major declines in children's physical activity were observed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício Físico , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
18.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 278, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A good understanding of the bi-directional relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is essential to ensure the successful management of both diseases. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an integrated diabetes-periodontitis nutrition and health education module. METHODS: The module was developed as an iterative and review process by five experts in nutrition and dietetics, periodontics, and dental public health. It consisted of three phases: (i) needs assessment on module contents and characteristics, (ii) module development and (iii) module evaluation by experts. Twelve healthcare professionals aged between 30 and 53 years (average 13.5 years of working experience) validated the module contents and its comprehensibility using the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool for printable materials (PEMAT-P) and audio-visual materials (PEMAT-A/V). Scores of 0 (disagree) or 1 (agree) were given for sets of understandability and actionability statements and presented as a total percentage. RESULTS: Seventeen infographic-flip charts and 13 short-videos were developed in the Malay language and grouped into four topics: (i) Introduction to Diabetes and Periodontitis, (ii) Diabetes and Periodontitis Care, (iii) Lifestyle Modification, and (iv) Myths and Facts. Flip charts were rated between 76-100% for understandability and 80-100% for actionability, while videos rated between 90-100% for understandability and 100% for actionability, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overall, the newly developed module ranked high median scores for understandability and actionability. This finding reflects positive acceptance of the integrated module among the various healthcare professionals involved in managing patients with diabetes and periodontitis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Letramento em Saúde , Periodontite , Adulto , Compreensão , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/terapia
19.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 68(3): 73-80, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & PROBLEM: The need to use an indwelling nasogastric tube, urinary catheter, or tracheostomy tube (the so-called "three tubes") because of illness or prolonged bedrest is increasing. The functions and effectiveness of these tubes may be maintained only with correct care. Improper care, slippage, obstruction, or infection may in severe cases cause septic shock or even death. PURPOSE: To increase the completeness of the reverse demonstration of three tubes care instructions by primary caregivers to further improve related care quality. RESOLUTION: Between February 10th and March 31st, 2019, the completeness rates of reverse demonstration of nasogastric tube, urinary catheter, and tracheostomy tube care instructions among the primary caregivers participating in this study were shown to be low, at 42.5%, 38%, and 58.3%, respectively. The plausible causes were: 1. Human: Poor communication, forgetting the care steps, having no time for learning, and fear of performing nasogastric tube rotation; 2. Instrument: Lack of graphic demonstrations in health education materials; 3. Policy: Lack of standards and auditing. The implemented intervention involved creating innovative health-education instruments, videos and flash cards about three tubes care in multiple languages, and straps for holding the urinary catheter and developing standards and an auditing system for the reverse demonstration of three tube care instructions by primary caregivers. RESULTS: The completeness rates for the reverse demonstration of nasogastric tube, urinary catheter, and tracheostomy tube care instructions among the primary caregivers improved to 97.3%, 96.3%, and 95%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using the innovative health-education aids and improvements introduced in this study, the ability of primary caregivers to correctly perform the care steps should improve significantly.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Traqueostomia
20.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently the critical health problem of the globe, including Ethiopia. Visitors of healthcare facilities are the high-risk groups due to the presence of suspected and confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the healthcare setting. Increasing the knowledge, attitude, and practices towards COVID-19 prevention among hospital visitors are very important to prevent transmissions of the pandemic despite the lack of evidence remains a challenge in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the status of knowledge, attitude, and preventive practice towards COVID-19 and associated factors among hospital visitors in South Gondar Zone Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study design was employed during August 1 to 30, 2020 from randomly selected 404 adult hospital visitors in South Gondar Zone Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. The data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire. The outcome of this study was good or poor knowledge, positive or negative attitude and good or poor preventive practice towards COVID-19. Three different binary logistic regression models with 95% CI (Confidence interval) was used for data analysis. For each mode, bivariable analysis (crude odds ratio [COR]) and multivariable analysis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]) was used during data analysis. From the bivariable analysis, variables with a p-value <0.25 were retained into the multivariable logistic regression analysis. From the multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables with a significance level of p-value <0.05 were taken as factors independently associated with knowledge, attitude and preventive practices towards COVID-19. MAIN FINDINGS: About 69.3% of the respondents had good knowledge, 62.6% had a positive attitude, and 49.3% had good preventive practice towards the prevention of COVID-19. We found that factors significantly associated with good knowledge about COVID-19 were educational status who can read and write (AOR = 2.78; 95%CI: 1.18-6.56) and college and above (AOR = 6.15; 95%CI: 2.18-17.40), and use of social media (AOR = 2.96; 95%CI: 1.46-6.01). Furthermore, factors significantly associated with a positive attitude towards COVID-19 includes the presence of chronic illnesses (AOR = 5.00; 95%CI; 1.71-14.67), training on COVID-19 (AOR = 3.91; 95%CI: 1.96-7.70), and peer/family as a source of information (AOR = 2.45; 95%CI: 1.06-5.63). Being a student (AOR = 7.70; 95%CI: 1.15-15.86) and participants who had a good knowledge on COVID-19 (AOR = 4.49; 95%CI: 2.41-8.39) were factors significantly associated with good practice towards COVID-19. CONCLUSION: We found that knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards prevention of COVID-19 among adult hospital visitors were low. Therefore, we recommended that different intervention strategies for knowledge, attitude and preventive practices are urgently needed to control the transmission of COVID-19 among adult hospital visitors. Health education of those who could not read and write about COVID-19 knowledge issues and advocating use of social media that transmit messages about COVID-19 are highly encouraged to increase the good knowledge status of adult hospital visitors. Furthermore, providing training about COVID-19 prevention methods and using various sources of information about COVID-19 will help for improving positive attitude towards COVID-19 prevention, whereas for increasing the status of good preventive practices towards COVID-19, improving the good knowledge about COVID-19 of adult hospital visitors are essential.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conscientização , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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