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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18447, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895773

RESUMO

Prenatal examination is a pivotal measure to prevent high-risk pregnancy and to ensure the safety of both mother and infant. However, pregnant women in Linzhi Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) often cannot obtain regular prenatal examinations due to limited accessibility of healthcare facilities, shortage of medical staff, and lack of medical equipment. Health education is an important approach to solve this ever-growing issue of pregnant women in rural Tibet.To evaluate the efficacy of flexible methods of health education programs on improving compliance among pregnant women from Tibet, China.In May to November of 2018, a total of 168 pregnant women receiving prenatal examination in a tertiary referral hospital in Linzhi Prefecture were recruited and randomly assigned to a control (n = 85) and intervention group (n = 83). All pregnant women were followed up until delivery. The pregnant women in the control group received regular prenatal examination and health education programs. Other than receiving routine prenatal care, participants of the interventional group also voluntarily joined the WeChat Social Messaging platform. Online resources posted by the maternity schools provided convenience and flexibility for the pregnant woman. The number of prenatal examinations was statistically significant between the 2 groups. The effect of flexible patterns of health education programs on improving the compliance of pregnant women in Tibet was assessed.The number of prenatal examinations in the intervention group was 2.646 times, which was higher than that in the control group (P < .01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that interventional measures and ethnicity were the influencing factors of the number of prenatal examinations for pregnant women in Linzhi after the adjustment of age, history of adverse pregnancy, education level, ethnicity, multiparity, gestational complications, and medical history. The number of prenatal examinations for the pregnant Tibetan women was 0.535 times lower compared with that of the pregnant Han women (95% CI: -0.089, 1.157, P = .091).Flexible forms of health education during the antenatal period can effectively increase the compliance of pregnant women in Tibet.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/métodos , Cooperação do Paciente , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Rede Social , Tibet
2.
N Z Med J ; 132(1488): 11-20, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851657

RESUMO

AIM: Unnecessary treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is a concern. Hutt Valley District Health Board sought to reduce clinically inappropriate urine culture requests through removal of urine dipsticks from wards and education of staff using Choosing Wisely principles. The purpose of this research is to quantitatively evaluate the success of these initiatives. METHODS: The numbers and results of urine cultures performed for Hutt Valley DHB were analysed, for the period from January 2015 to October 2017. Urinalyses were compared between those designated as 'inpatient' and those as 'outpatient', with the latter being the control of this study. The numbers of primary and secondary coded discharge diagnoses of UTIs were used as a measure of the negative impact of the interventions. RESULTS: There was a 28% reduction in monthly urine culture requests for inpatients, after staff education and removal of urine dipsticks, with no change in those for outpatients (the negative control). After the intervention, a higher proportion of urine cultures were positive for urinary pathogens (25.2% compared to 23.0%) and the average number of diagnoses of UTI in hospital discharges decreased 17% (from 161 to 134). CONCLUSION: The removal of urine dipsticks from wards and the education of staff significantly reduced the number of urine culture requests and is a useful strategy to reduce the overuse of antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria without an increase in the number of UTIs. These simple interventions could be used at other hospitals as part of measures to reduce unnecessary care and overdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos , Urinálise/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Sobremedicalização/economia , Sobremedicalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Nova Zelândia , Procedimentos Desnecessários/economia , Urinálise/economia , Urinálise/métodos , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
3.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 896-910, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047674

RESUMO

A Política de Saúde Integral da População Negra reiterou a urgência de qualificação dos processos educativos no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) em prol da superação do racismo institucional. A revisão integrativa, apresentada neste artigo, analisou as concepções teóricas e as práticas educativas em estudos dirigidos à saúde da população negra. Foram utilizadas as bases de dados da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS); a Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO); a ferramenta de pesquisa na web Google Scholar e o acervo darevista da Associação Brasileira de Pesquisadores/as Negros/as, a Revista da ABPN. A produção na temática é heterogênea, dispersa entre periódicos das áreas da educação, educação em saúde e interdisciplinar. Há vanguardismo da enfermagem e forte presença de estudos com povos e comunidades tradicionais. Nota-se dificuldade de interpenetração de referenciais teóricos e pedagógicos do campo da educação na sustentação das práticas educativas de saúde. Sugerem-se a cooperação e a integração científica entre esses campos visando ao protagonismo do sujeito negro nos processos de cuidado.


The Política de Saúde Integral da População Negra (Integral Health Policy of the Black Population) reiterated the urgency of qualifying educational processes in the Unified Health System (SUS ­ Sistema Único de Saúde) in order to overcome institutional racism. The integrative review presented in this article analyzed the theoretical conceptions and the educational practices in studies directed to the health of the black population. The databases of the Virtual Health Library (VHL); the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO); the web search engine Google Scholar and the collection of the Revista da ABPN that is the magazine of the Associação Brasileira de Pesquisadores/as Negros/as (Brazilian Association of Black Researchers) were examined. The production in this thematic is heterogeneous, dispersed in periodicals of the areas of education, health education and interdisciplinary. When the matter is the health of black population, the nursing is an avantgarde profession carrying out a number of studies with traditional peoples and communities. It was noted the difficulty of interpenetration of theoretical and pedagogical references of the field of education in support of educational health practices. We suggest the cooperation and the scientific integration between these fields aiming at the protagonism of the black population in the process of care.


La Política de Saúde Integral da População Negra (Política de Salud Integral de la Población Negra) reiteró la urgencia de calificación de los procesos educativos en el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS ­ Sistema Único de Saúde) en pro de la superación del racismo institucional. La revisión integrativa, presentada en este artículo, analizó las concepciones teóricas y las prácticas educativas en estudios dirigidos a la salud de la población negra. Se utilizaron las bases de datos de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS); la Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO); el motor de búsqueda web Google Scholar y el acervo de la Revista da ABPN, la cual es la revista de la Associação Brasileira de Pesquisadores/as Negros/as (Asociación Brasileña de Investigadores/ as Negros/as. La producción en la temática es heterogénea, dispersa entre periódicos del área de la educación, educación en salud y interdisciplinaria. La enfermería se destaca en la literatura acerca de la salud de la población negra en la cual hay fuerte presencia de estudios con pueblos y comunidades tradicionales. Se observa dificultad de interpenetración de referenciales teóricos y pedagógicos del campo de la educación en la sustentación de las prácticas educativas de salud. Proponemos la cooperación y la integración científica entre esos campos visando el protagonismo del sujeto negro en los procesos de cuidado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação em Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Racismo , Saúde das Minorias Étnicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Revisão , Equidade no Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Vulnerabilidade Social , Atividades Científicas e Tecnológicas , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Comunicação em Saúde
4.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25065, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047345

RESUMO

Neste artigo, nós refletimos sobre as possibilidade e responsabilidades da pedagogia crítica em relação ao neoliberalismo e a Educação Física. Ao explorar essas ideias, nós também discutimos os problemas da definição, bem como o colapso e confusão de termos como pedagogia crítica, pesquisa crítica e saúde crítica e Educação Física, bem como a problemática posição do neoliberalismo nos estudos críticos. Embora exista um crescente corpo de pesquisas que iluminam as nuanças e onipresença das políticas e práticas neoliberais em HPE -tanto em contextos globais e em contextos sociais específicos ­ nós argumentamos que ainda existe mais trabalho a ser feito para identificar como o trabalho pedagógico crítico pode dirigir-se (ou ao menos tentar) aos efeitos do neoliberalismo. Ao fim, continua a existir o perigo de que a pedagogia crítica em tempos neoliberais possa transmitir, em vez de contestar, os piores efeitos da escolarização neoliberal e do neoliberalismo em saúde e Educação Física


In this article, we reflect on the possibilities and responsibilities of critical pedagogy in relation to neoliberalism and physical education. In exploring these ideas, we also discuss problems of definition, such as the collapse and confusion of terms like critical pedagogy, critical research, and critical health and PE, as well the problematic positioning of 'neoliberalism' in critical scholarship. Although there is a growing body of research that illuminates the nuances and pervasiveness of neoliberal HPE policies and practices ­ both globally and in specific social contexts ­ we argue that there is still more work to be done to identify how critical pedagogical work may address (or at least attend to) the effects of neoliberalism. After all, there remains a 'danger' that critical pedagogy in neoliberal times may forward, rather than contest, the worst effects of neoliberal schooling and neoliberal HPE


En este artículo, reflexionamos sobre las posibilidades y las responsabilidades de la pedagogía crítica en relación al neoliberalismo y la Educación Física. Además de explorar estas ideas, debatimos los problemas de la definición, así como el colapso y la confusión de los términos como pedagogía crítica, investigación crítica, salud crítica y Educación Física, así como la problemática del neoliberalismo en los estudios críticos. Si bien hay un creciente cuerpo de investigaciones que iluminan los matices y la omnipresencia de las políticas y practicas neoliberales en HPE ­ tanto en los contextos globales como sociales específicos ­ nosotros argumentamos que ha todavia más trabajo por hacer para identificar como el trabajo pedagógico puede dirigirse (o por lo menos intentar) a los efectos del neoliberalismo. Al ultimo, sigue existiendo el peligro de que la pedagogía crítica en tiempos neoliberales pueda transmitir, en lugar de cuestionar, los peores efectos de la escolarización neoliberal y del neoliberalismo en salud y Educación Física


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Ensino , Educação em Saúde , Economia/tendências
5.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03491, Jan.-Dez. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1020389

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Relatar as experiências educativas das mães ou cuidadoras de crianças com microcefalia, desenvolvidas por equipe acadêmica na temática da promoção da saúde dessas crianças. Método Trata-se de relato de experiência vivenciado por alunos do curso de graduação em enfermagem, discentes e docentes do programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde e Ambiente da Universidade Tiradentes sobre intervenções educativas realizadas em três unidades de referência no atendimento à criança com microcefalia no estado de Sergipe. A amostra do estudo foi de conveniência. Resultados Participaram da pesquisa 70 mães ou cuidadoras principais de crianças com diagnóstico confirmado de microcefalia, durante os meses de setembro a dezembro. Os eixos temáticos-teóricos selecionados para descrever as atividades foram promoção da alimentação saudável, importância do vínculo mãe e filho e estimulação precoce de crianças com microcefalia. Conclusão A experiência relatada demostrou a importância das estratégias educativas na promoção da saúde de crianças com microcefalia, proporcionando capacitação adicional às mães/cuidadoras para que estas ofereçam um cuidado holístico e humanizado a essas crianças.


RESUMEN Objetivo Relatar las experiencias educativas de las madres o cuidadoras de niños con microcefalia, desarrolladas por equipo académico en la temática de la promoción de la salud de esos niños. Método Se trata de relato de experiencia vivida por alumnos de la carrera universitaria de enfermería, discentes y docentes del programa de Posgrado en Salud y Ambiente de la Universidad Tiradentes acerca de intervenciones educativas realizadas en tres unidades de referencia en la atención al niño con microcefalia en el Estado de Sergipe. La muestra del estudio fue de conveniencia. Resultados Participaron en la investigación 70 madres o cuidadoras principales de niños con diagnóstico de microcefalia, durante los meses de septiembre a diciembre. Los ejes temáticos-teóricos seleccionados para describir las actividades fueron promoción de la alimentación sana, importancia del vínculo madre e hijo y estimulación precoz de niños con microcefalia. Conclusión La experiencia relatada demostró la importancia de las estrategias educativas en la promoción de la salud de niños con microcefalia, proporcionando capacitación adicional a las madres/cuidadoras a fin de que estas proporcionen un cuidado holístico y humanizado a esos niños.


ABSTRACT Objective To report the educational experiences of mothers or caregivers of children with microcephaly, as developed by an academic team with the theme of promoting these children's health. Method This is an experience report by undergraduate nursing students and Health and Environment Post-Graduation students and professors of Tiradentes University on educational interventions carried out in three reference units for the care of children with microcephaly in the state of Sergipe. The study sample was taken by convenience. Results A total of 70 mothers or primary caregivers of children with a confirmed diagnosis of microcephaly during the months of September to December participated in the study. The thematic-theoretical axes selected to describe the activities were promotion of healthy eating, importance of the mother and child bond, and early stimulation of children with microcephaly. Conclusion The experience reported demonstrates the importance of educational strategies in promoting the health of children with microcephaly, providing additional training to mothers/caregivers to provide holistic and humanized care to these children.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação em Saúde , Cuidadores , Promoção da Saúde , Microcefalia/terapia , Mães , Entrevista , Enfermagem Familiar , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(4): 271-282, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of doping substances is growing not only in young athletes performing competitive and non-competitive sports, but also in amateur sports, thereby representing a social and public health problem. The aim of this study was to measure knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and drugs and their effects, among students of secondary schools, and to assess the effectiveness of a health education intervention. "Enjoy the Sport- the school against doping and addiction 2.0" is a program developed to discourage the use of drugs, in particular doping drugs, by introducing information on the origins, on the effects of drugs and examples of appropriate lifestyles. This project was conceived by C.I.S.C.O.D. (Comitato Italiano Sport Contro Droga), an association of the C.O.N.I. and carried out with its support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The "Enjoy" project was a study with a one-arm experimental design and with a pre-post evaluation. A multiple-choice questionnaire was used to measure adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and its effects. A descriptive analysis and post-pre intervention comparison was performed with the McNemar test. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in participants' knowledge of doping substances indicated by the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) (p<0.001) and a better understanding of the meaning of the term "doping". A decrease in the number of adolescents who would use doping substances (pre = 0.06%; post = 0.0%) was observed, as well as an increase in the number of adolescents who do not consider fair that athletes of any level should use substances that alter their performance (pre = 83.7%; post = 85%). A significant increase was observed in the proportion of participants who believe that athletes should not use doping substances because they are harmful to the human organism (pre = 38.6%; post = 51.7%) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The project "Enjoy the Sport" contributed to increasing the health literacy of secondary school students about doping (and consequent awareness of the negative aspects of drug use). Schools, therefore, are an appropriate setting for implementing educational interventions for the prevention of doping. However, it is fundamental to integrate knowledge and action, especially in the context of family, sport and sports associations.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos
7.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03484, Jan.-Dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1020386

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Relatar a experiência de estudantes e docentes de um projeto de extensão universitária no planejamento e realização de oficinas educativas sobre desenvolvimento infantil com educadoras de creche. Método Relato de experiência alicerçado nos referenciais das Necessidades Essenciais das Crianças e na Teoria Bioecológica do Desenvolvimento Humano. Resultados Participaram das oficinas oito graduandas, duas docentes de Enfermagem de uma universidade pública e 24 educadoras de uma creche localizada no município de São Paulo, em região de alta vulnerabilidade social. As oficinas educativas abordaram os temas: fundamentos do desenvolvimento infantil, marcos do desenvolvimento nas áreas pessoal e social, linguagem, motor fino e grosseiro e promoveram o desenvolvimento infantil na creche. Como estratégias pedagógicas, foram utilizadas dinâmicas interativas, jogos didáticos e recursos midiáticos. As oficinas educativas favoreceram a translação do conhecimento sobre o desenvolvimento infantil e as necessidades essenciais das crianças. Conclusão As ações de extensão proporcionaram articulação entre a universidade e a comunidade por meio do compartilhamento de saberes entre profissionais da saúde e da educação visando à promoção do desenvolvimento infantil.


RESUMEN Objetivo Relatar la experiencia de estudiantes y docentes de un proyecto de extensión universitaria en la planificación y realización de talleres educativos acerca del desarrollo infantil con educadoras de guarderías. Método Relato de experiencia cimentado en los marcos de referencia de las Necesidades Esenciales de los Niños y la Teoría Bioecológica del Desarrollo Humano. Resultados Participaron en los talleres ocho estudiantes de graduación, dos docentes de Enfermería de una universidad pública y 24 educadoras de una guardería ubicada en el municipio de São Paulo, en zona de alta vulnerabilidad social. Los talleres educativos abordaron los temas: fundamentos del desarrollo infantil, hitos del desarrollo en las áreas personal y social, lenguaje, motricidad fina y gruesa, y promovieron el desarrollo infantil en la guardería. Como estrategias pedagógicas, fueron utilizadas dinámicas interactivas, juegos didácticos y recursos mediáticos. Los talleres favorecieron la traslación del conocimiento acerca del desarrollo infantil y las necesidades esenciales de los niños. Conclusión Las acciones de extensión proporcionaron articulación entre la universidad y la comunidad mediante el intercambio de saberes entre los profesionales sanitarios y de la educación a fin de promover el desarrollo infantil.


ABSTRACT Objective To report the experience of students and teachers of a university extension project in the planning and performance of educational workshops on child development with educators of a day care center. Method Report of experience based on frameworks of The Irreducible Needs of Children and the Bioecological Theory of Human Development. Results The workshops included eight undergraduate students, two nursing professors from a public university and 24 educators from a day care center located in a region of high social vulnerability in São Paulo. The educational workshops promoted child development in the day care center and the following themes were addressed: child development fundamentals, developmental milestones in the personal and social areas, language, fine and gross motor coordination. Interactive dynamics, didactic games and media resources were used as pedagogical strategies. The educational workshops favored the transfer of knowledge on child development and irreducible needs of children Conclusion Extension activities provided a link between the university and the community through the sharing of knowledge among health and education professionals aimed at promoting child development.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Educação em Saúde , Enfermagem Pediátrica , Creches , Saúde da Criança
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 325, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692871

RESUMO

Introduction: Anaemia in pregnancy remains a critical public health concern in many African settings; but its determinants are not clear. The purpose of this study was to assess anaemia at antenatal care initiation and associated factors among pregnant women in a local district of Ghana. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 378 pregnant women attending antenatal care at two health facilities were surveyed. Data on haemoglobin level, helminths and malaria infection status at first antenatal care registration were extracted from antenatal records booklets of each pregnant women. Questionnaires were then used to collect data on socio-demographic and dietary variables. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to assess factors associated with anaemia. Results: The prevalence of anaemia was 56%, with mild anaemia being the highest form (31.0%). Anaemia prevalence was highest (73.2%) among respondents aged 15-19 years. Factors that significantly independently reduced the odds of anaemia in pregnancy after controlling for potential confounders were early (within first trimester) antenatal care initiation (AOR=5.01; 95% CI =1.41-17.76; p=0.013) and consumption of egg three or more times in a week (AOR=0.30; 95% CI=0.15-0.81; P=0.014). Conclusion: Health facility and community-based preconception and conception care interventions must not only aim to educate women and community members about the importance of early ANC initiation, balanced diet, protein and iron-rich foods sources that may reduce anaemia, but must also engage community leaders and men to address food taboos and cultural prohibitions that negatively affect pregnant woman.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Orv Hetil ; 160(46): 1816-1820, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707819

RESUMO

Basic life support (BLS) teaching by peer-educators to school-age students was studied by evaluating their effectiveness. BLS resuscitation was taught by the internationally accepted four-stage skill teaching approach. The effectiveness of the training was followed by sociological measuring instruments (n = 91). Compared to the students' previous knowledge and attitudes about resuscitation, an increased willingness to adapt to an unexpected situation can be observed besides acquiring a reproducible method of CPR. The findings did not show significant age differences. Sensitivity and technical training in lay resuscitation is a successful educational process. The applied peer-education model is suitable for transferring resuscitation knowledge and skills. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(46): 1816-1820.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3186, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify in the scientific literature the technologies developed to promote health education for the community elderly. METHOD: integrative review that included original articles indexed by Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Cochrane databases, without restriction of time and language. Results were analyzed descriptively, in five analytical categories. RESULTS: Fifteen articles published on national and international journals were selected, with predominance of experimental studies that tested the effects of such technologies. The types of educational technology developed were printed materials, software and video, as well as mock-up and telephone support. Falls in the elderly were the most discussed theme. The studies have shown that the types of technology found are feasible to promote health education for the community elderly. CONCLUSION: The technologies developed to promote health education for the elderly were multiple and proved effective for use in community interventions.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Educacional/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Recursos Audiovisuais , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Software
11.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3174, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the contributions of the in situ simulation in the self-confidence of early childhood and elementary education teachers regarding the initial management of health complications in school. METHOD: this is a pre-post testing quasi-experimental study. Two pre and post in situ simulation instruments were applied to 76 teachers, namely: visual analogue scale of teachers' self-confidence in the management of health complications at school, and a questionnaire to assess their knowledge on the subject. The educational activity was composed of four scenarios of in situ simulation. The data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using univariate and multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: the comparison of results of pre and post in situ simulation self-confidence identified promotion of self-confidence (p<0.001), especially for those teachers with less professional experience (p=0.008), without previous similar experience (p=0.003) and who actively participated in the simulation (p=0.009). CONCLUSION: the teachers feel uncomfortable to handle health complications. The in situ simulation elevated the perception of self-confidence among teachers.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Professores Escolares , Autoimagem , Treinamento por Simulação , Adulto , Brasil , Educação Profissionalizante/métodos , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Lancet ; 394(10204): 1192-1204, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571602

RESUMO

In 2009, China launched a major health-care reform and pledged to provide all citizens with equal access to basic health care with reasonable quality and financial risk protection. The government has since quadrupled its funding for health. The reform's first phase (2009-11) emphasised expanding social health insurance coverage for all and strengthening infrastructure. The second phase (2012 onwards) prioritised reforming its health-care delivery system through: (1) systemic reform of public hospitals by removing mark-up for drug sales, adjusting fee schedules, and reforming provider payment and governance structures; and (2) overhaul of its hospital-centric and treatment-based delivery system. In the past 10 years, China has made substantial progress in improving equal access to care and enhancing financial protection, especially for people of a lower socioeconomic status. However, gaps remain in quality of care, control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), efficiency in delivery, control of health expenditures, and public satisfaction. To meet the needs of China's ageing population that is facing an increased NCD burden, we recommend leveraging strategic purchasing, information technology, and local pilots to build a primary health-care (PHC)-based integrated delivery system by aligning the incentives and governance of hospitals and PHC systems, improving the quality of PHC providers, and educating the public on the value of prevention and health maintenance.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , China , Educação em Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/terapia
13.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1486-1499, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613346

RESUMO

Importance: High-quality dietary patterns may help prevent chronic disease, but limited data exist from randomized trials about the effects of nutritional and behavioral interventions on dietary changes. Objective: To assess the effect of a nutritional and physical activity education program on dietary quality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary exploratory interim analysis of an ongoing randomized trial. In 23 research centers in Spain, 6874 men and women aged 55 to 75 years with metabolic syndrome and no cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the trial between September 2013 and December 2016, with final data collection in March 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to an intervention group that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet, promoted physical activity, and provided behavioral support (n = 3406) or to a control group that encouraged an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet (n = 3468). All participants received allotments of extra-virgin olive oil (1 L/mo) and nuts (125 g/mo) for free. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 12-month change in adherence based on the energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (er-MedDiet) score (range, 0-17; higher scores indicate greater adherence; minimal clinically important difference, 1 point). Results: Among 6874 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [4.9] years; 3406 [52%] men), 6583 (96%) completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the main analysis. The mean (SD) er-MedDiet score was 8.5 (2.6) at baseline and 13.2 (2.7) at 12 months in the intervention group (increase, 4.7 [95% CI, 4.6-4.8]) and 8.6 (2.7) at baseline and 11.1 (2.8) at 12 months in the control group (increase, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.3-2.6]) (between-group difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.1-2.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary analysis of an ongoing trial, an intervention that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and physical activity, compared with advice to follow an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet, resulted in a significantly greater increase in diet adherence after 12 months. Further evaluation of long-term cardiovascular effects is needed. Trial Registration: isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN89898870.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
15.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(669): 1982-1986, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663698

RESUMO

Economists traditionally describe individuals as well-informed and rational decision-makers. Recent developments in behavioural economics, which lies at the intersection between psychology and economics, challenge these assumptions and describe the common cognitive biases that affect us all. The resulting decision errors are particularly frequent in health and health care given the predominance of uncertainty and the complexity of choices. Interventions aiming at correcting, or exploiting, these biases to improve decisions of citizens, patients, and health professionals have recently emerged. We present here a critical synthesis of findings and discuss potential applications in our health system.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Economia Comportamental , Educação em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Medicina/métodos , Pacientes/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos
16.
Orv Hetil ; 160(43): 1706-1710, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630551

RESUMO

Introduction: The term "spam" is applied to unwanted commercial e-mails sent to all whose e-mail addresses have been acquired by the spammers. The number of undesirable e-mails is growing in the health-care related areas as well. The targets of health-care related spams are laymen, physicians and academic researchers alike. Method: On the basis of 12,986 unwanted letters received in one year, the authors concluded that percentage of health-related spam is the second most common spam (27%) in relation to all spam. Most of the spam (63%) aggressively promoted purchasing of various consumer goods, but health-related spam are far ahead of the rest. The collected data were grouped by year and topic and they are analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Spam form of cyber attacks on health care issues were divided into two: spam what is jeopardized individuals' health (e.g. medical compounds without any curing effect, misleading statement on medical device, fraudulent panacea offers, and cheating cure methods, etc.) and onslaught on medical scientific activity (pseudo-scientific congress invitation, predator journal invitation etc.). Results: The topics of spams addressed to laymen are offered for perfect healing by strange treatments, cures (31%), panaceas (19%), lifestyle advice (19%), massage (16%), brand new health-care devices (4%) and drugs for sexual dysfunction (11%). The topics of spams addressed to physicians and researchers are deluged by pseudoscientific materials: invitation for articles to be sent to no-name/fake open-access journals (68%), invitation to participate at an obscure congress (27%) or newsletters on miscellanous medical topics (5%). Conclusion: The spams offer very often relief or solution to medical problems that the present-day medical practice cannot solve perfectly (oncological, musculo-sceletal, endocrin or metabolic problems). Understandably, the patients would hold on to fake hopes - and the authentic patient education and health promotion will be neglected. These unwanted messages practically cannot be unsubscribed, and - while the spam filters are far from perfection - the victim must go through the filtered spam-dustbin in order not to miss some real messages. Unfortunately no legal regulation (neither local, nor GDPR) can block or stop the spams. The spams are misleading the laymen and jeopardise the effects of professional and responsible health promotion and health education. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(43): 1706-1710.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Correio Eletrônico/normas , Educação em Saúde , Internet/normas , Médicos/psicologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisadores
17.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(668): 1926-1931, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643153

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is the most frequent notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Switzerland. The infection is most frequently observed in 15 to 24 year-old-women and in 25 to 34 year-old-men. 50-75 % of the Chlamydia trachomatis carriage are asymptomatic, making the infection difficult to diagnose and increasing the untreated specimen, leading to complications like infertility, ectopic pregnancy or pelvic inflammatory disease. Despite having a sexual prevention at school, the youths seem to have a lack of knowledge about CT, her transmission and her complications. We performed a survey, which showed that 60.5 % of the participants ignored that this bacteria is mostly asymptomatic. We also found that 11 % of the participants believed that there is no possible relapse of the infection. The prevention must be strengthened, mostly because there is no program in Switzerland, letting every physician to his own beliefs. The medical consultation is an ideal opportunity for this prevention and the youths shared their wish to discuss more about it with health professionals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Metas , Educação em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/epidemiologia , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Masculino , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/epidemiologia , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/microbiologia , Gravidez , Suíça/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 495-500, oct 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046241

RESUMO

In this study, the authors perform a comparative analysis of the psychological and pedagogical aspect of the formation of health culture and the dynamics of the incidence in schoolchildren. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that, despite the attention to the younger generation, during the educational process, the number of healthy children is decreasing and the incidence of chronic diseases is increasing. The object of the study is the health state of children between 7 and 18 years of age residing in the village of Zavodskoy. The village of Zavodskoy is an urban-type settlement, located near (2 km) the city of Vladikavkaz. The subject of the study is the regularities of the incidence of chronic diseases in schoolchildren. The purpose of the study is to identify the conditions for protecting and improving health in the conditions of the educational process. Based on the literature review and data of the conducted statistical analysis of the dynamics of incidence of chronic diseases for the period of two years, the incidence of chronic diseases in schoolchildren residing in the village of Zavodskoy has been reviewed and systematized. Recommendations on preservation and improvement of health have been provided


Assuntos
Criança , Adolescente , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Educação em Saúde , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Análise Estatística , Estilo de Vida Saudável
19.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 22(257): 3199-3203, out.2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1026067

RESUMO

Objetivo: Identificar as ações assistenciais-educativas da enfermagem ao paciente com Doença Renal Crônica em uso de hemodiálise e como estas tem contribuído no processo de adaptação do paciente. Método: Trata-se de revisão integrativa da literatura realizada nas bases de dados da Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) e National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health dos EUA (PUBMED), sendo selecionada a amostra de 11 artigos. Resultados: Os artigos encontrados descrevem as contribuições das ações assistenciais-educativas de enfermagem aos pacientes com Doença Renal Crônica em necessidade de hemodiálise, no que tange ao seu processo de adaptação e integridade. Conclusão: As condutas de enfermagem com maior grau de mudança e condução de melhores resultados foram as ações educativas, com consequentes redução de risco, redução da progressão de lesão renal.(AU)


Objective: To identify nursing care-educational actions to the patient with chronic renal disease using hemodialysis and how this has contributed to the patient's adaptation process. Methods: It is an integrative review of the literature carried out in the Latin American Literature (LILACS) and National Library of Medicine (PUBMED) databases, with a sample of 11 articles selected. Results: The articles found describe the contributions of care-educational nursing actions to patients with Chronic Renal Disease in need of hemodialysis, regarding their process of adaptation and integrity. Conclusion: The nursing conducts with greater degree of change and conduction of better results were educational actions, with consequent reduction of risk, reduction of the progression of renal injury.(AU)


Objetivo: Identificar acciones de atención de enfermería y educación para el paciente con enfermedad renal crónica mediante hemodiálisis y cómo esto ha contribuido al proceso de adaptación del paciente. Metodos: Es una revisión integradora de la literatura realizada en las bases de datos de Literatura Latinoamericana (LILACS) y de la Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina (PUBMED), con una muestra de 11 artículos seleccionados. Resultados: Los artículos encontrados describen las contribuciones de las acciones de enfermería de cuidado y educación a pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica que necesitan hemodiálisis, en relación con su proceso de adaptación e integridad. Conclusión: Las conductas de enfermería con mayor grado de cambio y la conducción de mejores resultados fueron acciones educativas, con la consiguiente reducción del riesgo, reducción de la progresión de la lesión renal.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Educação em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde
20.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 5(2): 68-93, ago. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1021761

RESUMO

Introdução:A Educação Popular em Saúde (EPS) remete indivíduos e grupos à troca de saberes e experiências, permitindo-lhes associar a saúde ao resultado das suas condições de vida levando a uma emancipação do sujeito. Objetivo:Promover ações educativas com portadores de Diabetes Mellitus (DM);realizar oficinas de capacitação em EPS com trabalhadores de saúde; e avaliar os resultados das ações realizadas para os trabalhadores e usuários, em uma Unidade de Saúde da Família em Natal/RN. Método:Trata-se de uma pesquisa-ação com o referencial teórico da Teoria da Educação Libertadora, centrada na pedagogia problematizadora. Participaram da pesquisa trinta trabalhadores de saúde e trinta e seis usuários diabéticos. As ações foram organizadas através de rodas de conversa, dinâmicas de grupo, narrativas de vida, relatos de experiências, e explicitação de saberes, desejos, limitações, crenças e valores socialmente construídos. A coleta dos dados foi realizada através da Técnica de Associação Livre de Palavras, entrevista semiestruturada e grupo focal. O material empírico foi submetido à análise de ocorrência com auxílio do programa IRAMUTEQ. Resultados:Foram geradas palavras, expressões e categorias, a partir dos temas abordados e de situações criativas mostrando que a EPS vem sendo incorporada timidamente no processo educativo dos sujeitos deste estudo e bem distante dos princípios de participação, organização de um trabalho político, ampliação dos espaços de diálogo, respeito, de solidariedade e tolerância entre os diversos atores envolvidos no enfrentamento dos problemas de saúde, fundamentais para o aperfeiçoamento na construção de práticas saudáveis da atenção básica. Conclusões:A utilização de práticas ativas de ensino-aprendizagem, centradas na ampliação da escuta e em capacitações sobre EPS, poderá possibilitar mudanças no cenário onde os usuários e trabalhadores de saúde atuam com a diabetes mellitus (AU).


Introduction:Popular Health Education (EPS) refers to individuals and groups to exchange knowledge and experiences, allowing them to associate health to the outcomes of their living conditions.Objective:To know and promote educational actions with patients with diabetes Mellitus (DM); Perform training workshops in EPS with health workers; To know and develop participatory educative actions with diabetic groups; and evaluate the results of theactions performed for workers and users, in a family health unit in Natal/RN.Methods:This is an action research with the theoretical framework of liberating education theory, centered on problematizing pedagogy. Thirty health workers and 36 diabetic users participated in the study. The actions were organized through conversation wheels, group dynamics, life narratives, reports of experiences, and explication of knowledge, desires, limitations, beliefs and socially constructed values. Data collection was performed through the free word association technique, semi-structured interview and focal group. The empirical material was subjected to occurrence analysis (Bardin) with the aid of the Iramuteq program (Ratinaud; Marchand).Results:The data analyses originated words, expressions, categories, themes and creative situations showing that EPS is in process of construction, but still very incipient in primary care. words, expressions and categories were generated from the themes addressedand creative situations showing that the EPS has been incorporated timidly in the educational process of the subjects of this study and far from the principles of participation, organization of a political work, expansion of the spaces of dialogue, respect, solidarity and tolerance among the various actors involved in coping with health problems, fundamental for the improvement in the construction of Healthy practices of primary care.Conclusions:The use of active teaching-learning practices, centered on the amplification of listening and in training on EPS, may enable changes in the scenario where users and health workers act with diabetes mellitus (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde da Família , Saúde do Idoso , Educação em Saúde , Grupos Focais/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Brasil , Diabetes Mellitus , Aprendizagem
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