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1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241674, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low national immunization coverage (44.64%) requires strengthening the vaccination campaign to improve knowledge about HPV and its vaccine among adolescents and parents/guardians. Our aim is to evaluate factors related to knowledge about HPV, its vaccine, acceptability and divergences among Brazilian adolescents and parents/guardians. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at a health unit of Sao Paulo University, Brazil, from 2015 to 2016. The convenience sample comprised 1047 individuals, including 74% (n = 776) adolescents and 26% (n = 271) parents/guardians, who answered a survey (knowledge about HPV, its vaccine, barriers and acceptability). RESULTS: The main source of information for adolescents was school (39%, n = 298); for parents/guardians, it was health professionals (55%, n = 153). Parents/guardians were 2.48 times more likely than adolescents to know that HPV caused changes in the Pap smear test [RR 2.48, 95% CI 2.03-3.01 (p < 0.001)], 1.43 times likely to be aware that HPV was a sexually transmitted infection [RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.22-1.68 (p < 0.001)], and 2.77 times likely to be informed that the HPV vaccine decreased the chance of having genital warts [RR 2.77, 95% CI 2.22-2.47 (p < 0.001)]. Girls knew more about the topic than boys (RR 1.67; 95% CI 1.10-2.60); education increased parents' knowledge [(RR 3.38; 95% CI 1.71-6.69)]. CONCLUSION: Female adolescents and parents/guardians with a higher level of education are factors related to suitable knowledge about HPV and its vaccine among Brazilian respondents. There were differences between parents/guardians and adolescents in HPV awareness, clinical implications, vaccine knowledge and vaccine acceptance.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e22407, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The internet is a well-known source of information that patients use to better inform their opinions and to guide their conversations with physicians during clinic visits. The novelty of the recent COVID-19 outbreak has led patients to turn more frequently to the internet to gather more information and to alleviate their concerns about the virus. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to (1) determine the most commonly searched phrases related to COVID-19 in the United States and (2) identify the sources of information for these web searches. METHODS: Search terms related to COVID-19 were entered into Google. Questions and websites from Google web search were extracted to a database using customized software. Each question was categorized into one of 6 topics: clinical signs and symptoms, treatment, transmission, cleaning methods, activity modification, and policy. Additionally, the websites were categorized according to source: World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), non-CDC government, academic, news, and other media. RESULTS: In total, 200 questions and websites were extracted. The most common question topic was transmission (n=63, 31.5%), followed by clinical signs and symptoms (n=54, 27.0%) and activity modification (n=31, 15.5%). Notably, the clinical signs and symptoms category captured questions about myths associated with the disease, such as whether consuming alcohol stops the coronavirus. The most common websites provided were maintained by the CDC, the WHO, and academic medical organizations. Collectively, these three sources accounted for 84.0% (n=168) of the websites in our sample. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, the most commonly searched topics related to COVID-19 were transmission, clinical signs and symptoms, and activity modification. Reassuringly, a sizable majority of internet sources provided were from major health organizations or from academic medical institutions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050541

RESUMO

While there is strong evidence of the need for healthy ageing programs for older Aboriginal Australians, few are available. It is important to understand older Aboriginal Australians' perspectives on healthy ageing in order to co-design culturally-appropriate programs, including views on technology use in this context. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 Aboriginal Australians aged 50 years and older from regional and urban communities to explore participants' health concerns, preferences for healthy ageing programs, and receptiveness to technology. Qualitative data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. This study found that older Aboriginal Australians are concerned about chronic health conditions, social and emotional well-being, and difficulties accessing health services. A range of barriers and enablers to participation in current health programs were identified. From the perspective of older Aboriginal people, a successful healthy ageing program model includes physical and cognitive activities, social interaction, and health education. The program model also provides culturally safe care and transport for access as well as family, community, cultural identity, and empowerment regarding ageing well as central tenets. Technology could also be a viable approach for program delivery. These findings can be applied in the implementation and evaluation of culturally-appropriate, healthy ageing programs with older Aboriginal people.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Envelhecimento Saudável , Preferência do Paciente , Idoso , Austrália , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde/tendências , Promoção da Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239905, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002054

RESUMO

Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA) for the management of type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), the topic of PA is poorly addressed in Saudi Arabia (SA), especially in females with T2DM. The present study examined PA and its associated factors in females with T2DM in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This observational cross-sectional study was performed in a random sample of 372 women with T2DM. A face-to-face interview that covered PA, health and environmental correlates of PA was performed. Discriminant analysis was used to determine which barriers had the greatest impact on PA in these women. The results showed that approximately 26.3% of the study participants met PA recommendations. Multivariate linear regression revealed lower levels of PA were associated with women who had more than three children (ß = -0.17) compared to women with no children, older age (ß = -0.18), women with a duration of diabetes ≥ 6 years (ß = -0.16), women who were obese (ß = -0.23), women with no family support (ß = -0.20), no friend support (ß = -0.13) and no healthcare provider support (ß = -0.14). Discriminant analysis indicated that culture and tradition, lack of skills and knowledge, safety, fatigue, lack of time, weather conditions, and lack of facilities were the barriers that differentiated between the women who met and those who did not meet the PA recommendations. The present study suggests that the prevalence of PA is low and number of children, age, duration of diabetes, Obesity, family support, friend support and healthcare provider support are identified correlates of PA. These findings are valuable and should be used to design and implement future PA interventions, especially for women with T2DM. Healthcare providers may improve exercise levels and identify the specific barriers to reaching the recommended level of PA to improve health outcomes for each patient.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Idoso , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e21099, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Great efforts have been made to prevent the spread of COVID-19, including national initiatives to promote the change of personal behaviors. The lessons learned from the 2003 SARS outbreak indicate that knowledge and attitudes about infectious diseases are related to panic among the population, which may further complicate efforts to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Misunderstandings may result in behaviors such as underestimation, panic, and taking ineffective measures to avoid infection; these behaviors are likely to cause the epidemic to spread further. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess public health perceptions and misunderstandings about COVID-19 in China, and to propose targeted response measures based on the findings to control the development of the epidemic. METHODS: The study was conducted in April 2020 through an online survey, with participants in 8 provinces in Eastern, Central, and Western China. We designed a questionnaire with a health knowledge section consisting of 5 questions (4 conventional questions and 1 misleading question) on clinical features of and preventive measures against COVID-19. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis, binary logistic regression, and Mantel-Haenszel hierarchical analysis were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In total, 4788 participants completed the survey and the mean knowledge score was 4.63 (SD 0.67), gained mainly through experts (76.1%), television (60.0%), newspapers (57.9%), and opinions (46.6%) and videos (42.9%) from social media. Compared to those who obtained information from only 1 or 2 channels, people who obtained information from >3 channels had increased health perception and a better ability to identify misleading information. Suggestions from experts were the most positive information source (χ2=41.61), while information on social media was the most misleading. Those aged >60 years (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.10-2.11), those with a lower or middle income (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.00-1.83), those not working and not able to work (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.04-3.21), those with a household income <100,000 RMB (2 suspected symptoms (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.50-5.80) were more likely to be misled by videos on social media, but the error correction effect of expert advice was limited in these groups. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple information channels can improve public health perception and the identification of misleading information during the COVID-19 pandemic. Videos on social media increased the risk of rumor propagation among vulnerable groups. We suggest the government should strengthen social media regulation and increase experts' influence on the targeted vulnerable populations to reduce the risk of rumors spreading.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Internet , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Mídias Sociais , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e19791, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing pandemic has placed an unprecedented strain on global society, health care, governments, and mass media. Public dissemination of government policies, medical interventions, and misinformation has been remarkably rapid and largely unregulated during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in increased misinterpretations, miscommunication, and public panic. Being the first full-scale global pandemic of the digital age, COVID-19 has presented novel challenges pertinent to government advice, the spread of news and misinformation, and the trade-off between the accessibility of science and the premature public use of unproven medical interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the use of internet search terms relating to COVID-19 information and misinformation during the global pandemic, identify which were most used in six affected countries, investigate any temporal trends and the likely propagators of key search terms, and determine any correlation between the per capita cases and deaths with the adoption of these search terms in each of the six countries. METHODS: This study uses relative search volume data extracted from Google Trends for search terms linked to the COVID-19 pandemic alongside per capita case and mortality data extracted from the European Open Data Portal to identify the temporal dynamics of the spread of news and misinformation during the global pandemic in six affected countries (Australia, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States). A correlation analysis was carried out to ascertain any correlation between the temporal trends of search term use and the rise of per capita mortality and disease cases. RESULTS: Of the selected search terms, most were searched immediately following promotion by governments, public figures, or viral circulation of information, but also in relation to the publication of scientific resources, which were sometimes misinterpreted before further dissemination. Strong correlations were identified between the volume of these COVID-19-related search terms (overall mean Spearman rho 0.753, SD 0.158), and per capita mortality (mean per capita deaths Spearman rho 0.690, SD 0.168) and cases (mean per capita cases Spearman rho 0.800, SD 0.112). CONCLUSIONS: These findings illustrate the increased rate and volume of the public consumption of novel information during a global health care crisis. The positive correlation between mortality and online searching, particularly in countries with lower COVID-19 testing rates, may demonstrate the imperative to safeguard official communications and dispel misinformation in these countries. Online news, government briefings, and social media provide a powerful tool for the dissemination of important information to the public during pandemics, but their misuse and the presentation of misrepresented medical information should be monitored, minimized, and addressed to safeguard public safety. Ultimately, governments, public health authorities, and scientists have a moral imperative to safeguard the truth and maintain an accessible discourse with the public to limit fear.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Internet , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Saúde Global , Educação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Mídias Sociais
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872662

RESUMO

Health disparities in diabetes management and control are well-documented. The objective of this study is to describe one diabetes education program delivered in the United States in terms of the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) Planning and Evaluation Framework. Questionnaires, clinical data, and administrative records were analyzed from 8664 adults with diabetes living in South Texas, an area characterized by high health disparities. The Diabetes Education Program delivered was a professionally led 12-month program involving 8 h of in-person workshop education followed by quarterly follow-up sessions. Changes in average blood glucose levels over the past 3 months (e.g., A1c levels) were the primary clinical outcome. Descriptive and multiple generalized linear mixed models were performed. This community-based initiative reached a large and diverse population, and statistically significant reductions in A1c levels (p < 0.01) were observed among participants with Type 2 diabetes at 3 months. These reductions in A1c levels were sustained at 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up assessments (p < 0.01). However, considerable attrition over time at follow-up sessions indicate the need for more robust strategies to keep participants engaged. For this diabetes education program, the RE-AIM model was a useful framework to present study processes and outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Educação em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas/epidemiologia
9.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 50, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From 2010 to 2015, there was a twofold growth of new HIV/AIDS infection in Beijing among young students aged 15-24. HIV/AIDS education was found effective in promoting positive behavior change related to HIV/AIDS prevention. However, little evidence was found on the evaluation of HIV/AIDS education policy. This study aimed to evaluate the college-based HIV/AIDS education policy in Beijing. METHODS: By using a mixed method approach, the current study reviewed college-based HIV/AIDS education policy at national level and in Beijing from 1985 to 2016 and conducted policy content analysis to evaluate the policy ability to structure implementation. Cross-sectional surveys in 2006 and 2016 were used to evaluate college's implementation of relevant policies. T test, χ2 test, and logistic regression were used to analyze college students' perception of HIV/AIDS education provided in their colleges and their knowledge of HIV/AIDS and their risk factors. RESULTS: Fourteen pieces of national policy and four pieces of Beijing's policy were identified. Policy's ability to structure implementation was at moderate level. The percentage of students in Beijing who ever perceived HIV/ADIS education at colleges decreased from 71.14 to 39.80%, and the percentage of students with comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS dropped from 50.00% in 2006 to 40.42% in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: HIV/AIDS education in college had drawn considerable attentions from the Chinese government, while the policy implementation needs further strengthening.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Adolescente , Pequim , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1467, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the leading public health problem globally, especially in low-resource countries (LRCs). Breast cancer screening (BCS) services are an effective strategy for early determining of breast cancer. Hence, it is imperative to understand the utilisation of BCS services and their correlated predictors in LRCs. This study aims to determine the distribution of predictors that significantly influence the utilisation of BCS services among women in LRCs. METHODS: The present study used data on 140,974 women aged 40 years or over from 14 LRCs. The data came from country Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) between 2008 and 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to investigate the significant predictors that influence the use of BCS services. RESULTS: The utilisation of BCS services was 15.41%, varying from 81.10% (95% CI: 76.85-84.73%) in one European country, to 18.61% (95% CI: 18.16 to 19.06%) in Asian countries, 14.30% (95% CI: 13.67-14.96%) in American countries, and 14.29% (95% CI: 13.87-14.74%). Factors that were significantly associated to increase the use of BCS services include a higher level of education (OR = 2.48), advanced age at first birth (> 25 years) (OR = 1.65), female-headed households (OR = 1.65), access to mass media communication (OR = 1.84), health insurance coverage (OR = 1.09), urban residence (OR = 1.20) and highest socio-economic status (OR = 2.01). However, obese women shown a significantly 11% (OR = 0.89) lower use of BSC services compared to health weight women. CONCLUSION: The utilisation of BCS services is low in many LRCs. The findings of this study will assist policymakers in identifying the factors that influence the use of BCS services. To increase the national BCS rate, more attention should be essential to under-represented clusters; in particular women who have a poor socioeconomic clusters, live in a rural community, have limited access to mass media communication, and are have a low level educational background. These factors highlight the necessity for a new country-specific emphasis of promotional campaigns, health education, and policy targeting these underrepresented groups in LRCs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19913, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social media is one of the most rapid and impactful ways of obtaining and delivering information in the modern era. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to rapidly obtain information on public perceptions, knowledge, and behaviors related to COVID-19 in order to identify deficiencies in key areas of public education. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, a survey web link was posted on the social media and messaging platforms Instagram, Twitter, and WhatsApp by the study investigators. Participants, aged ≥18 years, filled out the survey on a voluntary basis. The main outcomes measured were knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms, protective measures against COVID-19, and source(s) of information about COVID-19. Subgroup analyses were conducted to determine the effects of age, gender, underlying illness, and working or studying in the health care industry on the perceived likelihood of acquiring COVID-19 and getting vaccinated. RESULTS: A total of 5677 subjects completed the survey over the course of 1 week. "Fever or chills" (n=4973, 87.6%) and "shortness of breath" (n=4695, 82.7%) were identified as the main symptoms of COVID-19. Washing and sanitizing hands (n=4990, 87.9%) and avoiding public places and crowds (n=4865, 85.7%) were identified as the protective measures most frequently used against COVID-19. Social media was the most utilized source for information on the disease (n=4740, 83.5%), followed by the World Health Organization (n=2844, 50.1%). Subgroup analysis revealed that younger subjects (<35 years), males, and those working or studying in health care reported a higher perceived likelihood of acquiring COVID-19, whereas older subjects, females, and those working or studying in non-health care areas reported a lower perceived likelihood of acquiring COVID-19. Similar trends were observed for vaccination against COVID-19, with older subjects, females, and those working or studying in non-health care sectors reporting a lower likelihood of vaccinating against COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are indicative of a relatively well-informed cohort implementing appropriate protective measures. However, key knowledge deficiencies exist with regards to vaccination against COVID-19, which future efforts should aim at correcting.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Vacinação , Voluntários , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 6042146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831855

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated household interventions to enhance indoor air quality (IAQ) and health outcomes in relatively low-income communities. This study aims to examine the impact of the combined intervention with asthma education and air purifier on IAQ and health outcomes in the US-Mexico border area. An intervention study conducted in McAllen, Texas, between June and November 2019 included 16 households having children with asthma. The particulate matter (PM2.5) levels were monitored in the bedroom, kitchen, and living room to measure the IAQ for 7 days before and after the intervention, respectively. Multiple surveys were applied to evaluate changes in children's health outcomes. The mean PM2.5 levels in each place were significantly improved. Overall, they significantly decreased by 1.91 µg/m3 on average (p < 0.05). All surveys showed better health outcomes; particularly, quality of life for children was significantly improved (p < 0.05). This pilot study suggests that the combined household intervention might improve IAQ in households and health outcomes for children with asthma and reduce health disparities in low-income communities. Future large-scale studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of this household intervention to improve IAQ and asthma management.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Asma/etiologia , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Texas
13.
Vaccine ; 38(34): 5430-5435, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-seeking behaviors change during pandemics and may increase with regard to illnesses with symptoms similar to the pandemic. The global reaction to COVID-19 may drive interest in vaccines for other diseases. OBJECTIVES: Our study investigated the correlation between global online interest in COVID-19 and interest in CDC-recommended routine vaccines. DESIGN, SETTINGS, MEASUREMENTS: This infodemiology study used Google Trends data to quantify worldwide interest in COVID-19 and CDC-recommended vaccines using the unit search volume index (SVI), which estimates volume of online search activity relative to highest volume of searches within a specified period. SVIs from December 30, 2019 to March 30, 2020 were collected for "coronavirus (Virus)" and compared with SVIs of search terms related to CDC-recommended adult vaccines. To account for seasonal variation, we compared SVIs from December 30, 2019 to March 30, 2020 with SVIs from the same months in 2015 to 2019. We performed country-level analyses in ten COVID-19 hotspots and ten countries with low disease burden. RESULTS: There were significant positive correlations between SVIs for "coronavirus (Virus)" and search terms for pneumococcal (R = 0.89, p < 0.0001) and influenza vaccines (R = 0.93, p < 0.0001) in 2020, which were greater than SVIs for the same terms in 2015-2019 (p = 0.005, p < 0.0001, respectively). Eight in ten COVID-19 hotspots demonstrated significant positive correlations between SVIs for coronavirus and search terms for pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. LIMITATIONS: SVIs estimate relative changes in online interest and do not represent the interest of people with no Internet access. CONCLUSION: A peak in worldwide interest in pneumococcal and influenza vaccines coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic in February and March 2020. Trends are likely not seasonal in origin and may be driven by COVID-19 hotspots. Global events may change public perception about the importance of vaccines. Our findings may herald higher demand for pneumonia and influenza vaccines in the upcoming season.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Influenza , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e19551, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global threat to human health. Internet hospitals have emerged as a critical technology to bring epidemic-related web-based services and medical support to the public. However, only a few very recent scientific literature reports have explored the effects of internet hospitals on psychological burden and disease knowledge in major public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the role of internet hospitals in relieving psychological burden and increasing disease knowledge during the early outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This survey was conducted from January 26 to February 1, 2020, during the early outbreak of COVID-19 in China. The platform used for the consultation was the WeChat public account of our hospital. To participate in the study, the patient was required to answer a list of questions to exclude the possibility of COVID-19 infection and confirm their willingness to participate voluntarily. Next, the participant was directed to complete the self-report questionnaire. After the internet consultation, the participant was directed to complete the self-report questionnaire again. The questionnaire included sections on general information, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), and the participant's worries, disease knowledge, and need for hospital treatment. RESULTS: The total number of internet consultations was 4120. The consultation topics mainly included respiratory symptoms such as cough, expectoration, and fever (2489/4120, 60.4%) and disease knowledge, anxiety, and fear (1023/4120, 24.8%). A total of 1530 people filled out the questionnaires before and after the internet consultation. Of these people, 1398/1530 (91.4%) experienced psychological stress before the internet consultation, which significantly decreased after consultation (260/1530, 17.0%) (χ21=1704.8, P<.001). There was no significant difference in the number of people who expressed concern about the COVID-19 pandemic before and after the internet consultation (χ21=0.7, P=.43). However, the degree of concern after the internet consultation was significantly alleviated (t2699=90.638, P<.001). The main worries before and after consultation were the dangers posed by the disease and the risk of infection of family members. The scores of the self-assessment risk after the internet consultation were significantly lower than those before consultation (t3058=95.694, P<.001). After the consultation, the participants' knowledge of the symptoms, transmission routes, and preventive measures of COVID-19 was significantly higher than before the consultation (t3058=-106.105, -80.456, and -152.605, respectively; all P<.001). The hospital treatment need score after the internet consultation decreased from 3.3 (SD 1.2) to 1.6 (SD 0.8), and the difference was statistically significant (t3058=45.765, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the early outbreak of COVID-19, internet hospitals could help relieve psychological burdens and increase disease awareness through timely and rapid spread of knowledge regarding COVID-19 prevention and control. Internet hospitals should be an important aspect of a new medical model in public health emergency systems.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais , Internet , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Telemedicina , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35: 46, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537051

RESUMO

Introduction: annually, many people die due to being exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) which they experience at a number of premises that include health institutions. Scientists agree that there is no safe exposure level to SHS, however, in the City of Bulawayo many people are exposed to SHS. There are great expectations from communities for health professionals to reduce SHS exposure-related morbidity and mortality. This study sought to establish exposure to SHS in health institutions and sources of knowledge on SHS. Methods: a cross-sectional study, with participants randomly selected from residents visiting the 13 municipal revenue halls in the City of Bulawayo, was conducted. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire and were analyzed by performing descriptive and multivariate logistic regression. Results: 26.3% (N = 419) of respondents who had been to health institutions in the previous 30 days had been exposed to SHS within those institutions. Almost all the respondents (85.4%) had never received a lesson on SHS from a health professional or had last received one three months before the survey. Furthermore, 74% of respondents had not seen posters on SHS or had last seen one more than three months before the survey. Conclusion: health professional should collaborate with other professionals in the fight against exposure to SHS as evidenced by the high prevalence of exposure in the health institutions and low health education given on SHS exposure in the City of Bulawayo.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 810, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fertility knowledge is vital to the fertility health of young people and greatly impacts their fertility choices. Delayed childbearing has been increasing in high-income countries, accompanied by the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge about fertility issues, the related influencing factors, the method of acquiring fertility knowledge, and the relationship between fertility knowledge and fertility intentions among college students. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey of Chinese college students was conducted in Hunan Province from March to April 2018. A total of 867 college students from three comprehensive universities responded to a poster invitation utilizing the Chinese version of the Cardiff Fertility Knowledge Scale (CFKS-C). Data were explored and analysed by SPSS (version 22.0) software. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared tests, T-tests, and Pearson's correlations were used for the measurements. RESULTS: The average percent-correct score on the CFKS-C was 49.9% (SD = 20.8), with greater knowledge significantly related to living in a city district, being not single status, majoring in medicine, being in year 4 or above of study, and intention to have children (all p<0.05). A total of 81.9% of the participants reported that they would like to have children, the average score of the importance of childbearing was 6.3 (SD = 2.7), and the female score was lower than the male score (p = 0.001). A small positive relationship was observed between the CFKS-C and the importance of childbearing (r = 0.074, p = 0.035). Respondents indicated that they gained most of their knowledge from the media and internet (41.4%) and from schools (38.2%). CONCLUSION: Yong people in college have a modest level of fertility knowledge, a relatively low intention to have a child, and deficiencies in fertility health education. There is a need to improve the accessibility of fertility health services by developing a scientific and reliable fertility health promotion strategy.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/educação , Fertilidade , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 9498124, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405306

RESUMO

Objectives: To identify the distribution of asthma education programs that are currently active in Texas and examine whether there is a geographical disparity between asthma prevalence and locations of asthma education programs in the Public Health Regions (PHRs) of Texas. Methods: The data for adult asthma prevalence in PHRs was obtained from the Texas Department of State and Health Services (DSHS) 2015 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Public Use Data File. The Geographic Information System (GIS) program was used to show the distribution of asthma education programs and visually identify the isolated areas for asthma education programs on the maps. To examine the areas covered by the asthma education programs, we illustrated 50 miles and 70 miles of buffer zones from each program by proximity (multiple ring buffer) functions in GIS. Results: We identified that 27 asthma education programs are active in Texas as of July 2019. The analysis showed that PHRs 1, 2, and 7 had the highest rate of asthma prevalence but had fewer asthma education programs. Also, the distribution of asthma education programs is concentrated around major cities, leading to a regional imbalance between asthma prevalence and locations of asthma education programs. The central and western areas of Texas proved to be marginalized areas for asthma education programs, particularly PHRs 2 and 9 because they may not be covered by the buffer zones of 70 miles from any asthma education programs. Discussion. This study revealed the marginalized regions in Texas lacking asthma education programs. The findings could help policymakers and health care professionals enhance opportunities to develop asthma education programs using different venues in isolated areas and prioritize these regions, for funds, to establish new asthma education programs.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adulto , Asma/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Prevalência , Texas/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 607, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With an increased political interest in school-based mental health education, the dominant understanding and measurement of mental health literacy (MHL) in adolescent research should be critically appraised. This systematic literature review aimed to investigate the conceptualisation and measurement of MHL in adolescent research and the extent of methodological homogeneity in the field for meta-analyses. METHODS: Databases (PsycINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE, ASSIA and ERIC) and grey literature were searched (1997-2017). Included articles used the term 'mental health literacy' and presented self-report data for at least one MHL domain with an adolescent sample (10-19 years). Definitions, methodological and contextual data were extracted and synthesised. RESULTS: Ninety-one articles were identified. There was evidence of conceptual confusion, methodological inconsistency and a lack of measures developed and psychometrically tested with adolescents. The most commonly assessed domains were mental illness stigma and help-seeking beliefs; however, frequency of assessment varied by definition usage and study design. Recognition and knowledge of mental illnesses were assessed more frequently than help-seeking knowledge. A mental-ill health approach continues to dominate the field, with few articles assessing knowledge of mental health promotion. CONCLUSIONS: MHL research with adolescent samples is increasing. Results suggest that a better understanding of what MHL means for this population is needed in order to develop reliable, valid and feasible adolescent measures, and explore mechanisms for change in improving adolescent mental health. We recommend a move away from 'mental disorder literacy' and towards critical 'mental health literacy'. Future MHL research should apply integrated, culturally sensitive models of health literacy that account for life stage and acknowledge the interaction between individuals' ability and social and contextual demands.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Formação de Conceito , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e18825, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic in China in December 2019, information and discussions about COVID-19 have spread rapidly on the internet and have quickly become the focus of worldwide attention, especially on social media. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate and analyze the public's attention to events related to COVID-19 in China at the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic (December 31, 2019, to February 20, 2020) through the Sina Microblog hot search list. METHODS: We collected topics related to the COVID-19 epidemic on the Sina Microblog hot search list from December 31, 2019, to February 20, 2020, and described the trend of public attention on COVID-19 epidemic-related topics. ROST Content Mining System version 6.0 was used to analyze the collected text for word segmentation, word frequency, and sentiment analysis. We further described the hot topic keywords and sentiment trends of public attention. We used VOSviewer to implement a visual cluster analysis of hot keywords and build a social network of public opinion content. RESULTS: The study has four main findings. First, we analyzed the changing trend of the public's attention to the COVID-19 epidemic, which can be divided into three stages. Second, the hot topic keywords of public attention at each stage were slightly different. Third, the emotional tendency of the public toward the COVID-19 epidemic-related hot topics changed from negative to neutral, with negative emotions weakening and positive emotions increasing as a whole. Fourth, we divided the COVID-19 topics with the most public concern into five categories: the situation of the new cases of COVID-19 and its impact, frontline reporting of the epidemic and the measures of prevention and control, expert interpretation and discussion on the source of infection, medical services on the frontline of the epidemic, and focus on the worldwide epidemic and the search for suspected cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that social media (eg, Sina Microblog) can be used to measure public attention toward public health emergencies. During the epidemic of the novel coronavirus, a large amount of information about the COVID-19 epidemic was disseminated on Sina Microblog and received widespread public attention. We have learned about the hotspots of public concern regarding the COVID-19 epidemic. These findings can help the government and health departments better communicate with the public on health and translate public health needs into practice to create targeted measures to prevent and control the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Atenção , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Opinião Pública , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Emoções , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/provisão & distribução
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e18897, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2) was spreading rapidly in South Korea at the end of February 2020 following its initial outbreak in China, making Korea the new center of global attention. The role of social media amid the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has often been criticized, but little systematic research has been conducted on this issue. Social media functions as a convenient source of information in pandemic situations. OBJECTIVE: Few infodemiology studies have applied network analysis in conjunction with content analysis. This study investigates information transmission networks and news-sharing behaviors regarding COVID-19 on Twitter in Korea. The real time aggregation of social media data can serve as a starting point for designing strategic messages for health campaigns and establishing an effective communication system during this outbreak. METHODS: Korean COVID-19-related Twitter data were collected on February 29, 2020. Our final sample comprised of 43,832 users and 78,233 relationships on Twitter. We generated four networks in terms of key issues regarding COVID-19 in Korea. This study comparatively investigates how COVID-19-related issues have circulated on Twitter through network analysis. Next, we classified top news channels shared via tweets. Lastly, we conducted a content analysis of news frames used in the top-shared sources. RESULTS: The network analysis suggests that the spread of information was faster in the Coronavirus network than in the other networks (Corona19, Shincheon, and Daegu). People who used the word "Coronavirus" communicated more frequently with each other. The spread of information was faster, and the diameter value was lower than for those who used other terms. Many of the news items highlighted the positive roles being played by individuals and groups, directing readers' attention to the crisis. Ethical issues such as deviant behavior among the population and an entertainment frame highlighting celebrity donations also emerged often. There was a significant difference in the use of nonportal (n=14) and portal news (n=26) sites between the four network types. The news frames used in the top sources were similar across the networks (P=.89, 95% CI 0.004-0.006). Tweets containing medically framed news articles (mean 7.571, SD 1.988) were found to be more popular than tweets that included news articles adopting nonmedical frames (mean 5.060, SD 2.904; N=40, P=.03, 95% CI 0.169-4.852). CONCLUSIONS: Most of the popular news on Twitter had nonmedical frames. Nevertheless, the spillover effect of the news articles that delivered medical information about COVID-19 was greater than that of news with nonmedical frames. Social media network analytics cannot replace the work of public health officials; however, monitoring public conversations and media news that propagates rapidly can assist public health professionals in their complex and fast-paced decision-making processes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
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