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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193961

RESUMO

Prevention of exposure to the COVID-19 virus in the general population is an essential strategy to slow community transmission. This paper shares the experiences and challenges of community engagement in COVID-19 prevention in the Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania implemented by our team from the Institute of Public Health (IPH), Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo) in collaboration with the COVID-19 response team in the Moshi Municipality. We conducted an education session with the COVID-19 response team and together brainstormed transmission hotspots and which interventions would be most feasible in their settings. The first hotspot identified was crowded local market spaces. Suggested interventions included targeted and mass public health education through the engagement of market opinion leaders, public announcements, and radio shows. We conducted participatory rural appraisal techniques to enable market vendors and clients to visualize two-meter distances and provided a prototype hand-washing facility that was foot operated. We found mass public health educational campaigns essential to inform and update the public about COVID-19 pandemic and to address rumors and misinformation, which hampers compliance with public health interventions. Coordinated efforts among stakeholders in the country are necessary to develop context-specific prevention and case management strategies following the national and international guidelines. Local ownership of recommended interventions is necessary to ensure compliance.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção das Mãos/instrumentação , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Liderança , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Aplicativos Móveis , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Instalações Privadas , Saúde Pública , População Rural , Participação dos Interessados , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(11): e0008828, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147222

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the year, the world's attention has rightly been focused on the spread of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the implementation of drastic mitigation strategies to limit disease transmission. However, public health information campaigns tailored to children are very rare. Now more than ever, at a time when some governments are taking populations out of lockdown and youth are returning to schools, children around the world need to fully grasp the modes of transmission of the disease, the health risks, the scientific notions of the immune system, the value of barrier measures, and the progress of scientific research. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, comics can be very useful for communicating quickly and effectively abstract and important information to children who might be under the influence of a large amount of sometimes contradictory information. Conveying precise, reliable, and accessible information to children is key in a world overwhelmingly impacted by the outbreak. This should be the role and the responsibility of world health official leaders and governments in compliance with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. In partnership with mainstream medias, consortia of scientists, communication experts, and education specialists, it is urgent that world leaders engage children in this worldwide public health fight.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Histórias em Quadrinhos como Assunto , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Mídias Sociais
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(10): 1449-1455, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047705

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge level of individuals who attended a first aid training update program, and to determine the factors affecting their approaches in such cases. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample of the research consists of 747 individuals (laypersons) who applied to the first aid training update organized in an institution in Istanbul providing health education between 01.02.2018 and 01.08.2018, and who agreed to participate in the research. These first aid trainings are provided by healthcare professionals who have first aid certificate of authority within the scope of first aid regulation. Data were collected using the "Participant Information Form" and the "Basic First Aid Knowledge Level Evaluation Form". Results: The participants administered first aid within the three years of time following their basic first aid training course (24.6%). They administered first aid primarily in emergency cases of fainting (29.6%) and the majority of them (95.7%) did not perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation during their basic first aid effort. Of the participants, 73.9% answered incorrectly the question: "The letter 'A' in the abbreviation ABC of basic life support administration stands for airway". In our study, it was also found that there was a significant relationship between the total knowledge score and the number of trainings update and first aid intervention in the last three years (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: It was determined that individuals had a high level of knowledge about basic first aid and one-quarter of the participants had administered first aid in the last three years. In order for individuals not to lose their knowledge and skills gained through first aid training; updating training and providing first aid training programs to individuals in society can be a guide for bystanders who provide faster and sufficient first aid in cases of emergency.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Primeiros Socorros/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Turquia
4.
Harm Reduct J ; 17(1): 77, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Technology can enable syringe service programs (SSPs) and other community-based organizations (CBOs) operating under a harm reduction framework to work with an increased number of clients and can also enable organizations to offer services more effectively (e.g., offering HIV testing in ways participants may be more likely to accept). In the current time of COVID-19 social distancing, technology can also help organizations more safely provide services to people with compromised immune systems and to clients who might otherwise not be reached. However, technology projects implemented in harm reduction settings are frequently conceptualized and developed by researchers or technology specialists rather than by SSP staff or clients. METHODS: To more effectively meet the needs of SSPs and other CBOs across the USA, our team conducted qualitative interviews with 16 individuals who have extensive backgrounds working in the field of harm reduction. Interviews were digitally recorded and professionally transcribed, and the transcripts were checked for accuracy by the interviewers. The resulting transcripts were coded and analyzed to determine emerging themes. RESULTS: Interviewees mentioned the ability of technology to deliver consistent quality messaging to multiple clients at the same time and the potential to customize or tailor technology-based messaging to specific client populations as positive benefits. Clear barriers to technology use also emerged, in particular regarding privacy, data security, and the need to maintain client trust when discussing sensitive issues (e.g., illicit drug use). CONCLUSIONS: Technology offers the potential to deliver consistently high-quality health communication and maintain contact with clients who may have no other access to care. If designed and managed effectively, technology can also address issues related to providing services during times when physical contact is limited due to COVID-19 social distancing measures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Redução do Dano , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Programas de Troca de Agulhas/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravação de Videoteipe/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mídias Sociais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(4): 579-585, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005122

RESUMO

Not only do epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), and the current Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) cause the loss of millions of lives, but they also cost the global economy billions of dollars. Consequently, there is an urgent need to formulate interventions that will help control their spread and impact when they emerge. The education of young girls and women is one such historical approach. They are usually the vulnerable targets of disease outbreaks - they are most likely to be vehicles for the spread of epidemics due to their assigned traditional roles in resource-limited countries. Based on our work and the work of others on educational interventions, we propose six critical components of a cost-effective and sustainable response to promote girl-child education in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por Coronavirus , Identidade de Gênero , Saúde Global , Educação em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/educação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
7.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(3): 483-485, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880394

RESUMO

As a global crisis, COVID-19 has underscored the challenge of disseminating evidence-based public health recommendations amidst a rapidly evolving, often uncensored information ecosystem-one fueled in part by an unprecedented degree of connected afforded through social media. In this piece, we explore an underdiscussed intersection between the visual arts and public health, focusing on the use of validated infographics and other forms of visual communication to rapidly disseminate accurate public health information during the COVID-19 pandemic. We illustrate our arguments through our own experience in creating a validated infographic for patients, now disseminated through social media and other outlets across the world in nearly 20 translations. Visual communication offers a creative and practical medium to bridge critical health literacy gaps, empower diverse patient communities through evidence-based information and facilitate public health advocacy during this pandemic and the 'new normal' that lies ahead.


Assuntos
Recursos Audiovisuais , Betacoronavirus , Gráficos por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Pública
8.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 26(6): 534-538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890254

RESUMO

Women face unprecedented challenges imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging evidence suggests that women are unduly burdened by inequitable access to economic, health, and social resources during the pandemic. For many women, COVID-19 has presented new urgency to challenges and illuminates unique issues long encountered. Gendered roles such as family caregiving and frontline occupations increase women's exposure to COVID-19 infections and critical outcomes. To increase dialogue around COVID-19's impact on women, the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health convened a moderated virtual town hall on April 25, 2020, with 2 sexual and reproductive health experts. The town hall was the second in a series to increase public awareness of COVID-19's impact on vulnerable populations. This report highlights policy and practice implications that are particularly relevant for engaging key populations and delivering information to increase public awareness of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Alabama , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Gravidez , Autocuidado
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238833, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Brief interventions based on personalized feedback have shown promising results in reducing risky alcohol use among university students. We investigated the effects of activating deliberative (predecisional) or implemental (postdecisional) mindsets on the effectiveness of a standardized brief intervention, the ASSIST-linked Brief Intervention. This intervention comprises a personalized feedback and a decisional balance exercise. We hypothesized that participants in a deliberative mindset should show better outcomes related to risk perception and behavior than participants in an implemental mindset. METHODS: A sample of 257 students provided baseline measures on risk perception, readiness to change, and alcohol use. Of those, 64 students with risky alcohol use were randomly allocated to one of two mindset induction conditions-deliberative or implemental mindset. Thereafter, they received the ASSIST-linked Brief Intervention and completed self-report questionnaires on changes in risk perception, alcohol use, and readiness to change at post-intervention and four-week follow-up. RESULTS: In contrast to our hypotheses, the four-weeks follow-up revealed that participants in the implemental mindset consumed significantly less alcohol than participants in a deliberative mindset did. The former decreased and the latter increased their alcohol intake; resistance to the brief intervention was stronger in the latter condition. However, neither deliberative nor implemental mindset participants showed any changes in risk perceptions or in their readiness to change alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that mindset induction is a powerful moderator of the effects of the ASSIST-linked Brief Intervention. We argue that systematic research on mindset effects on brief intervention techniques aimed to reduce risky alcohol use is highly needed in order to identify the processes involved with commitment and resistance being the main candidates.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941520

RESUMO

Good Participatory Practice (GPP) guidelines support and direct community engagement practices in biomedical HIV prevention trials, however no standardized metrics define the implementation and evaluation of these practices. Collaboratively, the Community Program staff of the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) and the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) created a metric to describe, monitor, and evaluate one component of GPP, recruitment practices, in two HIV monoclonal Antibody Mediated Prevention (AMP) clinical trials, HVTN 703/HPTN 081 and HVTN 704/HPTN 085. Through consultation with community representatives from each clinical research site (hereafter "site(s)"), who made up the study Community Working Groups, recruitment strategy descriptors were developed for both trials to characterize responses to "How did you hear about the AMP study?" The Community Working Groups also helped to define and establish time points that were selected to allow comparisons across sites. Data were collected by 43 of 46 clinical research sites from January 1, 2017 to February 28, 2018. All 43 sites used multiple recruitment strategies successfully, but strategies varied by region. Globally, referrals was the most efficient and effective recruitment strategy as evidenced by the screening: enrollment ratio of 2.2:1 in Africa, and 2.1:1 in the Americas/Switzerland. Print materials were also valuable globally (3:1 Africa, 4.2:1 Americas/Switzerland). In Africa, in-person outreach was also quite effective (2.3:1) and led to the most enrollments (748 of 1186, 63%). In the Americas/Switzerland, outreach was also effective (2.6:1), but internet use resulted in the most screens (1893 of 4275, 44%) and enrollments (677 of 1531, 44%), compared to 12 of 2887 (0.4%) and 2 of 1204 (0.1%) in Africa, respectively. Standardized metrics and data collection aid meaningful comparisons of optimal community engagement methods for trial enrollment. Internet strategies had better success in the Americas/Switzerland than in sub-Saharan African countries. Data are essential in outreach staff efforts to improve screening-to-enrollment ratios. Because the effectiveness of recruitment strategies varies by region, it is critical that clinical research sites tailor community engagement and recruitment strategies to their local environment, and that they are supported with resources enabling use of a range of approaches.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Características Culturais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Participação dos Interessados , África ao Sul do Saara , América , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Suíça , Vacinação/métodos
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008486, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976501

RESUMO

In most endemic sub-Saharan African countries, repeated infections with soil-transmitted helminth (STH) occur as early as six weeks after the end of mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole. In this study, we designed a new health educational board game Worms and Ladders and evaluated its potential to complement MDA with albendazole and reduce reinfection rates through the promotion of good hygiene practices among school-aged children. The evaluation employed a randomized control trial (RCT) design. Baseline knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) relating to STH were obtained using a questionnaire from 372 pupils across six schools in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control group, with the former and latter receiving Worms and Ladders and the common Snake and Ladder board game respectively. Fresh stool samples were also collected at baseline for STH diagnosis before administering 400mg single dose albendazole. Follow-up assessments of STH burden and KAP were conducted three and six months' post-intervention. Data generated from the study were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software, with confidence interval set at 95%. Prevalence of STH dropped from 25.0% to 10.4% in the intervention group and 49.4% to 33.3% in the control group at three months' post-intervention. The prevalence further dropped to 5.6% in the intervention group at six months' post-intervention. However, it increased to 37.2% in the control group at six months' post-intervention. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in prevalence after intervention among the groups. KAP on transmission, control and prevention of STH significantly improved (p<0.05) from 5.2% to 97.9% in the intervention group compared to 6.2% to 7.1% in the control group. The Worms and Ladders board game shows the potential to teach and promote good hygiene behavior among SAC. These findings posit the newly developed game as a reliable tool to complement mass drug administration campaigns for STH control.


Assuntos
Jogos Recreativos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 663, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that health care students and practitioners are not immune to stigma towards people living with HIV (PLHIV). This attitude could lead to poor quality of care if it remains uncorrected. However, little is known about dietetic students' acceptance of PLHIV despite their substantial role in treatment. This study aimed to measure the extent of knowledge and stigma towards PLHIV among dietetic students and to determine the associated factors using the attribution theory. METHODS: Students from three dietetics schools in Indonesia (n = 516) were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Survey questions covered demographic information, interaction with PLHIV, access to information sources, cultural values, and beliefs as predictor variables. The outcome variables were comprehensive knowledge of HIV, HIV and nutrition-specific knowledge, and attitudes. Analyses with linear regression and the stepwise selection were performed to determine factors related to the outcome. RESULTS: The levels of HIV comprehensive knowledge and HIV-nutrition specific knowledge among dietetic students were low, as indicated by the average score of 19.9 ± 0.19 (maximum score = 35) and 8.0 ± 0.11 (maximum score = 15), respectively. The level of negative attitudes towards PLHIV was high, with 99.6% of participants reported having a high stigma score. Types of university affiliation (public or private), beliefs and values, exposure to HIV discourse, access to printed media, and years of study were significantly related to HIV comprehensive knowledge (p < 0.05). Nutrition-specific knowledge was also correlated with university affiliation, beliefs and values, participation in HIV discussion, and years of study (p < 0.05). HIV comprehensive knowledge, university affiliation, discussion participation, and ethnicities were associated with attitudes (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Awareness and acceptance of PLHIV must be further improved throughout dietetic training to ensure patients' quality of care since students represent future dietary care providers. Considering the consistent findings that affiliation to education institution correlates with HIV knowledge and attitude, some examinations concerning the curriculum and teaching conduct might be necessary.


Assuntos
Dietética/educação , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estigma Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Indonésia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
13.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 42-51, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994615

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of dietitian-led education on using the low fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyols (FODMAP) diet in adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Christchurch, New Zealand. METHODS: Patients with IBS (n=25) were referred by their general practitioner to attend a group education programme. The number recruited and subsequent attendance were used to evaluate feasibility. The Structured Assessment of Gastrointestinal Symptoms (SAGIS) questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were compared at baseline and at follow-up. Semi-structured telephone interviews assessed the acceptability of the education programme. RESULTS: Of the 25 recruited participants, 17 attended the group education programme. The SAGIS score decreased significantly (p<0.05) between baseline (mean 1.844) and follow-up (mean 0.607). Similarly, there was non-significant trend of lower HADS anxiety and depression scores from baseline to follow-up. Symptomatic improvement was reported by 13 participants (76.5%), while two participants (11.8%) did not improve and two others (11.8%) had not implemented the diet. Overall, participants were positive and grateful for the improvement the diet had made to their symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: A dietitian-led low FODMAP group education programme in Christchurch adults with IBS was found to be both feasible and effective.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/dietoterapia , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 63-70, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994617

RESUMO

AIMS: To empower a large whanau (extended family) with a history of severe premature heart disease and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). METHODS: After broad consultation a Hui was held to discuss how to better manage this issue to ensure present and future generations were appropriately screened and treated. RESULTS: A closed social media page with detailed information on how to manage and screen FH that includes a family tree (for those who consent) has been created. The whanau, facilitated by health professionals, have ownership of their health. This has led to an uptake of screening and treatment for FH with whanau who are now able to inform local health professionals about their disorder. CONCLUSION: FH is the most common dominant genetic disorder in humans and causes premature heart disease and death. Current approaches are dependent on index patients presenting for cascade screening and do not incorporate the needs and views of the extended whanau. Establishing a partnership with the whanau and giving back control of health information is crucial to ensure equity. A national systematic programme is also needed to manage this condition with important health outcomes that can be averted if treated from a young age.


Assuntos
Família/etnologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/etnologia , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/etnologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/terapia , Programas de Rastreamento , Nova Zelândia
15.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 53(4): 289-292, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752599

RESUMO

Yemen has been faced with the worst cholera epidemic of modern times, with more than 1 million suspected cases and 3000 deaths at the time of writing. This problem is largely due to the longstanding civil war between pro-government forces and the Houthi armed movement, which has severely damaged already vulnerable sanitation and healthcare facilities and systems in the country. It is further compounded by a dire lack of basic amenities, chronic malnutrition, and unfavourable weather conditions. Another contributory component may be aerial transfer by cholera-infected chironomid insects. To contain the spread of cholera in Yemen, a nation-wide armistice should be negotiated, and national and local committees must be convened to coordinate efforts on the ground. Community isolation facilities with proper sanitation, reliable disposal systems, and a clean water supply should be set up to isolate and treat sick patients. The continuity of vaccination programmes should be ensured. Public health campaigns to educate local communities about good hygiene practices and nutrition are also necessary. The One Health paradigm emphasizes a multi-sectoral and transdisciplinary understanding and approach to prevent and mitigate the threat of communicable diseases. This paradigm is highly applicable to the ongoing cholera crisis in Yemen, as it demands a holistic and whole-of-society approach at the local, regional, and national levels. The key stakeholders and warring parties in Yemen must work towards a lasting ceasefire during these trying times, especially given the extra burden from the mounting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak worldwide.


Assuntos
Cólera/prevenção & controle , Epidemias , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Saúde Única , Saúde Pública/métodos , Cólera/diagnóstico , Cólera/terapia , Humanos , Iêmen
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19338, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first case of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia was confirmed on March 3, 2020. Saudi Arabia, like many other countries worldwide, implemented lockdown of most public and private services in response to the pandemic and established population movement restrictions nationwide. With the implementation of these strict mitigation regulations, technology and digital solutions have enabled the provision of essential services. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to highlight how Saudi Arabia has used digital technology during the COVID-19 pandemic in the domains of public health, health care services, education, telecommunication, commerce, and risk communication. METHODS: We documented the use of digital technology in Saudi Arabia during the pandemic using publicly available official announcements, press briefings and releases, news clips, published data, peer-reviewed literature, and professional discussions. RESULTS: Saudi Arabia's government and private sectors combined developed and launched approximately 19 apps and platforms that serve public health functions and provide health care services. A detailed account of each is provided. Education processes continued using an established electronic learning infrastructure with a promising direction toward wider adoption in the future. Telecommunication companies exhibited smooth collaboration as well as innovative initiatives to support ongoing efforts. Risk communication activities using social media, websites, and SMS text messaging followed best practice guides. CONCLUSIONS: The Saudi Vision 2030 framework, released in 2017, has paved the path for digital transformation. COVID-19 enabled the promotion and testing of this transition. In Saudi Arabia, the use of artificial intelligence in integrating different data sources during future outbreaks could be further explored. Also, decreasing the number of mobile apps and merging their functions could increase and facilitate their use.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis/provisão & distribução , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
18.
Am Heart J ; 228: 17-26, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary preventive therapies play a key role in the prevention of adverse events after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, adherence to secondary preventive drugs after CABG is often poor. With the increasing penetration of smartphones, health-related smartphone applications might provide an opportunity to improve medication adherence. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of using a smartphone-based application to improve medication adherence in patients after CABG. METHODS: The Measurement and Improvement Studies of Surgical coronary revascularizatION: medication adherence (MISSION-2) study is a multicenter randomized controlled trial that planned to enroll over 1000 patients who underwent isolated CABG at one of four large teaching hospitals in China; all enrolled participants had access to a smartphone and were able to operate at least three smartphone applications. The investigators randomly assigned the participants to one of two groups: (1) the intervention group with an advanced smartphone application for 6 months which was designed specifically for this trial and did not exist before. Participants could receive medication reminders and cardiac health education by the smartphone application or (2) the control group with usual care. The primary outcome was CABG secondary preventive medication adherence as measured by the translated Chinese version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) at 6 months after randomization. The secondary outcomes were mortality, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), cardiovascular rehospitalization, self-reported secondary preventive medication use after 6 months of follow-up, blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), and self-reported smoking status. All analyses were conducted using the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: A total of 1000 patients (mean age, 57.28 [SD, 9.09] years; 85.5% male) with coronary heart disease after CABG were enrolled between September 2015 and September 2016 and were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 501) or control group (n = 499). At 6 months, the proportion of low-adherence participants, categorized by MMAS-8 scores, was 11.8% in the intervention group and 11.7% in the control group (RR = 1.005, 95% CI 0.682 to 1.480, P = 1.000). Similar results were found in sensitivity analyses that considered participants who withdrew from the study, or were lost to follow-up as nonadherent. There were no significant differences in the secondary clinical outcome measures, and there were no significant differences in the primary outcome across the subgroups tested. In the intervention group, the proportion of participants who used and operated the application during the first month after CABG was 88.1%; however, the use rate decreased sharply from 42.5% in the second month to 9.2% by the end of the study (6 months). CONCLUSIONS: A smartphone-based application supporting secondary prevention among patients after CABG did not lead to a greater adherence to secondary preventive medications. The limited room for improvement in medication adherence and the low participants' engagement with the smartphone applications might account for these non-significant outcomes.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença das Coronárias , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Smartphone , Software , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Doença das Coronárias/psicologia , Doença das Coronárias/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Alerta/instrumentação , Prevenção Secundária/métodos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore how to integrate the "best" practice into nursing of venous thromboembolism (VTE) based on the integrated-Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) framework. METHODS: A mixed-methods design was used. A steering group for clinical evidence implementation (EI) was established to conduct pre-implementation baseline surveys, a thorough analysis of the evidence, and an analysis of the survey results. The hindering and enabling factors associated with the clinical implementation of the evidence were analysed based on the three core elements of i-PARIHS, to formulate the clinical implementation plan for VTE nursing evidence. On-site expert reviews and focus group interviews were used to evaluate the feasibility of the draft plan, make adjustments, and finalize the evidence-based practice plan, which was then put into practice and evaluated. RESULTS: A new nursing process, a health education manual and a nursing quality checklist on VTE has been established and proved to be appropriate through the implementation. Compliance with evidence related to VTE nursing increased significantly in the two units, with better compliance in unit B than unit A. The knowledge, attitude and behaviour scores for VTE nursing increased substantially in both nurses and patients. CONCLUSION: The EI programme of incorporating the "best" evidence on VTE nursing into clinical practice using the i-PARIHS framework demonstrated feasibility, appropriateness and effectiveness and could serve as a reference.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Adulto , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Médicos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237084, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV and violence prevention programs increasingly seek to transform gender norms among participants, yet how to do so at the community level, and subsequent pathways to behavior change, remain poorly understood. We assessed shifts in endorsement of equitable gender norms, and intimate partner violence (IPV), during the three-year community-based trial of Tsima, an HIV 'treatment as prevention' intervention in rural South Africa. METHODS: Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted with men and women ages 18-49 years, in 8 intervention and 7 control communities, at 2014-baseline (n = 1,149) and 2018-endline (n = 1,189). Endorsement of equitable gender norms was measured by the GEM Scale. Intent-to-treat analyses assessed intervention effects and change over time. Qualitative research with 59 community members and 38 staff examined the change process. RESULTS: Nearly two-thirds of men and half of women in intervention communities had heard of the intervention/seen the logo; half of these had attended a two-day workshop. Regression analyses showed a 15% improvement in GEM Scale score over time, irrespective of the intervention, among men (p<0.001) and women (p<0.001). Younger women (ages 18-29) had a decreased odds of reporting IPV in intervention vs. control communities (aOR 0.53; p<0.05). Qualitative data suggest that gender norms shifts may be linked to increased media access (via satellite TV/smartphones) and consequent exposure to serial dramas modeling equitable relationships and negatively portraying violence. Tsima's couple communication/conflict resolution skills-building activities, eagerly received by intervention participants, appear to have further supported IPV reductions. CONCLUSIONS: There was a population-level shift towards greater endorsement of equitable gender norms between 2014-2018, potentially linked with rapid escalation in media access. There was also an intervention effect on reported IPV among young women, likely owing to improved couple communication. Societal-level gender norm shifts may create enabling environments for interventions to find new traction for violence and HIV-related behavior change.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , África do Sul
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