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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18447, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895773

RESUMO

Prenatal examination is a pivotal measure to prevent high-risk pregnancy and to ensure the safety of both mother and infant. However, pregnant women in Linzhi Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) often cannot obtain regular prenatal examinations due to limited accessibility of healthcare facilities, shortage of medical staff, and lack of medical equipment. Health education is an important approach to solve this ever-growing issue of pregnant women in rural Tibet.To evaluate the efficacy of flexible methods of health education programs on improving compliance among pregnant women from Tibet, China.In May to November of 2018, a total of 168 pregnant women receiving prenatal examination in a tertiary referral hospital in Linzhi Prefecture were recruited and randomly assigned to a control (n = 85) and intervention group (n = 83). All pregnant women were followed up until delivery. The pregnant women in the control group received regular prenatal examination and health education programs. Other than receiving routine prenatal care, participants of the interventional group also voluntarily joined the WeChat Social Messaging platform. Online resources posted by the maternity schools provided convenience and flexibility for the pregnant woman. The number of prenatal examinations was statistically significant between the 2 groups. The effect of flexible patterns of health education programs on improving the compliance of pregnant women in Tibet was assessed.The number of prenatal examinations in the intervention group was 2.646 times, which was higher than that in the control group (P < .01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that interventional measures and ethnicity were the influencing factors of the number of prenatal examinations for pregnant women in Linzhi after the adjustment of age, history of adverse pregnancy, education level, ethnicity, multiparity, gestational complications, and medical history. The number of prenatal examinations for the pregnant Tibetan women was 0.535 times lower compared with that of the pregnant Han women (95% CI: -0.089, 1.157, P = .091).Flexible forms of health education during the antenatal period can effectively increase the compliance of pregnant women in Tibet.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/métodos , Cooperação do Paciente , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Rede Social , Tibet
2.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(1-2): 85-93, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512796

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine patients' experience of dietary habits and nutritional counselling in the early period during hospitalisation after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). BACKGROUND: Undergoing CABG, patients have two different nutritional needs, extra proteins and calories for the first period after surgery and a heart-healthy diet when the recovery period is over. These needs can be difficult to manage for the patients. DESIGN: Qualitative study. METHODS: Interviews were conducted and analysed within a phenomenological-hermeneutic frame inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur. Patients undergoing CABG were interviewed 4-5 days after surgery at Odense University Hospital from March to May, 2017. The study adhered to the COREQ guidelines. RESULTS: In total, 15 patients were interviewed (mean age 65 years, 87% men). After analysing the interviews following themes emerged, "Different needs-the nutritional jungle", "Food and heart-the lacking attention," and "The force of habits-being under the influence from spouses on dietary habits". CONCLUSION: The interviewed patients had no or only a little knowledge about how to eat after heart surgery. In general, they experienced a lack of attention to nutritional counselling by the nursing staff during hospitalisation. Furthermore, the health behaviour of men seems to be different from women's, and therefore, interventions aiming at optimising men's health might be prioritised. Finally, spouses have a great influence on eating habits, why they should be involved in nutritional counselling. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study provides important and relevant knowledge about patients' lacking knowledge about nutrition. When planning nutritional measures, whether it is promoting healing after heart surgery or preventing progression of arteriosclerosis, the study contributes with suggestions as to which factors should be considered in this process-men's health behaviour and spouses' influence on dietary habits in the household.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/enfermagem , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Idoso , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/psicologia , Aconselhamento Diretivo/métodos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(4): 271-282, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of doping substances is growing not only in young athletes performing competitive and non-competitive sports, but also in amateur sports, thereby representing a social and public health problem. The aim of this study was to measure knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and drugs and their effects, among students of secondary schools, and to assess the effectiveness of a health education intervention. "Enjoy the Sport- the school against doping and addiction 2.0" is a program developed to discourage the use of drugs, in particular doping drugs, by introducing information on the origins, on the effects of drugs and examples of appropriate lifestyles. This project was conceived by C.I.S.C.O.D. (Comitato Italiano Sport Contro Droga), an association of the C.O.N.I. and carried out with its support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The "Enjoy" project was a study with a one-arm experimental design and with a pre-post evaluation. A multiple-choice questionnaire was used to measure adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and its effects. A descriptive analysis and post-pre intervention comparison was performed with the McNemar test. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in participants' knowledge of doping substances indicated by the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) (p<0.001) and a better understanding of the meaning of the term "doping". A decrease in the number of adolescents who would use doping substances (pre = 0.06%; post = 0.0%) was observed, as well as an increase in the number of adolescents who do not consider fair that athletes of any level should use substances that alter their performance (pre = 83.7%; post = 85%). A significant increase was observed in the proportion of participants who believe that athletes should not use doping substances because they are harmful to the human organism (pre = 38.6%; post = 51.7%) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The project "Enjoy the Sport" contributed to increasing the health literacy of secondary school students about doping (and consequent awareness of the negative aspects of drug use). Schools, therefore, are an appropriate setting for implementing educational interventions for the prevention of doping. However, it is fundamental to integrate knowledge and action, especially in the context of family, sport and sports associations.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762911

RESUMO

Introduction: Cervical cancer is a major cause of death amongst women around the world. In Ghana, it accounts for over 2,119 female deaths and about 3,151 new diagnoses of the disease. It is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, making it difficult to treat. This study aims at assessing the knowledge on risk factors, prevention and treatment of cervical cancer among women in Kenyase Bosore, Ghana. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among women in Bosore Kenyase, Ghana. A total of 200 women were selected for the studies using the convenience sampling technique. Structured questionnaires were used for data collection and statistical package for social sciences application was also used to analyse the data. Pearson chi-square test was used to find associations between knowledge and awareness level and socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Results: Overall, 9.7% of the respondents had high knowledge on cervical cancer, 20.6% had moderate knowledge and 69.7% had low knowledge on cervical cancer. There was a significant association between educational background (p=0.000) and awareness level of the respondents. There was also a significant association between the occupation (p=0.003), educational background (p=0.000) and knowledge level of the respondents. Conclusion: The knowledge level of the respondents was very low. Specifically, the respondents had inadequate knowledge on risk factors, signs and symptoms, prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. The authors recommend the intensification of cervical cancer education in Kenyase Bosore, and Ghana as a whole.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Orv Hetil ; 160(46): 1816-1820, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707819

RESUMO

Basic life support (BLS) teaching by peer-educators to school-age students was studied by evaluating their effectiveness. BLS resuscitation was taught by the internationally accepted four-stage skill teaching approach. The effectiveness of the training was followed by sociological measuring instruments (n = 91). Compared to the students' previous knowledge and attitudes about resuscitation, an increased willingness to adapt to an unexpected situation can be observed besides acquiring a reproducible method of CPR. The findings did not show significant age differences. Sensitivity and technical training in lay resuscitation is a successful educational process. The applied peer-education model is suitable for transferring resuscitation knowledge and skills. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(46): 1816-1820.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(10): 1300-1307, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 1) To evaluate the efficiency of a new method of training laypeople on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). 2) To assess previous knowledge of the participants. METHODS: Instructors were trained according to the 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines, with emphasis on CPR. Dummies made with PET bottles were used, and a questionnaire was applied to the participants before and after training. Statistical analysis was performed in the R commander program. Participants with incomplete documents were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Out of 101 participants, 96 were included: 69 lay people, 17 health professionals, and ten health students. There was an improvement in the overall performance after training (mean pre: 62.7%, mean post: 75.8%, p <0.01), also present in the following main concepts: "mouth-to-mouth breathing is not necessary" (p <0.01), "risk of contamination" (p <0.01), "compression technique" (p <0.01). The concepts "recognition of severity" and "what is chest compression" did not improve, but had good pre-test means, 96.8% and 81.2%. There was no statistical difference in the knowledge between the groups (laypeople vs. health professionals and students, pre=0,06 e post=0,33). CONCLUSION: The tools used in training were efficient. However, further studies are necessary to assess the long-term impact of this intervention.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Escolaridade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17667, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689780

RESUMO

Post-stroke depression (PSD) constitutes an important complication of stroke, leading to great disability. After stroke, the prevalence rate of depression is about 30%. Depression also affects rehabilitation motivation, delays function recovery, and increases family and social burden. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of social support on depression in chronic stroke patients and the relationship between demographic and disease characteristics. Total samples were randomly divided into an intervention group (n = 31) and a control group (n = 31). Sixteen social support interventions were performed over 8 weeks. Social support programs were implemented 2 times a week. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the second week, 4th week, 8th week, and 4 weeks after the end of the study using the 10-item Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression Short Form (CES-D10). There was a significant correlation between depression and the economic status of the patients with chronic stroke, satisfaction in leisure, the presence or absence of caregivers, the duration of stroke, and with or without pain. A significant difference was found between two groups after social support for 8 weeks. Our findings suggest that remission of PSD needs at least 8 weeks of social support.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Apoio Social , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Cuidadores , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 325, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692871

RESUMO

Introduction: Anaemia in pregnancy remains a critical public health concern in many African settings; but its determinants are not clear. The purpose of this study was to assess anaemia at antenatal care initiation and associated factors among pregnant women in a local district of Ghana. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 378 pregnant women attending antenatal care at two health facilities were surveyed. Data on haemoglobin level, helminths and malaria infection status at first antenatal care registration were extracted from antenatal records booklets of each pregnant women. Questionnaires were then used to collect data on socio-demographic and dietary variables. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to assess factors associated with anaemia. Results: The prevalence of anaemia was 56%, with mild anaemia being the highest form (31.0%). Anaemia prevalence was highest (73.2%) among respondents aged 15-19 years. Factors that significantly independently reduced the odds of anaemia in pregnancy after controlling for potential confounders were early (within first trimester) antenatal care initiation (AOR=5.01; 95% CI =1.41-17.76; p=0.013) and consumption of egg three or more times in a week (AOR=0.30; 95% CI=0.15-0.81; P=0.014). Conclusion: Health facility and community-based preconception and conception care interventions must not only aim to educate women and community members about the importance of early ANC initiation, balanced diet, protein and iron-rich foods sources that may reduce anaemia, but must also engage community leaders and men to address food taboos and cultural prohibitions that negatively affect pregnant woman.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 694, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group-based Diabetes Prevention Programs (DPP), aligned with recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, promote clinically significant weight loss and reduce cardio-metabolic risks. Studies have examined implementation of the DPP in community settings, but less is known about its integration in healthcare systems. In 2010, a group-based DPP known as the Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) was implemented within a large healthcare delivery system in Northern California, across three geographically distinct regional administration divisions of the organization within 12 state counties, with varying underlying socio-demographics. The regional divisions implemented the program independently, allowing for natural variation in its real-world integration. We leveraged this natural experiment to qualitatively assess the implementation of a DPP in this healthcare system and, especially, its fidelity to the original GLB curriculum and potential heterogeneity in implementation across clinics and regional divisions. METHODS: Using purposive sampling, we conducted semi-structured interviews with DPP lifestyle coaches. Data were analyzed using mixed-method techniques, guided by an implementation outcomes framework consisting of eight constructs: acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, cost, feasibility, fidelity, penetration, and sustainability. RESULTS: We conducted 33 interviews at 20 clinics across the three regional administrative divisions. Consistencies in implementation of the program were found across regions in terms of satisfaction with the evidence base (acceptability), referral methods (adoption), eligibility criteria (fidelity), and strategies to increase retention and effectiveness (sustainability). Heterogeneity in implementation across regions were found in all categories, including: the number and frequency of sessions (fidelity); program branding (adoption); lifestyle coach training (adoption), and patient-facing cost (cost). Lifestyle coaches expressed differing attitudes about curriculum content (acceptability) and suitability of educational level (appropriateness). While difficulties with recruitment were common across regions (feasibility), strategies used to address these challenges differed (sustainability). CONCLUSIONS: Variation exists in the implementation of the DPP within a large multi-site healthcare system, revealing a dynamic and important tension between retaining fidelity to the original program and tailoring the program to meet the local needs. Moreover, certain challenges across sites may represent opportunities for considering alternative implementation to anticipate these barriers. Further research is needed to explore how differences in implementation domains impact program effectiveness.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , California , Aconselhamento , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Perda de Peso
11.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(9): 560-573, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588092

RESUMO

Objectives Preventing frailty is a crucial issue in aging societies such as Japan. In 2011, we launched an action research project in Yabu City, Hyogo Prefecture, to develop effective community-based strategies to prevent frailty in the elderly. We attempted to introduce community-based frailty prevention classes in every administrative district with the help of the senior workforce at Silver Human Resources Centers. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and the applicability to different communities of this strategy, which will be called the "Yabu model."Methods Using PAIREM (Plan, Adoption, Implementation, Reach, Effectiveness, Maintenance) framework, we evaluated the effectiveness and the applicability to different communities of the Yabu model. To evaluate its effectiveness, we conducted a baseline and follow-up survey of residents aged 65 years or older in 2012 (n=7,287, 90.7% response rate) and 2017 (n=8,157, 85.7%), using a mailed self-administered questionnaire.Results (1) Plan: The idea was to establish a frailty prevention class (60 min/session, once a week) consisting of resistance exercises and nutritional or psychosocial programs (standard course, six months, 20 sessions/course; short course, one and a half months, 6 sessions/course; after the course, residents continued with the activities themselves). We planned to launch three classes in the first year (2014) and then to increase the number of classes by ten each year after the second year. (2) Adoption: Out of 154 administrative districts, 36 (23.4%) held frailty prevention classes between 2014 and 2017. (3) Implementation: The median attendance rate for the standard or short course (number of times each participant attended/number of frailty prevention class sessions held) was 75.0%. (4) Reach: A total of 719 older people participated in the standard or short course. The participation rate in the administrative districts, where each frailty prevention class was held, was 32.8%, while at the city level it was 8.1%. (5) Effectiveness: Propensity score matching after multiple imputations were performed. While the prevalence of frailty in non-participants increased by 13.7% in the five years from 2012 to 2017, it only increased by 6.8% in participants. Compared to non-participants, program participants had a significantly lower prevalence odds ratio of frailty at the time of the follow-up survey (OR=0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.93). (6) Maintenance: After the standard or short course, 25 out of 26 communities (96.2%) continued the frailty prevention activities once a week.Conclusion The frailty prevention classes were adopted across many districts and lowered the participants' risk of frailty. Moreover, participants continued to engage in frailty prevention activities even after the course. These results indicate the Yabu model's effectiveness and its applicability for a different community.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eficiência Organizacional , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Japão
12.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(9): 582-592, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588094

RESUMO

Objective Many preventive care supporter (e.g. kaigo-yobo supporter) training programs, conducted to train community residents, are developed by municipalities. However, it is not necessary that only municipalities can train people effectively or efficiently. In this paper, we initially reviewed the relevant literature and clarified the definitions of concepts like "program contents" and "evaluation indicators," while also planning our own training programs. Later, we developed a program based on the review and examined the results.Methods The literature of the training program was examined, and the training program was developed based on the result. Four researchers and three public health nurses from a community general support center, in the Otsuchi Town of Iwate Prefecture, developed a training program from June to September 2017. The training program developed was then conducted from October to November 2017. To evaluate the participants' satisfaction with the program, a self-report survey was conducted. To evaluate the outcomes of the program, we measured their degree of comprehension of their community's challenges, before and after the program.Results The training program was divided into two parts following the literature review. In the first part, the content of the supporters' activities following the program was determined (Type A), and, in the second, the same content was evaluated by the participants within the program (Type B). Type A consisted of various aspects including both concrete knowledge and skills needed to conduct care preventiveactivities after the program. In Type B, there were many aspects-including both lectures and exercises-that aimed to increase the participants' awareness of community challenges, as well as inspection to learn about pioneering activities which helped them consider concrete care preventive activities following the program. In Otsuchi Town, we found it to be imperative for participants to consider how to respond to various situations and accordingly plan the training program for use in Type B. To evaluate the results, 12 participants were analyzed. Participants included two men and ten women, with an average age of 71.4±10.0 years [range: 53-88]. Comprehension levels of community challenges (3.1→4.1, P=0.046), as well as the confidence to actively involve themselves in their own preventive care strategies (3.4→4.0, P=0.035), significantly increased after involvement in the program. However, their confidence to work for community preventive care support groups (3.1→3.5, P=0.227) did not increase significantly.Conclusion We clarified certain viewpoints, such as the purpose, content, and evaluation indices of community care training programs, by reviewing the relevant literature. Based on the discovered viewpoints, we were then able to obtain certain results through implementing our own training programs, thereby significantly increasing participant comprehension and confidence levels.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Voluntários/educação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
13.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3186, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify in the scientific literature the technologies developed to promote health education for the community elderly. METHOD: integrative review that included original articles indexed by Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Cochrane databases, without restriction of time and language. Results were analyzed descriptively, in five analytical categories. RESULTS: Fifteen articles published on national and international journals were selected, with predominance of experimental studies that tested the effects of such technologies. The types of educational technology developed were printed materials, software and video, as well as mock-up and telephone support. Falls in the elderly were the most discussed theme. The studies have shown that the types of technology found are feasible to promote health education for the community elderly. CONCLUSION: The technologies developed to promote health education for the elderly were multiple and proved effective for use in community interventions.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Educacional/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Recursos Audiovisuais , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Software
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505892

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of applying a customized diabetes education program through pattern management (PM), using continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) results, on individual self-care behaviors and self-efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 2 diabetes who had never received diabetes education, enrolled from March to September 2017, were sequentially assigned to either PM education or control groups. In the PM education group, the CGMS test was first conducted one week before diabetes education and repeated three times by PM in order to obtain data on self-care behaviors and self-efficacy. These results were then compared before and after education at three and six months. The control group received the traditional diabetes education. Self-efficacy showed statistically significant interactions between the two groups over time, indicating a significant difference in the degree of self-efficacy between the PM education and control groups. Diabetes education by PM using CGMS result analysis improved life habits with a positive influence on self-care behaviors and self-efficacy for diabetes management. Further studies are needed to further develop and apply individual diabetes education programs in order to sustain the effects of self-care behaviors and self-efficacy in patients with diabetes who experience a decrease in self-efficacy after three months of education.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Idoso , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e48, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531626

RESUMO

School-age children are a social group in which blood collection for laboratory testing can be perceived as an invasive procedure, with low acceptance and tolerance of stakeholders. This problem could be circumvented by replacing serum samples with saliva. For this purpose, and to make the collection of saliva samples playful and instructive for children, educational activities on hygiene and toxoplasmosis transmission and prevention were performed using toys and audiovisual tools. The target audience consisted of 7-10 year-old children from low-income families who attended public schools in the city of São Paulo. Saliva samples were used in a previously described in-house Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) to detect anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies and establish the immunological status of each of the participants. One year later, children's memory and fixation of concepts regarding hygiene habits, as well as transmission and prevention of toxoplasmosis were tested in the same schools, by means of a questionnaire application, using students who did not participate in the first intervention as controls. The prevalence of positive anti- T. gondii IgG among students was 50% (82/164). One year later, 45 children had more knowledge on toxoplasmosis (28/45 vs 29/147) and they drew the cat's involvement in the transmission of toxoplasmosis more often than controls (28/45 vs 29/147). Sorted according to the presence of specific IgG in saliva, recovered positive students presented worse memory of the above cited knowledge as did saliva-negative IgG students, but both groups had isolated higher frequency of fixed knowledge than non-intervened students. Our data show that there is a high prevalence of T. gondii infection in school-children from low-income areas; saliva is an alternative to blood for anti- T. gondii IgG detection; and a one-day educational intervention in school-children was effective in promoting knowledge fixation on hygiene and toxoplasmosis transmission and prevention after one year.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Saliva/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1273, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SIPsmartER is a 6-month evidenced-based, multi-component behavioral intervention that targets sugar-sweetened beverages among adults. It consists of three in-person group classes, one teach-back call, and 11 automated phone calls. Given SIPsmartER's previously demonstrated effectiveness, understanding its adoption, implementation, and potential for integration within a system that reaches health disparate communities is important to enhance its public health impact. During this pilot dissemination and implementation trial, SIPsmartER was delivered by trained staff from local health districts (delivery agents) in rural, Appalachian Virginia. SIPsmartER's execution was supported by consultee-centered implementation strategies. METHODS: In this mixed-methods process evaluation, adoption and implementation indicators of the program and its implementation strategy (e.g., fidelity, feasibility, appropriateness, acceptability) were measured using tracking logs, delivery agent surveys and interviews, and fidelity checklists. Quantitative data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were inductively coded. RESULTS: Delivery agents implemented SIPsmartER to the expected number of cohorts (n = 12), recruited 89% of cohorts, and taught 86% of expected small group classes with > 90% fidelity. The planned implementation strategies were also executed with high fidelity. Delivery agents completing the two-day training, pre-lesson meetings, fidelity checklists, and post-lesson meetings at rates of 86, 75, 100, and 100%, respectively. Additionally, delivery agents completed 5% (n = 3 of 66) and 10% (n = 6 of 59) of teach-back and missed class calls, respectively. On survey items using 6-point scales, delivery agents reported, on average, higher feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability related to delivering the group classes (range 4.3 to 5.6) than executing missed class and teach-back calls (range 2.6 to 4.6). They also, on average, found the implementation strategy activities to be helpful (range 4.9 to 6.0). Delivery agents identified strengths and weakness related to recruitment, lesson delivery, call completion, and the implementation strategy. CONCLUSIONS: In-person classes and the consultee-centered implementation strategies were viewed as acceptable, appropriate, and feasible and were executed with high fidelity. However, implementation outcomes for teach-back and missed class calls and recruitment were not as strong. Findings will inform the future full-scale dissemination and implementation of SIPsmartER, as well as other evidence-based interventions, into rural health districts as a means to improve population health.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Região dos Apalaches , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Saúde da População Rural , Virginia
17.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(3): 313-318, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge of the Zika virus (ZIKV), use of contraceptives, and sources of health information in rural communities in the Dominican Republic. METHODS: Over 4 days in March 2017, a research team traveled to four rural communities in the Dominican Republic to provide healthcare services. Overall, 90 men and women consented to a voluntary verbal 12-question survey. RESULTS: Of the participants, 55% were not certain whether ZIKV is transmitted sexually; 75% of participants were either not sure or thought ZIKV was not present in their community. Charlas (informal discussions led by community health workers) were cited as the most common source for public health information. Prevalence of contraceptive use was 26.6% hormonal and 1.1% long-acting reversible contraception (LARC); 30.0% cited no use of contraception. CONCLUSION: Significant deficits in ZIKV knowledge, underutilization of LARCs, and socioeconomic factors exist that constrain the application of WHO recommendations for preventing ZIKV infection. Additional and more robust surveys are needed to assess public health education and interventions, critical for disease prevention in communities facing current and future epidemics.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecção por Zika virus/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , República Dominicana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
18.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8533, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483000

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a newly designed intensive caregiver education program (ICEP) on reducing cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. One hundred and ninety-six AIS patients were divided into ICEP group and Control group in a 1:1 ratio using blocked randomization method. In the ICEP group, the caregivers received ICEP, while in the Control group caregivers received usual education and guidance. All patients received conventional rehabilitation treatment. Cognitive impairment (assessed by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score), anxiety (assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)-A score and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) score), and depression (assessed by HADS-D score and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) score) were assessed at baseline (M0), 3 months (M3), 6 months (M6), and 12 months (M12). Cognitive impairment score at M12 and cognitive impairment score change (M12-M0) were increased, while cognitive impairment rate at M12 was reduced in the ICEP group compared with the Control group. Anxiety score change (M12-M0), anxiety score at M12, and anxiety rate at M12 were decreased in the ICEP group compared with the Control group. Depression score change (M12-M0), depression score at M12, and depression rate at M12 were lower in the ICEP group compared with the Control group. Further subgroup analysis based on baseline features also provided similar results. In conclusion, ICEP effectively reduced cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression in AIS patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Cuidadores , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enfermagem , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral
19.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180184, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483041

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a game on vocal health and hygiene (VoxPedia) and apply it to adults aiming to investigate knowledge about vocal health and the vocal self-assessment in this population. METHODS: The study sample was composed of 293 adults, of which 204 were women and 129 were voice professionals, invited to participate through digital media. Participants completed to the following forms and instruments: 1) Informed Consent Form (ICF); 2) Identification Data form; 3) Voice Handicap Index: 10 (VHI-10) protocol; 4) Vocal Health and Hygiene Questionnaire (VHHQ); 5) VoxPedia quiz. RESULTS: The VoxPedia quiz was developed using simple and dynamic questions that allowed the participants to know their performance in real time. Data collected through this quiz showed that voice professionals reported reduced voice handicap and had higher scores in the VHHQ and VoxPedia. Voice professionals or not, participants who answered wrongly to the nature of impact of health aspects in the VHHQ reported increased voice handicap in the VHI-10; however, despite the self-reported handicap, most of them did not report voice complaints. In contrast, when voice complaints were reported, the participants not always perceived handicap or searched for vocal therapy. CONCLUSION: The VoxPedia quiz presented some concepts on vocal health and hygiene to the participants. In addition, it enabled the study of the relation between knowledge about vocal care and voice self-assessment. The data suggest that individuals with greater knowledge about vocal health and hygiene show better voice self-assessment, those with worse voice self-assessment do not perceive voice problems, and those who perceive voice problems do not necessarily seek professional assistance.


Assuntos
Jogos Experimentais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Autoavaliação , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180218, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483043

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a short educational program about aphasia (SEPA) for family caregivers of people with aphasia and verify its effect in their burden and quality of life. METHODS: This is a quantitative experimental study. The participants included in the study were family caregivers of people with aphasia. They completed the Zarit interview scale and WHOQOL-Bref instruments pre- and post-intervention. The intervention was a short educational program about aphasia, administered in a group setting and conducted in two didactic sessions. RESULTS: Four participants were included in the study. In the group analysis, there was no significant difference in any measure. However, looking into the individual performances, all participants presented a trend for improvement in most of the scores. CONCLUSION: Possibly, family caregivers of people with aphasia might benefit from the SEPA. It would be relevant for future studies to include larger samples and consider new strategies to improve inclusion of participants.


Assuntos
Afasia/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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