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1.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(4): 271-282, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of doping substances is growing not only in young athletes performing competitive and non-competitive sports, but also in amateur sports, thereby representing a social and public health problem. The aim of this study was to measure knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and drugs and their effects, among students of secondary schools, and to assess the effectiveness of a health education intervention. "Enjoy the Sport- the school against doping and addiction 2.0" is a program developed to discourage the use of drugs, in particular doping drugs, by introducing information on the origins, on the effects of drugs and examples of appropriate lifestyles. This project was conceived by C.I.S.C.O.D. (Comitato Italiano Sport Contro Droga), an association of the C.O.N.I. and carried out with its support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The "Enjoy" project was a study with a one-arm experimental design and with a pre-post evaluation. A multiple-choice questionnaire was used to measure adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and its effects. A descriptive analysis and post-pre intervention comparison was performed with the McNemar test. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in participants' knowledge of doping substances indicated by the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) (p<0.001) and a better understanding of the meaning of the term "doping". A decrease in the number of adolescents who would use doping substances (pre = 0.06%; post = 0.0%) was observed, as well as an increase in the number of adolescents who do not consider fair that athletes of any level should use substances that alter their performance (pre = 83.7%; post = 85%). A significant increase was observed in the proportion of participants who believe that athletes should not use doping substances because they are harmful to the human organism (pre = 38.6%; post = 51.7%) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The project "Enjoy the Sport" contributed to increasing the health literacy of secondary school students about doping (and consequent awareness of the negative aspects of drug use). Schools, therefore, are an appropriate setting for implementing educational interventions for the prevention of doping. However, it is fundamental to integrate knowledge and action, especially in the context of family, sport and sports associations.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos
2.
Metas enferm ; 22(9): 49-58, nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185040

RESUMO

Se presenta un programa de educación sexual orientado a la mujer que ha sufrido mutilación genital femenina (MGF), que se incluye en grupos preconstituidos que abordan temas relacionados con el cuidado y la salud. Este programa estará dirigido por matronas y mediadores culturales, y requiere una colaboración interdisciplinar. El objetivo del programa es promover la vivencia positiva de la sexualidad en la mujer mutilada. Se propone un programa de salud de seis sesiones con objetivos educativos y criterios de resultado. Se sugiere realizar la evaluación mediante un cuestionario que permitirá conocer los cambios en conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes producidos, junto a indicadores de cobertura, proceso y resultados y un cuestionario de satisfacción


We present a sexual education program targeted to women who have suffered female genital mutilation (FGM), to be included in pre-established groups addressing topics associated with care and health. This program will be led by midwives and cultural mediators, and requires interdisciplinary collaboration. The objective of this program is to promote a positive experience of sexuality in mutilated women. A six-session health program is put forward, with educational objective and outcome criteria. It is suggested to conduct the evaluation through a questionnaire that will allow to learn about the changes occurred in knowledge, skills and attitudes, together with indicators for coverage, process and outcomes, and a satisfaction questionnaire


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Circuncisão Feminina/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Educação Sexual , Sexualidade , Promoção da Saúde , Circuncisão Feminina/classificação , Circuncisão Feminina/educação
3.
S D Med ; 72(6): 267-271, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461232

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Due to an increase in the incidence of skin cancer and a shortage of primary care and specialty physicians in rural areas, creative public health strategies must be employed to address disparities in skin cancer education, prevention, and detection. METHODS: Hair salons in eastern South Dakota communities with populations less than 15,000 were visited in-person by medical student facilitators. Hair professionals at these locations completed pre-survey assessments for baseline self-assessed comfort with detecting suspicious skin lesions and with educating patrons on skin cancer prevention strategies. Their likelihood to both alert patrons of suspicious skin lesions and encourage them to have their lesion evaluated by a physician was also assessed. A 20-minute educational PowerPoint presentation was given. Final assessment was evaluated with a post-presentation survey. RESULTS: Self-assessed hair professional comfort with identifying suspicious skin lesions was higher in post-survey results, in addition, the educational presentation increased comfort with sharing skin cancer prevention information with patrons. Hair professionals also reported increased likelihood that they would alert patrons to suspect skin lesions. Also, hair professionals reported increased likelihood that they would encourage patrons to seek medical care for their concerning lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Hair professionals may act as lay skin cancer educators in rural salons. Educational programs for hair professionals can increase their comfort with detecting lesions suspicious for skin cancer, increase their comfort with sharing skin protection information with patrons, and increase their likelihood of both alerting their patrons about suspicious skin lesions and encouraging their patrons to have their suspicious lesions evaluated.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Pele , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , South Dakota , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16977, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition is an important modifiable factor in combating overweight and obesity among adolescents. School has been indicated as an effective environment for influencing eating behavior; however, recent reviews assessing school-based interventions specifically for adolescents are scarce. Therefore, we propose the present systematic review with the aim to comprehensively review the quantitative and qualitative literature on the effects of school-based food and nutrition education interventions on adolescent health promotion through healthy eating habits. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, ERIC, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane, LILACS, and ADOLEC. We will include randomized controlled trials (RCT), non-RCT, and controlled before-after studies. Risk of bias will be assessed using the EPOC Risk of Bias Tool for RCT, Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool for non-RCT or controlled before-after, as well as the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) checklist for qualitative studies. We will analyze the overall strength of the evidence for each outcome using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) tool. Two independent researchers will conduct all evaluations and any disagreements will be consulted with a third reviewer. Data analysis and synthesis will be analyzed by the RevMan 5.3 software. We will conduct the study in accordance with the guideline of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses Protocols. RESULT: This review will evaluate the effects of school-based food and nutrition education interventions on adolescent health promotion through healthy eating habits. The primary outcome will be changes in adolescent food consumption. Secondary outcomes will be biological parameters (e.g., body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body composition, etc); biochemical parameters (e.g., glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, etc); qualitative evidences that support or explain the effect of school-based food and nutrition education interventions on adolescent food consumption. CONCLUSION: The findings of this systematic review will summarize the latest evidence of the effects of school-based food and nutrition education interventions on adolescent health promotion. The findings will be an available reference for school-based interventions and other further research. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019116520.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Projetos de Pesquisa
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323922

RESUMO

Background: The current study investigated the moderating role of the school context on the effects of a Dutch health promoting school initiative on children's health and health behaviors. Methods: The study used a mixed-methods design. The school context (n = 4) was assessed by the characteristics of the school population, teacher's health-promoting (HP) practices, implementers' perceived barriers, school's HP elements, and dominating organizational issues. Outcomes included objectively assessed BMI z-scores and physical activity (PA), and parent and child-reported dietary intake. Analyses included linear mixed models (four intervention schools versus four control schools), and qualitative comparisons between intervention schools with similar HP changes. Results: Effects on outcomes varied considerably across schools (e.g., range in effect size on light PA of 0.01-0.26). Potentially moderating contextual aspects were the child's socioeconomic background and baseline health behaviors; practices and perceived barriers of employees; and organizational issues at a school level. Conclusions: Similar HP changes lead to different outcomes across schools due to differences in the school context. The adoption of a complex adaptive systems perspective contributes to a better understanding of the variation in effects and it can provide insight on which contextual aspects to focus on or intervene in to optimize the effects of HP initiatives.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 255, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The maternal mortality rate in Lao PDR (Laos) is still the highest in Southeast Asia, at 197 per 100,000 live births. Antenatal care (ANC) could contribute to maternal and child mortality reduction. The quality of ANC service remains inadequate and little information is available on the quality of health education and counseling services of health providers in Laos. This study aims to gain insight into the perceptions of stakeholders on both supply and demand sides of public ANC services in Laos and evidence for recommendations to improve the quality of ANC services. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 participants from different stakeholder groups; on the demand side, couples with a currently pregnant woman and mothers with children under one year of age and a family member; and on the supply side, health providers, managers, policy makers of the Ministry of Health, and development partners. The interviews were voice recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis by open and thematic coding, using the MAXQDA software program. RESULTS: All respondents reported that the number of pregnant women who visit ANC services has increased. However, an analysis of the supply side identified issues related to the quality of ANC that need to be improved in the areas of facilities, human resources, privacy and confidentiality, providers' behavior, attitudes, and ineffective communication skills when it comes to providing health education and counseling to pregnant women and their family members. The analysis of the demand side mainly emphasized the issues of providers' behavior, attitude, communication and unequal treatment, and the lack of privacy. Both sides also suggested solutions to the problems, such as training, effective materials, rewarding good role models, and building a feedback system. CONCLUSION: The number of public ANC services has increased, but both supply and demand sides experienced challenges with the quality of ANC. All respondents proposed possible solutions to improve quality of ANC service in public health facilities in Laos.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Educação em Saúde , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comportamento do Consumidor , Aconselhamento/organização & administração , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde/normas , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311142

RESUMO

Humanitarian radio has been used in humanitarian aid efforts and after natural disasters over the last 15 years. However, the effects have barely been evaluated, and there are few scientific reports on the impact of radio as a disaster health response intervention. Therefore, this study aimed to provide an overview of the use and impact of humanitarian radio in natural disasters from a health perspective. A literature review of 13 scientific papers and grey literature resources was conducted. The results show that humanitarian radio could be used to promote both physical and psychosocial wellbeing by providing health-related information, advice and psychosocial support in natural disasters. Community resilience can be enhanced by the promotion of community engagement and can strengthen self-efficacy and community efficacy. Radio also has the potential to cost-effectively reach a large number of affected people in areas with severely damaged infrastructure. Radio could, therefore, contribute to health recovery and wellbeing from both individual and community perspectives. As such, health professionals; crises communication professionals, including radio journalists; and disaster-managing stakeholders should be prepared and trained to use humanitarian radio as an integrated part of the disaster health response in natural disasters.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Desastres Naturais , Rádio , Socorro em Desastres , Resiliência Psicológica , Altruísmo , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Apoio Social
8.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(Suppl 1): S38-S44, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182875

RESUMO

Background: The promotion of health is carried out in preventive services of medical units, in educational programs and textbooks from the general perspective of the population. Objective: To determine baseline characteristics of health education for pre-school children, their parents and teachers, by means of specialist doctors. Method: Cross-sectional study of an educational program for preschool children. Life skills and health competencies were evaluated. Results: The preschoolers developed resilience (84.12%), empathy (92.23%), assertive communication (93.5%), interpersonal relationships (91.0%), correct decision making (92.56%), problem solving (81.05%), creative thinking (98%), critical thinking (86.08%), emotion management (80.76%), physical activation (97.94%), self-knowledge (98.96%), hygienic habits (94.90%) and co-responsibility (86.25%); 95.59% liked the workshop and 95.75% chose the correct option in the problems described. 63.04% of parents generated changes in their habits and those of their children. Conclusion: The educational program implemented can promote empowerment in health from childhood.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Creches , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Public Health ; 173: 29-32, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among Hajj pilgrims before and after an education health programme during international vaccine consultations in France. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed in the consultation for travel medicine and international vaccination in Reims University Hospital between July 2014 and October 2015. METHODS: Consecutive adults (>18 years old) who attended for pre-Hajj meningococcal vaccination were eligible to complete an anonymous questionnaire with closed answers to evaluate their level of knowledge about MERS-CoV. To evaluate the effectiveness of the information given during the consultation, the same questionnaire was completed by the Hajj pilgrim before and after the consultation, where the information about MERS-CoV was provided. RESULTS: Among 82 Hajj pilgrim adults enrolled in the study, less than 25% were aware of the routes of transmission, symptoms and preventive behaviours to adopt abroad or in case of fever. Pilgrims had a higher rate of correct responses on each question at the time they completed the second questionnaire, as compared with the first, with 11 of 13 questions answered significantly better after delivery of educational information about MERS-CoV. However, although the rate of correct answers to the questions about routes of transmission, symptoms, preventive behaviours to adopt in case of fever and time delay between return and potential MERS-CoV occurrence increased significantly after receiving the information, the rates remained below 50%. CONCLUSION: Information given during travel consultations significantly increases the general level of knowledge, but not enough to achieve epidemic control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Viagem/psicologia , Vacinação
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 484, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally in 2015 about 214 million malaria cases and 438,000 deaths were reported with 75% were from Sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria transmission in Ethiopia is unstable, and outbreaks are considered public health emergencies. Understanding the trigger for outbreaks in low-transmission areas can help facilitate malaria elimination. On July 8th malaria outbreak was reported from Laelay Adyabo district. The objective was to investigate the magnitude and associated factors with malaria outbreak. METHODS: We defined a case as confirmed malaria using microscopy or a rapid diagnostic test for Plasmodium parasites in a resident of Laelay-Adyabo District from July 9-28, 2017. We identified cases by reviewing health facility records and conducted a case-control study using randomly-selected cases from a line list, and two neighborhood controls per case. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire adapted from WHO malaria guidelines was used to collect data from case-patients and controls. We calculated crude (COR) and adjusted (AOR) odds ratios to identify factors associated with malaria. RESULT: A total of 145 confirmed malaria cases (57.9% males) were identified with village attack rate (AR) of 12.1/1000. The AR was higher among males than females (14.1 verses 10.1/1000), children aged 5-14 years (12.9/1000), and in Zelazle Kebelle (13.6/1000 population). Wearing protective clothing (AOR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.66), having good knowledge of malaria transmission (AOR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.08-0.75), having waste collection material at home (AOR = 0.25 95% CI 0.11-0.61), availability of mosquito breeding sites around home (AOR = 9.08, 95% CI 3.6-22.93), and staying outdoor overnight (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.44-9.56) were independently associated with malaria. CONCLUSION: The overall attack rate for malaria during this outbreak was high affecting > 1% of the population. Wearing protective clothing at night, knowing about malaria transmission, having mosquito breeding sites around the home, staying outdoors overnight, and having waste collection material in their house were predictors of the infection. Laelay Adyabo district health office should provide health education on malaria transmission and prevention measures and how to clear mosquito breeding sites.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Culicidae , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Incidência , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Roupa de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15412, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important public health problem in the Turkish population, that is, one of the largest migrant populations in Europe. With the introduction of cost-effective antiviral treatments in the past decade, there is a need to identify HBV-infected patients who may benefit from treatment. This study describes the design of a study to assess the HBV prevalence in the Turkish population living in Belgium. Additionally, we will determine the risk factors of HBV infection and the uptake of screening, vaccination, and antiviral treatment in this hard-to-reach Turkish population. METHODS: A longitudinal, epidemiological study will be conducted in the region Middle Limburg Belgium, where the Turkish adult population, 18 years of age and older, will be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs), and antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Educational meetings concerning viral hepatitis B will be organized and there will be 3 ways to be screened for HBV: immediately after the educational meetings, at the Outpatient Hepatology Department of Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, and at home visits. Subsequently, participants will be asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic factors, migration history, risk factors for HBV infection (e.g., sharing toothbrushes, HBV-infected family member), and HBV vaccination status. Six months after screening, HBsAg-positive patients will be assessed whether they are under follow-up at the general practitioner or hepatologist. We will also gather information regarding the uptake of vaccination in nonimmunized subjects. DISCUSSION: This study will provide information about the HBV prevalence and distribution of the stages of liver disease in the Turkish population in Belgium. By determining the risk factors for HBV infection, subgroups with an increased prevalence of HBV infection can be identified. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: This clinical trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03396458).


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/etnologia , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Turquia/etnologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 614, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One major barrier to uptake of diabetic retinopathy (DR) services is lack of knowledge and awareness of DR among the people with diabetes (PwDM). Targeted health education (HE) can be a key element in improving the uptake of eye care services. Such interventions are lacking in Sri Lanka. METHODS: A local context specific HE intervention (HEI) was developed by adopting available resources and incorporating views from PwDM and key stakeholders. Four sessions of participatory workshops with PwDM (20 Sinhala and 13 Tamil speaking) and two stage 12 stakeholder interviews were conducted to both develop and pre-test the material. The products were a video and a leaflet, delivered at a medical clinic to a sample of 45 PwDM identified as having DR. Semi-structured interviews were conducted after 4 weeks, to evaluate the acceptability and comprehension of the HEI. Additionally, nine interviews were conducted with clinical providers to explore process issues related to delivery of the HEI. Data analysis was conducted using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The lack of knowledge and awareness on DR, and of the importance of regular DR screening and follow up, combined with poor information on referral pathways were key elements identified from the workshops with PwDM. The stakeholders prioritised the importance of using simple language, and the need for emphasis on improving understanding about the asymptomatic phase of DR. The overall acceptability of the HEI material was satisfactory, although there was some difficulty with interpretation of medical images. Overall, although PwDM liked the ideas of the video, the leaflet was seen as a more practical option, given the busy clinic environment. The key issue was both formats required interaction with the provider, in order to support understanding of the messages. CONCLUSIONS: The process of adapting HE material is not simply translation into the appropriate language. Instead, a tailored approach in a country, context and particular health services setting is needed. This study illustrates the value of using a participatory approach and involving PwDM and stakeholders in the adaptation and pilot testing of a HEI to improve uptake of screening for DR in the context of Sri Lanka.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/terapia , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Idoso , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sri Lanka
13.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 35, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The processes at play in the implementation of one program in different contexts are complex and not yet well understood. In order to facilitate both the analysis and transfer of interventions, a "key functions/implementation/context" (FIC) model was developed to structure the description of public health interventions by distinguishing their potentially transferable dimensions (their "key functions") from those associated with their translation within a specific context (their "form"). It was used to describe and compare preschool preventative nutrition interventions routinely implemented across three territories, in accordance with same national specifications. METHODS: The interventions were independently described by researchers and intervention's implementers using the FIC model, during several workshops. Their key functions were then classified into 12 themes and compared to assess the extent to which the three interventions were similar. RESULTS: Despite being produced from the same set of specifications and having similar objectives, the key functions of the interventions in the three departments mostly reflected the same major themes, they did not overlap and were in some cases very different. In one of the three departments, the intervention was markedly different from those of the other two departments. The historical context of the interventions and the specificities of the local actors appear highly determinant of the key functions described. CONCLUSIONS: For the interventions that we studied, some of the key functions varied greatly and translated different concepts of health education and modes of intervention to the population. It now seems vital to improve the description of interventions on the ground in order to highlight the key functions on which they are based, which still often remain implicit. The FIC model could be used to complement other models and theories focusing on the description of the implementation process, its determinants or its evaluation. Its interest is to provide a structure for joint reflection by various actors on the transferable aspects of an intervention, its form and its interactions with the context, in order ultimately to analyse or to improve its potential transferability.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Prática de Saúde Pública , França , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
14.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2375-2385, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997651

RESUMO

Sexual health education interventions have generally yielded modest impact, but may be more successful when integrated into programs designed to alleviate poverty and empower women. Between December 2017 and February 2018, we interviewed 304 Haitian female microfinance clients, 75 of whom had received health education training delivered within their regular meetings. Participants reported six key sexual health outcomes. We used log-binomial models to estimate the association between health education training and each outcome, and tested for interaction by age and literacy status. Women with health education training reported more condom use with unfaithful partners [PR (95% CI) 1.78 (1.04, 3.02)], more HIV testing [PR (95% CI) 1.56 (1.28, 1.90)], and fewer STI symptoms [PR (95% CI) 0.37 (0.19, 0.73)], compared to women with no training. Some of the associations were stronger among older women [e.g. HIV testing: PR (95% CI) 2.09 (1.49, 2.82)] and illiterate women [e.g. condom use: PR (95% CI) 3.46 (1.05, 11.38)]. These findings add to the growing body of evidence demonstrating the potential to use microfinance programs as platforms for health education delivery, and provide the first evidence for the association in Haiti.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Autonomia Pessoal , Educação Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Haiti , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pobreza , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eval Program Plann ; 74: 84-90, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939299

RESUMO

This study examined the impact of an existing 7-week summer learning program on children's weight status and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). METHODS: Using an observational repeated measures within-subjects design, children's (N = 20 mean age = 6.35; 45% female; 80% African American) height, weight, and CRF (i.e., Fitnessgram PACER), were measured during the first and final week of the seven week program. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables. Median regression analysis examined estimated the differences in BMI zscore, overweight and obesity prevalence, and CRF during the first week (baseline) compared to the final week (outcome). RESULTS: Of those enrolled initially in the program, 77% attended for more than 4 weeks. When controlling for attendance and sex, no statistically significant changes were observed for, median zBMI (pre: 0.12, post: 0.11) or CRF (pre: 10, post: 13.5 PACER laps). All children except for one maintained the same weight status (e.g. normal weight, overweight) from baseline to outcome. A total of 12 participants increased or maintained the number of PACER laps completed, while 8 participants' PACER laps decreased. CONCLUSION: The results of this natural experiment provides preliminary evidence that participation in a structured summer program can potentially mitigate unhealthy weight gains and fitness loss over the summer for some children. Future studies with larger more representative samples are needed to establish the impact of structured summer programming on children's CRF and weight status.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Afro-Americanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Aptidão Física , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 94: 60-73, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify and map existing postnatal educational interventions targeting parents in low and middle-income countries. A secondary objective is to conduct a critical analysis of the strengths and limitations of the educational strategies used for parent-targeted postnatal education. Design & data sources: Using scoping review methodology, MedLine, CINAHL, and SCOPUS were searched in October 2017. REVIEW METHODS: All studies published after 2000 reporting on educational interventions that targeted parents from the period of birth to 6 weeks postnatally in low and middle-income countries were included. Studies were excluded if they targeted healthcare professionals or were community interventions that spanned antenatal to postnatal care. Title, abstract and full-text screening was conducted by two reviewers. RESULTS: We initially identified 9284 articles with 77 articles included after title, abstract and full-text screening. Most of the studies were quantitative (94%) with over half published after 2014. Most studies (61%) targeted a single newborn care education intervention, of which 75% targeted breastfeeding. Interventions used on average three different methods of implementation (e.g., verbal, written information, counselling). Interventions were provided in the hospital (76%), at home (23%), at a clinic/hospital (8%), and/or virtually through an eHealth intervention, including phone or text messages (12%). Maternal outcomes primarily included knowledge, self-efficacy, anxiety and stress while newborn outcomes primarily included exclusive breastfeeding, weight gain at follow-up, and morbidities. Positive changes were found to occur for reported maternal outcomes (89%) and newborn outcomes (56%). CONCLUSIONS: Parent-targeted education varied in terms of educational topics covered, method and location of intervention, and outcomes examined. While the best strategies of implementing postnatal education interventions to parents in low and middle-income countries is yet to be determined, evidence suggests that current interventions had a positive impact on parents' outcomes using a combined approach. Further work is needed to evaluate the impact on newborn outcomes and to identify the most effective methods and timing of the interventions.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Pais/educação , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Renda , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934779

RESUMO

Rates of diabetes are high in many communities of Pacific Island peoples, including people from Fiji. This qualitative study explores knowledge and attitudes towards diabetes among i-Taukei Fijians to facilitate the cultural tailoring of diabetes prevention and management programs for this community. Fijians aged 26 to 71 years (n = 15), residing in Australia, participated in semi-structured interviews; 53% (n = 8) were male. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, then thematically analyzed. Diabetes is recognized as an important and increasing health problem requiring action in the i-Taukei Fijian community. Widespread support for culturally appropriate lifestyle interventions utilizing existing societal structures, like family networks and church groups, was apparent. These structures were also seen as a crucial motivator for health action. Intervention content suggestions included diabetes risk awareness and education, as well as skills development to improve lifestyle behaviors. Leveraging existing social structures and both faith and family experiences of diabetes within the Fijian community may help convert increased awareness and understanding into lifestyle change. Ongoing in-community support to prevent and manage diabetes was also regarded as important. We recommend building upon experience from prior community-based interventions in other high-risk populations, alongside our findings, to assist in developing tailored diabetes programs for Fijians.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Conscientização , Relações Familiares/etnologia , Feminino , Fiji/etnologia , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Enferm. glob ; 18(54): 285-293, abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183484

RESUMO

La tuberculosis pulmonar (TB pulmonar) es una enfermedad infecciosa común en el mundo, incluso en Indonesia. Se transmite muy fácilmente a través de las salpicaduras de esputo. Fomenta el desarrollo de intervenciones para controlar la transmisión de la TB, como la educación sanitaria estructurada. El objetivo de este estudio fueron determinar el efecto de la intervención de educación sanitaria estructurada sobre el comportamiento preventivo de la tuberculosis pulmonar en la regencia de Bogor, Indonesia. Este estudio utilizó un diseño cuasiexperimental con diseño previo y posterior a la prueba, que involucró a 82 miembros adultos de la comunidad de edad que se dividieron en grupos de intervención y control. El muestreo aleatorio en varias etapas se utilizó para determinar el área de investigación, mientras que el sujeto de investigación se seleccionó mediante muestreo aleatorio simple. Los resultados mostraron que la educación estructurada afecta significativamente el conocimiento (valor de p = 0,000), la actitud (valor de p = 0,000) y la prevención de habilidades de transmisión de TB pulmonar (valor de p = 0,000). La salud estructurada podría aplicarse como una alternativa de intervención de enfermería comunitaria que se puede administrar a las personas en riesgo de TB pulmonar


Pulmonary Tuberculosis (pulmonary TB) is a common infectious disease in the world, including in Indonesia. It is very easily transmitted through sputum splashes. It encourages development of interventions in order to control the transmission of TB, such as structured health education. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of structured health education intervention on the prevention behavior of pulmonary TB in Bogor regency, Indonesia. This study used quasi-experimental design with pre- and post-test design, involving 82 adults age community member who were devided into intervention and control group. The study was conducted in districts with high TB prevalence selected by purposive sampling, while the research subject was selected using simple random sampling. The results showed that structured education significantly affects knowledge (p value = 0,000), attitude (p value = 0,000), and skill prevention of pulmonary TB transmission (p value = 0,000). Structured health could applied as an alternative choice of community nursing interventions that can be given to people at risk of pulmonary TB


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultado de Ações Preventivas , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Estudos de Casos e Controles
20.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 13, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is sufficient evidence that psychosocial stimulation (PS) benefits children's neurocognitive behavior, however, there is no information on how it works when delivered through an Unconditional Cash Transfer (UCT) platform for poor rural population in developing countries. The objective of this study is to measure effects of adding PS for children of lactating mothers enrolled to receive UCT with health education (HE) on neurocognitive behavior of children in rural Bangladesh. METHODS: The study will be conducted at 11 unions of Ullapara sub-district in Bangladesh. The study is a cluster randomized controlled trial with three-arms; (i) PS and UCT with HE (ii) UCT with HE and iii) Comparison arm. The cluster will be considered as an old Ward of a Union, the lowest tier of local government system in rural Bangladesh. There are three old Wards in a union. These three clusters will be randomized to one of the three arms. Similarly, randomization will be done for each 11 Unions and then 11 clusters will be assigned to an arm. Eighteen participants will be recruited from each cluster randomly (n = 196 in each arm). The intervention designed for one year includes UCT with HE for the poor as a safety net program in rural Bangladesh with or without PS. An age-based curriculum of PS is already available for Bangladeshi children and this will be administered by trained local women; play leaders (PL) in intervention clusters. The government of Bangladesh is providing UCT of taka 500 ($6.25) as maternity allowance per month with HE. The primary outcomes will be cognitive, motor and language composite scores measured by Bayley-III and behavior using Wolke's behavior rating scale. The secondary outcomes will be children and mothers' growth, family food security status, health seeking behavior, mothers' depressive symptoms and self-esteem and violence against mothers. DISCUSSION: The study will provide a unique opportunity to assess an integrated early childhood development intervention using UCT platform to mitigate developmental delays in poor vulnerable children of rural Bangladesh. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03281980, registered on September 13, 2017.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Financiamento Governamental , Educação em Saúde , Comportamento do Lactente , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Mães , Poder Familiar , Adulto , Bangladesh , Aleitamento Materno , Protocolos Clínicos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Financiamento Governamental/métodos , Financiamento Governamental/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde/economia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/economia , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , População Rural
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