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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193961

RESUMO

Prevention of exposure to the COVID-19 virus in the general population is an essential strategy to slow community transmission. This paper shares the experiences and challenges of community engagement in COVID-19 prevention in the Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania implemented by our team from the Institute of Public Health (IPH), Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo) in collaboration with the COVID-19 response team in the Moshi Municipality. We conducted an education session with the COVID-19 response team and together brainstormed transmission hotspots and which interventions would be most feasible in their settings. The first hotspot identified was crowded local market spaces. Suggested interventions included targeted and mass public health education through the engagement of market opinion leaders, public announcements, and radio shows. We conducted participatory rural appraisal techniques to enable market vendors and clients to visualize two-meter distances and provided a prototype hand-washing facility that was foot operated. We found mass public health educational campaigns essential to inform and update the public about COVID-19 pandemic and to address rumors and misinformation, which hampers compliance with public health interventions. Coordinated efforts among stakeholders in the country are necessary to develop context-specific prevention and case management strategies following the national and international guidelines. Local ownership of recommended interventions is necessary to ensure compliance.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção das Mãos/instrumentação , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Liderança , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Aplicativos Móveis , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Instalações Privadas , Saúde Pública , População Rural , Participação dos Interessados , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
4.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(4): 579-585, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005122

RESUMO

Not only do epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), and the current Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) cause the loss of millions of lives, but they also cost the global economy billions of dollars. Consequently, there is an urgent need to formulate interventions that will help control their spread and impact when they emerge. The education of young girls and women is one such historical approach. They are usually the vulnerable targets of disease outbreaks - they are most likely to be vehicles for the spread of epidemics due to their assigned traditional roles in resource-limited countries. Based on our work and the work of others on educational interventions, we propose six critical components of a cost-effective and sustainable response to promote girl-child education in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por Coronavirus , Identidade de Gênero , Saúde Global , Educação em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/educação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
5.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(5): 6-11, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978760

RESUMO

In this article, technologies that have been widely adopted and used in the field of allied health education in recent years are identified and introduced. These technologies may be distinguished based on education content and approach into the following three categories: online-offline digital education, which uses massive open online courses, CD-ROM, and similar learning tools; mobile learning, which uses mobile phones, tablets, and other devices to connect to the Internet of things; and digital simulation education, which uses virtual reality, virtual patient simulation, serious gaming, and gamification. Preliminary positive findings regarding the effectiveness of using the above technologies have been reported in the literature. Therefore, to better understand the impact of new technology, it is recommended that relevant medical/nursing educators should continue introducing practical courses to evaluate their impact on learning. However, funding limitations and the declining birthrate / population aging are two key threats to education that remain to be effectively addressed and overcome.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/educação , Comunicação , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Tecnologia da Informação , Humanos
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(33): 1117-1121, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817603

RESUMO

Syringe service programs (SSPs), which provide access to sterile syringes and other injection equipment and their safe disposal after use,* represent a highly successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention intervention. SSPs are associated with a 58% reduction in the incidence of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (1). In addition, SSPs have led efforts to prevent opioid overdose deaths by integrating evidence-based opioid overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs (2-4). OEND programs train laypersons to respond during overdose events and provide access to naloxone and directions for drug delivery (2-4). SSPs are ideal places for OEND because they provide culturally relevant services designed to reach persons at high risk for experiencing or observing an opioid overdose. A 2013 survey found that only 55% of SSPs in the United States had implemented OEND (5). To characterize current implementation of OEND among SSPs, and to describe the current reach (i.e., the ratio of persons who received naloxone per opioid overdose death and the ratio of naloxone doses distributed per opioid overdose death) of SSP-based OEND programs by U.S. Census division,† a survey of known U.S. SSPs was conducted in 2019, which found that 94% of SSPs had implemented OEND. In addition, the reach of SSP-based OEND programs varied by U.S. Census division. Scaling up of SSP-based OEND delivery programs could be a critical component for areas of the country with high opioid overdose death rates and low reach.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Naloxona/provisão & distribução , Programas de Troca de Agulhas/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Humanos , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 100S-127S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the United States, rising rates of overdose deaths and recent outbreaks of hepatitis C virus and HIV infection are associated with injection drug use. We updated a 2014 review of systems-level opioid policy interventions by focusing on evidence published during 2014-2018 and new and expanded opioid policies. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE database, consistent with the 2014 review. We included articles that provided original empirical evidence on the effects of systems-level interventions on opioid use, overdose, or death; were from the United States or Canada; had a clear comparison group; and were published from January 1, 2014, through July 19, 2018. Two raters screened articles and extracted full-text data for qualitative synthesis of consistent or contradictory findings across studies. Given the rapidly evolving field, the review was supplemented with a search of additional articles through November 17, 2019, to assess consistency of more recent findings. RESULTS: The keyword search yielded 535 studies, 66 of which met inclusion criteria. The most studied interventions were prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) (59.1%), and the least studied interventions were clinical guideline changes (7.6%). The most common outcome was opioid use (77.3%). Few articles evaluated combination interventions (18.2%). Study findings included the following: PDMP effectiveness depends on policy design, with robust PDMPs needed for impact; health insurer and pharmacy benefit management strategies, pill-mill laws, pain clinic regulations, and patient/health care provider educational interventions reduced inappropriate prescribing; and marijuana laws led to a decrease in adverse opioid-related outcomes. Naloxone distribution programs were understudied, and evidence of their effectiveness was mixed. In the evidence published after our search's 4-year window, findings on opioid guidelines and education were consistent and findings for other policies differed. CONCLUSIONS: Although robust PDMPs and marijuana laws are promising, they do not target all outcomes, and multipronged interventions are needed. Future research should address marijuana laws, harm-reduction interventions, health insurer policies, patient/health care provider education, and the effects of simultaneous interventions on opioid-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Epidemia de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Canadá/epidemiologia , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Características de Residência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 50S-56S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735197

RESUMO

In 2014, California passed Assembly Bill 966, which required condom access for persons incarcerated in all 35 California state prisons (33 men's and 2 women's prisons). The California Correctional Health Care Services and the Sexually Transmitted Disease Control Branch and the Office of AIDS of the California Department of Public Health collaborated in a prison administration-led multidisciplinary implementation workgroup. Our workgroup, representing public health, correctional health, legal and legislative affairs, labor relations, and prison staff members, participated in 4 planning meetings during May-September 2015. We surveyed prison staff members and incarcerated men to identify and address potential challenges; conceptualized a tamper-resistant condom dispenser; developed educational materials, frequently asked questions for staff members, and fact sheets for the public; and conducted forums for custody and medical staff members at each prison. Key lessons learned included the need for high-level custody support, engagement of labor unions early in the decision-making process, and flexibility within defined parameters for sites to determine best practices given their unique institutional population, culture, and physical layout. Condom access was initiated at 4 prisons in July 2015 and expanded incrementally to the remaining 29 men's prisons through July 2016. A total of 243 563 condoms were accessed in the men's prisons, for an average of 354 condoms per 1000 population per month. The start-up dispenser cost was $69 825 (735 dispensers at $95 each). We estimated an annual condom cost of $0.60 per person. Although staff members and incarcerated men expressed concern that this legislation would condone sex and provide repositories for contraband, no serious adverse incidents involving condoms were reported. California demonstrated that condom access is a safe, low-cost intervention with high uptake for a large correctional system and provided a replicable implementation model for other states. Prison condom programs have the potential to decrease transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among incarcerated persons and their communities, which are often disproportionately affected by STIs, HIV, and other chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Preservativos/provisão & distribução , Prisões/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , California/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Sindicatos/organização & administração , Masculino , Prisões/economia , Prisões/normas , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
10.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 90S-99S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) outbreaks disproportionately affect persons experiencing homelessness (PEH) in the United States. During 2014-2016, a resurgent TB outbreak occurred among PEH in Atlanta, Georgia. To control the outbreak, citywide policies and educational interventions were implemented in January 2015. Policy changes standardized and enforced TB screening requirements for PEH in homeless shelters. Educational campaigns informed PEH of the outbreak and encouraged TB screening. We evaluated factors associated with, and the effect policy changes and educational interventions had on, TB screening and awareness among PEH in Atlanta. METHODS: Questions related to TB screening and awareness of the outbreak were added to an annual US Department of Housing and Urban Development survey of PEH in Atlanta in 2015 (n = 296 respondents) and 2016 (n = 1325 respondents). We analyzed the 2016 survey data to determine characteristics associated with outcomes. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2016, reported TB screening increased from 81% to 86%, and awareness of the TB outbreak increased from 68% to 75%. In 2016, sheltered PEH were significantly more likely than unsheltered PEH to report being evaluated for TB in the previous 6 months (prevalence odds ratio [pOR] = 3.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.28-4.47) and to report being aware of the TB outbreak (pOR = 4.00; 95% CI, 2.89-5.55). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of required TB screening and educational interventions may reduce the incidence and severity of TB outbreaks among PEH in other communities. Furthermore, the annual survey of PEH offers an opportunity to collect data to better inform practices and policies.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Conscientização , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore how to integrate the "best" practice into nursing of venous thromboembolism (VTE) based on the integrated-Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) framework. METHODS: A mixed-methods design was used. A steering group for clinical evidence implementation (EI) was established to conduct pre-implementation baseline surveys, a thorough analysis of the evidence, and an analysis of the survey results. The hindering and enabling factors associated with the clinical implementation of the evidence were analysed based on the three core elements of i-PARIHS, to formulate the clinical implementation plan for VTE nursing evidence. On-site expert reviews and focus group interviews were used to evaluate the feasibility of the draft plan, make adjustments, and finalize the evidence-based practice plan, which was then put into practice and evaluated. RESULTS: A new nursing process, a health education manual and a nursing quality checklist on VTE has been established and proved to be appropriate through the implementation. Compliance with evidence related to VTE nursing increased significantly in the two units, with better compliance in unit B than unit A. The knowledge, attitude and behaviour scores for VTE nursing increased substantially in both nurses and patients. CONCLUSION: The EI programme of incorporating the "best" evidence on VTE nursing into clinical practice using the i-PARIHS framework demonstrated feasibility, appropriateness and effectiveness and could serve as a reference.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Adulto , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Médicos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Metas enferm ; 23(6): 27-32, jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194596

RESUMO

El Grupo de Investigación en Cuidados (GIC) del Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria San Carlos (IdISSC) se creó en el año 2011, dando respuesta a la oportunidad que se dio por parte de las autoridades de investigación sanitaria de crear un grupo independiente de investigación para formar parte del instituto desde sus inicios, lo cual fue aprovechado de manera estratégica desde la Dirección de Enfermería del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (HCSC) de Madrid, creando dos grupos emergentes, uno de Investigación en Cuidados y otro de Investigación en Fisioterapia. El Grupo de Investigación en Cuidados está integrado por 41 personas del ámbito docente, gestor y asistencial del Hospital Clínico San Carlos y de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), mayoritariamente. Sus tres líneas de investigación tienen interés en el entorno asistencial de hospitalización, quirúrgico y ambulatorio, denominándose "Seguridad del paciente y profesional", cuyo objetivo es "identificar mejores prácticas, optimizar y/o mejorar el cuidado que permitan minimizar riesgos, tanto en el paciente como en el profesional"; línea de "Educación terapéutica", cuyo fin es "investigar cuáles son las mejores prácticas que aseguren adherencia a tratamientos y resultados en salud" y la línea de "Evaluación y desarrollo de producto sanitario", que tiene el propósito de "optimizar y/o mejorar el uso y diseño de productos sanitarios, encaminados a disminuir la morbilidad iatrogénica". Actualmente el GIC está plenamente integrado en el IdISSC como grupo independiente emergente, y está presente en los órganos de decisión del instituto, teniendo como objetivo inmediato convertirse en grupo consolidado


The Healthcare Research Group (HRG) of the Institute of Health Research San Carlos (IdISSC) was created in 2011, as an answer to the opportunity granted by health research authorities to create an independent research group as part of the institute from the start, which was taken strategically from the Nursing Management of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos (HCSC) of Madrid, creating two emergent groups, one for Healthcare Research and another for Research on Physiotherapy. The Healthcare Research Group is formed mainly by 41 persons from the teaching, management and care settings of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos and the Universidad Complutense of Madrid (UCM). Their three lines of research are of interest for the healthcare hospitalization, surgery and outpatient settings; one is called "Patient and Professional Safety", and its objective is "to identify the best practices, to optimize and/or improve care in order to minimize risks, both for patients and professionals", there is a "Therapeutic Education" line, with the aim to "research about the best practices that will ensure treatment adherence and health outcomes", and the "Healthcare Product Evaluation and Development" line, with the aim to "optimize and/or improve the use and design of healthcare products, in order to reduce iatrogenic mortality". Currently the HRG is completely integrated in the IdISSC as an emergent independent group, with presence in the decision-making boards of the institute, and with the immediate objective of becoming a consolidated group


Assuntos
Humanos , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Academias e Institutos/normas , Indicadores de Produção Científica
13.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(2): 117-123, maio-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116377

RESUMO

Este estudo trata-se de um relato de experiência sobre o processo de construção e desenvolvimento de um Seminário de Saúde do Trabalhador (SST), articulado pelos profissionais residentes do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Residência Multiprofissional em Atenção Básica/Saúde da Família da Universidade do Vale do Itajaí - UNIVALI, atuantes do Núcleo Ampliado a Saúde da Família (NASF) pertencente ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) do município de Itapema-SC. O SST contou com o apoio e parceria dos setores de Vigilância Sanitária (VS) e Programa de Saúde do Trabalhador (PST) para a sua realização. Objetivou-se por meio deste estudo relatar a construção do SST e o fortalecimento da educação permanente de Itapema a partir da realização do seminário. Como resultado desta experiência, foi realizado o "2º Seminário de Saúde do trabalhador: uma visão ampliada", em comemoração à campanha "Abril Verde" do ano de 2018, contando com aproximadamente 200 participantes durante todo o evento, com direcionamento principal aos trabalhadores dos setores da educação (professores, orientadores educacionais, diretores) e saúde (profissionais da atenção básica, especializada e gestão) do município de Itapema. Com a realização do SST, foi possível diagnosticar as necessidades de saúde dos trabalhadores por meio de um levantamento do itinerário terapêutico, abrindo assim, a possibilidade de cuidado continuado para estes profissionais em seu âmbito de trabalho mediante do apoio institucional realizado pela equipe de residentes. Para alcançar esta produção de cuidado, é fundamental que ocorra o fortalecimento da educação permanente na saúde do trabalhador do município, sendo necessárias estratégias de apoio aos profissionais em seu cotidiano de trabalho, com objetivo de problematizar as necessidades relatadas e alcançar outras práticas de produção de saúde dos trabalhadores.


This study is a report on the experience regarding the process of construction and development of a Seminar on Occupational Health (SST) articulated by the residents of the Post-Graduation Program in Multi-professional Residency in Basic Care/Family Health of the University of the Itajaí Valley - UNIVALI, members of the Expanded Family Health Center (NASF) belonging to the Unified Health System (SUS) in the city of Itapema, in Santa Catarina. The SST had the support and partnership of the Health Surveillance (VS) and Occupational Health Program (PST) sectors for its implementation. The purpose of this study is to report on the construction of the SST and the strengthening of the permanent education of Itapema from the seminar. As a result of this experience, the "2nd Worker's Health Seminar: an expanded vision" was held in commemoration of the "Green April" campaign of 2018, with approximately 200 participants throughout the event, with the participation of teachers, educational counselors, directors and health professionals (basic care, specialized and management professionals) of the city of Itapema. With the SST, it was possible to diagnose the health needs of workers through a survey regarding the therapeutic itinerary and the opening of the possibility of support to those professionals in their work areas. In order to achieve this production of care, it is essential to strengthen the continuous education in the health of workers in Itapema; further strategies are needed to support professionals on their daily work in order to problematize the reported needs and reach other production practices for the health of workers.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/classificação , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/educação , Congressos como Assunto/normas , Sistema Único de Saúde/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/normas , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/educação
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1050, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Faith-based health promotion has shown promise for supporting healthy lifestyles, but has limited evidence of reaching scale or sustainability. In one recent such effort, volunteers from a diverse range of faith organizations were trained as peer educators to implement diabetes self-management education (DSME) classes within their communities. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with provision of these classes within six months of peer-educator training. METHODS: This study used the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to identify patterns from interviews, observations, attendance records, and organizational background information. Two research team members thematically coded interview transcripts and observation memos to identify patterns distinguishing faith organizations that did, versus did not, conduct DSME classes within six months of peer-educator training. Bivariate statistics were also used to identify faith organizational characteristics associated with DSME class completion within this time frame. RESULTS: Volunteers from 24 faith organizations received peer-educator training. Of these, 15 led a DSME class within six months, graduating a total of 132 participants. Thematic analyses yielded two challenges experienced disproportionately by organizations unable to complete DSME within six months: [1] Their peer educators experienced DSME as complex, despite substantial planning efforts at simplification, and [2] the process of engaging peer educators and leadership within their organizations was often more difficult than anticipated, despite initial communication by Faith and Diabetes organizers intended to secure informed commitments by both groups. Many peer educators were overwhelmed by training content, the responsibility required to start and sustain DSME classes, and other time commitments. Other priorities competed for time in participants' lives and on organizational calendars, and scheduling processes could be slow. In an apparent dynamic of "crowding out," coordination was particularly difficult in larger organizations, which were less likely than smaller organizations to complete DSME classes despite their more substantial resources. CONCLUSIONS: Initial commitment from faith organizations' leadership and volunteers may not suffice to implement even relatively short and low cost health promotion programs. Faith organizations might benefit from realistic previews about just how challenging it is to make these programs a sufficiently high organizational and individual priority.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Organizações Religiosas , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Liderança , Obesidade/terapia , Grupo Associado
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1000, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity and dietary change programmes play a central role in addressing public health priorities. Programme evaluation contributes to the evidence-base about these programmes; and helps justify and inform policy, programme and funding decisions. A range of evaluation frameworks have been published, but there is uncertainty about their usability and applicability to different programmes and evaluation objectives, and the extent to which they are appropriate for practitioner-led or researcher-led evaluation. This review appraises the frameworks that may be applicable to evaluation of physical activity and/or dietary change programmes, and develops a typology of the frameworks to help guide decision making by practitioners, commissioners and evaluators. METHODS: A scoping review approach was used. This included a systematic search and consultation with evaluation experts to identify evaluation frameworks and to develop a set of evaluation components to appraise them. Data related to each framework's general characteristics and components were extracted. This was used to construct a typology of the frameworks based on their intended programme type, evaluation objective and format. Each framework was then mapped against the evaluation components to generate an overview of the guidance included within each framework. RESULTS: The review identified 71 frameworks. These were described variously in terms of purpose, content, or applicability to different programme contexts. The mapping of frameworks highlighted areas of overlap and strengths and limitations in the available guidance. Gaps within the frameworks which may warrant further development included guidance on participatory approaches, non-health and unanticipated outcomes, wider contextual and implementation factors, and sustainability. CONCLUSIONS: Our typology and mapping signpost to frameworks where guidance on specific components can be found, where there is overlap, and where there are gaps in the guidance. Practitioners and evaluators can use these to identify, agree upon and apply appropriate frameworks. Researchers can use them to identify evaluation components where there is already guidance available and where further development may be useful. This should help focus research efforts where it is most needed and promote the uptake and use of evaluation frameworks in practice to improve the quality of evaluation and reporting.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Diretivo/organização & administração , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Terapia Comportamental , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Autoeficácia
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1016, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce HIV infection in adolescent girls and young women if used consistently during periods of risk. The EMPOWER study evaluated peer-based clubs incorporating an empowerment curriculum offered to adolescent girls and young women (16-24 years) in South Africa and Tanzania for adherence support. METHODS: Using serial in-depth interviews (n = 33), we assessed the benefits and challenges of club attendance among 13 EMPOWER participants in the Johannesburg site who were randomised to clubs. We used a summary matrix of coded data to support a narrative, case-based analysis. Four case studies are presented. RESULTS: Club participants reported benefits such as increased self-esteem and self-efficacy, reduced isolation, and greater insight into gender-based violence and strategies to address it. Day-to-day PrEP adherence was not the only topic discussed in clubs; participants also appreciated the safe space for sharing problems (such as relationship conflict and PrEP stigma) and found interactive exercises helpful in improving partner communication. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the use of peer-based clubs using a structured empowerment approach, which may offer valuable PrEP initiation support to adolescent girls and young women in settings with high HIV and gender-based violence prevalence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR202006754762723 , 5 April  2020, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Estigma Social , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Narração , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nursing ; 50(7): 48-52, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558791

RESUMO

This article explores the nature of stigma and discusses how stigma negatively affects both adults and children with epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Estigma Social , Adulto , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Criança , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Fundações , Humanos , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e19659, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An infodemic is an overabundance of information-some accurate and some not-that occurs during an epidemic. In a similar manner to an epidemic, it spreads between humans via digital and physical information systems. It makes it hard for people to find trustworthy sources and reliable guidance when they need it. OBJECTIVE: A World Health Organization (WHO) technical consultation on responding to the infodemic related to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic was held, entirely online, to crowdsource suggested actions for a framework for infodemic management. METHODS: A group of policy makers, public health professionals, researchers, students, and other concerned stakeholders was joined by representatives of the media, social media platforms, various private sector organizations, and civil society to suggest and discuss actions for all parts of society, and multiple related professional and scientific disciplines, methods, and technologies. A total of 594 ideas for actions were crowdsourced online during the discussions and consolidated into suggestions for an infodemic management framework. RESULTS: The analysis team distilled the suggestions into a set of 50 proposed actions for a framework for managing infodemics in health emergencies. The consultation revealed six policy implications to consider. First, interventions and messages must be based on science and evidence, and must reach citizens and enable them to make informed decisions on how to protect themselves and their communities in a health emergency. Second, knowledge should be translated into actionable behavior-change messages, presented in ways that are understood by and accessible to all individuals in all parts of all societies. Third, governments should reach out to key communities to ensure their concerns and information needs are understood, tailoring advice and messages to address the audiences they represent. Fourth, to strengthen the analysis and amplification of information impact, strategic partnerships should be formed across all sectors, including but not limited to the social media and technology sectors, academia, and civil society. Fifth, health authorities should ensure that these actions are informed by reliable information that helps them understand the circulating narratives and changes in the flow of information, questions, and misinformation in communities. Sixth, following experiences to date in responding to the COVID-19 infodemic and the lessons from other disease outbreaks, infodemic management approaches should be further developed to support preparedness and response, and to inform risk mitigation, and be enhanced through data science and sociobehavioral and other research. CONCLUSIONS: The first version of this framework proposes five action areas in which WHO Member States and actors within society can apply, according to their mandate, an infodemic management approach adapted to national contexts and practices. Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and the related infodemic require swift, regular, systematic, and coordinated action from multiple sectors of society and government. It remains crucial that we promote trusted information and fight misinformation, thereby helping save lives.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Crowdsourcing , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Mídias Sociais/organização & administração , Mídias Sociais/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/normas , Mídias Sociais/provisão & distribução
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e21820, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589589

RESUMO

In this issue of the Journal of Medical Internet Research, the World Health Organization (WHO) is presenting a framework for managing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infodemic. Infodemiology is now acknowledged by public health organizations and the WHO as an important emerging scientific field and critical area of practice during a pandemic. From the perspective of being the first "infodemiologist" who originally coined the term almost two decades ago, I am positing four pillars of infodemic management: (1) information monitoring (infoveillance); (2) building eHealth Literacy and science literacy capacity; (3) encouraging knowledge refinement and quality improvement processes such as fact checking and peer-review; and (4) accurate and timely knowledge translation, minimizing distorting factors such as political or commercial influences. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, the United Nations has advocated that facts and science should be promoted and that these constitute the antidote to the current infodemic. This is in stark contrast to the realities of infodemic mismanagement and misguided upstream filtering, where social media platforms such as Twitter have advertising policies that sideline science organizations and science publishers, treating peer-reviewed science as "inappropriate content."


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública/métodos , Mídias Sociais/organização & administração , Mídias Sociais/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/normas , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Política , Saúde Pública/educação , Saúde Pública/normas , Mídias Sociais/provisão & distribução
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008159, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525957

RESUMO

KEY RESULTS: Both outbreaks started in small towns, but cases were also detected in nearby larger cities where transmission was limited to small clusters. The time spans between the first and the last symptom onsets were similar between the 2 outbreaks, and the delay from the symptom onset of the index case and the first case notified was considerable. Comparable infection and transmission rates were observed in laboratory. The basic reproductive number (R0) was estimated in the range of 1.8-6 (2007) and 1.5-2.6 (2017). Clinical characteristics were similar between outbreaks, and no acute complications were reported, though a higher frequency of ocular symptoms, myalgia, and rash was observed in 2017. Very little is known about the immune mediator profile of CHIKV-infected patients during the 2 outbreaks. Regarding public health responses, after the 2007 outbreak, the Italian Ministry of Health developed national guidelines to implement surveillance and good practices to prevent and control autochthonous transmission. However, only a few regional authorities implemented it, and the perception of outbreak risk and knowledge of clinical symptoms and transmission dynamics by general practitioners remained low. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be devoted to developing suitable procedures for early detection of virus circulation in the population, possibly through the analysis of medical records in near real time. Increasing the awareness of CHIKV of general practitioners and public health officials through tailored education may be effective, especially in small coastal towns where the outbreak risk may be higher. A key element is also the shift of citizen awareness from considering Aedes mosquitoes not only as a nuisance problem but also as a public health one. We advocate the need of strengthening the surveillance and of promoting the active participation of the communities to prevent and contain future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução , Febre de Chikungunya/patologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/patologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/virologia
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