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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16697, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-centered care should be the focus of health services, where improvements in the communication skills of health professionals promote excellent health and quality care. Thus, this study is a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of training programs in communication skills to promote self-efficacy in the communication of health personnel. METHODS: This systematic review protocol is conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) statement guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The review should include studies carried out with health professionals who have undergone training in communication skills aimed at promoting their self-efficacy. Clinical trials (randomized, non-randomized), community trials, and quasi-experimental studies should be included. Therefore, the comprehensive search strategy will be conducted in the following databases: PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, Science Direct, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Two independent reviewers will conduct all study selection procedures, data extraction, and methodological evaluation, and disagreements will be referred to a third reviewer. RevMan 5.3 software will be used to gather data and perform the meta-analysis if possible. RESULTS: This systematic review will provide evidence on more effective programs for communication skills training and will consider information such as duration, educational strategies, assessment measures, and outcomes that promote health worker self-efficacy. DISCUSSION: This systematic review should provide evidence for effective communication skills training for health professionals in order to guide new strategies for quality care. DISSEMINATION AND ETHICS: The findings of this scoping review will be disseminated in print, at conferences, or via peer-reviewed journals. Ethical approval is not necessary as this paper does not involve patient data. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019129384.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Educação/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
3.
BMC Palliat Care ; 18(1): 58, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care professionals should prevent and relieve suffering in carers of patients with advanced cancer. Despite known positive effects of systematic carer support, carers still do not receive sufficient support. Carers have reported to be less satisfied with coordination of care and involvement of the family in treatment and care decisions than patients. In a rural district of Mid-Norway, cancer palliative care services across specialist and community care were developed. Participants' experiences and opinions were investigated as part of this development process. METHODS: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and describe health care professionals' experiences with carer support from their own perspective. Data were collected in focus groups. Purposeful sampling guided the inclusion. Six groups were formed with 21 professionals. The discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using systematic text condensation. RESULTS: In the analyzis of the focus group discussions, ten categories emerged from the exploration of health care professionals' carer support, assessment of needs, and factors hampering carer support: 1) dependent on profession, role, and context, 2) personal relationship, 3) personal skills and competence, 4) adjusted to the stage of the disease, 5) informal assessment of carers' needs, 6) lack of education 7) lack of systems for carer consultations, 8) lack of systems for documentation, 9) lack of systems for involving GPs, and 10) lack of systematic spiritual care. CONCLUSIONS: Health care professionals built a personal relationship with the carers as early as possible, to facilitate carer support throughout the disease trajectory. Systematic carer support was hampered by lack of education and system insufficiencies. Organizational changes were needed, including 1) education in carer support, communication, and spiritual care, 2) use of standardized care pathways, including systematic carer needs assessment, 3) systematic involvement of general practitioners, and 4) a system for documentation of clinical work with carers.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Apoio Social , Adulto , Idoso , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Educação/métodos , Feminino , Grupos Focais/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Noruega , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
Health Info Libr J ; 36(2): 195-198, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166089

RESUMO

The 2019 virtual issue of the Health Information and Libraries Journal (HILJ) is published to link to the 2019 EAHIL Workshop taking place in Basel, Switzerland on 17-20 June 2019. The workshop is structured around six topics: (i) Roadmap of our Profession; (ii) Technology Uptake; (iii) Ecology of Scholarly Communications; (iv) Impact + Assessment; (v) Benchmarking + Advocacy; (vi) Evidence-Based Practice. These themes have been used to compile this virtual issue, which contains published articles selected from HILJ from the March 2019 issue through to June 2017. The virtual issue mirrors the format of a regular issue of HILJ, namely a review article, five original articles and articles from our three regular features: 'Dissertations into Practice', 'International Perspectives and Initiatives' and 'Teaching and Learning in Action'. The authors come from the UK, Canada, Australia, Italy, Iran and Belgium. All articles included in this virtual issue are available free online.


Assuntos
Gestão da Informação em Saúde/educação , Biblioteconomia/tendências , Educação/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/tendências , Gestão da Informação em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Papel Profissional , Suíça
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(3): P1-P19, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176307

RESUMO

PARAT, a new European Society of Endocrinology program, aims to identify unmet scientific and educational needs of parathyroid disorders, such as primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), including parathyroid cancer (PC), and hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT). The discussions and consensus statements from the first PARAT workshop (September 2018) are reviewed. PHPT has a high prevalence in Western communities, PHPT has a high prevalence in Western communities, yet evidence is sparse concerning the natural history and whether morbidity and long-term outcomes are related to hypercalcemia or plasma PTH concentrations, or both. Cardiovascular mortality and prevalence of low energy fractures are increased, whereas Quality of Life is decreased, although their reversibility by treatment of PHPT has not been convincingly demonstrated. PC is a rare cause of PHPT, with an increasing incidence, and international collaborative studies are required to advance knowledge of the genetic mechanisms, biomarkers for disease activity, and optimal treatments. For example, ~20% of PCs demonstrate high mutational burden, and identifying targetable DNA variations, gene amplifications and gene fusions may facilitate personalized care, such as different forms of immunotherapy or targeted therapy. HypoPT, a designated orphan disease, is associated with a high risk of symptoms and complications. Most cases are secondary to neck surgery. However, there is a need to better understand the relation between disease biomarkers and intellectual function, and to establish the role of PTH in target tissues, as these may facilitate the appropriate use of PTH substitution therapy. Management of parathyroid disorders is challenging, and PARAT has highlighted the need for international transdisciplinary scientific and educational studies in advancing in this field.


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Endocrinologia/educação , Endocrinologia/métodos , Doenças das Paratireoides/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/metabolismo , Doenças das Paratireoides/diagnóstico , Doenças das Paratireoides/metabolismo , Hormônio Paratireóideo/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/metabolismo
7.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 4104-4109, 2019 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) diagnosis, performed by a physician at the patient bedside, is routinely used in emergency medicine and critical care. Although training in ultrasonography has become part of the medical school curriculum, POCUS can be challenging for medical students. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a one-day POCUS course in a group of final-year medical students by pre-course and post-course assessment of both diagnostic ability and changes in student confidence levels in making a diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective study recruited 57 final-year medical students who participated in a one-day POCUS course. Improvement in making decisions and levels of confidence were evaluated before and two weeks after the course, using image-based testing and a self- evaluation questionnaire. RESULTS All 57 final-year medical students attended the course and completed the tests and surveys. The pre-training and post-training test scores of medical students improved from 41.78±12% to 58±13%. Student confidence scores in the post-training assessment significantly increased. The post-training confidence scores were significantly increased compared with the pre-training scores regardless of whether or not the questions were answered correctly (p<0.001). The Dunning-Kruger effect, or cognitive bias, might partially explain this phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS One day of POCUS training integrated into anesthesia curriculum for final-year medical students improved performance in the post-training test scores and improved their confidence scores. Further studies are needed to evaluate this effect and to develop adequate tools to assess medical students.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Educação/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/tendências , Testes Imediatos/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(6): e14239, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy eating and fitness mobile apps are designed to promote healthier living. However, for young people, body dissatisfaction is commonplace, and these types of apps can become a source of maladaptive eating and exercise behaviors. Furthermore, such apps are designed to promote continuous engagement, potentially fostering compulsive behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify potential risks around healthy eating and fitness app use and negative experience and behavior formation among young people and to inform the understanding around how current commercial healthy eating and fitness apps on the market may, or may not, be exasperating such behaviors. METHODS: Our research was conducted in 2 phases. Through a survey (n=106) and 2 workshops (n=8), we gained an understanding of young people's perceptions of healthy eating and fitness apps and any potential harm that their use might have; we then explored these further through interviews with experts (n=3) in eating disorder and body image. Using insights drawn from this initial phase, we then explored the degree to which leading apps are preventing, or indeed contributing to, the formation of maladaptive eating and exercise behaviors. We conducted a review of the top 100 healthy eating and fitness apps on the Google Play Store to find out whether or not apps on the market have the potential to elicit maladaptive eating and exercise behaviors. RESULTS: Participants were aged between 18 and 25 years and had current or past experience of using healthy eating and fitness apps. Almost half of our survey participants indicated that they had experienced some form of negative experiences and behaviors through their app use. Our findings indicate a wide range of concerns around the wider impact of healthy eating and fitness apps on individuals at risk of maladaptive eating and exercise behavior, including (1) guilt formation because of the nature of persuasive models, (2) social isolation as a result of personal regimens around diet and fitness goals, (3) fear of receiving negative responses when targets are not achieved, and (4) feelings of being controlled by the app. The app review identified logging functionalities available across the apps that are used to promote the sustained use of the app. However, a significant number of these functionalities were seen to have the potential to cause negative experiences and behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we offer a set of responsibility guidelines for future researchers, designers, and developers of digital technologies aiming to support healthy eating and fitness behaviors. Our study highlights the necessity for careful considerations around the design of apps that promote weight loss or body modification through fitness training, especially when they are used by young people who are vulnerable to the development of poor body image and maladaptive eating and exercise behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/etiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física/normas , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/etiologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Educação/métodos , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
GMS J Med Educ ; 36(3): Doc24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211219

RESUMO

Aim: Due to the political demand for the integration of interprofessional (IP) learning into the undergraduate education of health professionals, teachers now have to create and perform IP courses. The IP and thus heterogeneous learning groups pose a special challenge. The presented project aimed at designing a workshop training to support teachers to reflect on heterogeneous learning cultures and to prepare for IP teaching. Methods: The workshop concept was developed in using the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle and included planning, several rounds of testing and the evaluation of the concept. All planning steps in the development of the workshop concept followed the principles of cooperative learning. The concept evolved in an iterative process based on participants' feedback and facilitators' self-reflection. Results: The resulting workshop concept includes theoretical input as well as discussion, teamwork and participants' self-reflection. The workshop's core element is the work assignment to develop an IP teaching session considering different learning cultures. Work results and experiences are discussed with the entire group and required skills of IP teachers are identified. Conclusion: The subjective feedback of participants regarding their satisfaction and knowledge gained indicates that the workshop concept is well received. The joint planning of an IP teaching session highlights particularities resulting from heterogeneous learning cultures. These should be utilized in IP education to better prepare learners for IP cooperation in the workplace.


Assuntos
Cultura , Educação/métodos , Docentes/educação , Educação/tendências , Docentes/psicologia , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Aprendizagem
11.
PLoS Biol ; 17(6): e3000348, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242174

RESUMO

Technological breakthroughs in the past two decades have ushered in a new era of biomedical research, turning it into an information-rich and technology-driven science. This scientific revolution, though evident to the research community, remains opaque to nonacademic audiences. Such knowledge gaps are likely to persist without revised strategies for science education and public outreach. To address this challenge, we developed a unique outreach program to actively engage over 100 high-school students in the investigation of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Our program uses robotic automation and interactive web-based tools to bridge geographical distances, scale up the number of participants, and reduce overall cost. Students and teachers demonstrated high engagement and interest throughout the project and valued its unique approach. This educational model can be leveraged to advance the massive open online courses movement that is already transforming science education.


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Robótica/educação , Adolescente , Automação , Relações Comunidade-Instituição/tendências , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Ensino/educação , Tecnologia
12.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(3): 185-188, jun. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182729

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar la formación en soporte vital básico (SVB), en horario escolar, de alumnos de primero de la enseñanza secundaria obligatoria (ESO) por sus propios profesores y su resultado a los seis meses. Método: Estudio observacional prospectivo, con análisis pre y postintervención a los seis meses. Se impartieron cursos de SVB según las recomendaciones del European Resuscitation Council a los profesores y estos a sus alumnos. Los exámenes teóricos y prácticos fueron realizados por los profesores. Resultados: Se formaron 62 profesores que instruyeron a 1.043 alumnos. Hubo un aumento significativo de los conocimientos teóricos [de 4,42 (DE 1,64) a 7,28 (1,85), p < 0,001] aunque descendió a los seis meses [5,15 (3,16), p < 0,001]. Las habilidades prácticas también se mantuvieron a los seis meses, aunque con mayor dificultad las relacionadas con la vía aérea. Conclusiones: La formación en SVB de escolares de primero de la ESO realizada por sus propios profesores en horario modificó la actitud de los escolares ante una posible parada cardiaca y logró un aprendizaje de las técnicas que desciende a los 6 meses


Objective: To assess first-year secondary-school students' knowledge and performance of basic life support (BLS) 6 months after training given by their regular teachers during school hours. Method: Prospective observational study comparing pre-intervention and 6-months post-intervention knowledge and performance. The teachers gave BLS classes according to the guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council and also supervised the tests of BLS knowledge and performance. Results: Sixty-two teachers were trained in BLS instruction. They then instructed 1043 students. The students' knowledge increased significantly from mean (SD) scores of 4.42 (1.64) to 7.28 (1.85) (P< .001) and was maintained at 6 months (mean score, 5.15 [3.16]; P<.001). Performance skills were also maintained at 6 months, although the students had greater difficulty attaining ventilation targets. Conclusions: Teachers' training of their own first-year secondary students during regular school hours led to changes in the students' attitudes toward the possibility of cardiac arrest and to the learning of BLS techniques


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Educação/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Parada Cardíaca/reabilitação , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Estudos Prospectivos , Medicina de Emergência/educação
13.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(3): 189-194, jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182730

RESUMO

Se analiza la experiencia de un proyecto educativo de reanimación cardiopulmonar básica (RCPB) en un centro escolar valorando si es viable, efectivo y perdurable en el tiempo. Se trata de un proyecto desarrollado en un centro de enseñanza concertada de educación infantil (EI), primaria (EP) y secundaria (ESO), ubicado en un concejo muy poblado de Asturias, de más de 80.000 habitantes, en tres fases: 1) formación de maestros por personal sanitario y diseño conjunto del proyecto; 2) formación de escolares por personal sanitario, y 3) formación de niños por sus profesores. Se incluyeron todos los alumnos matriculados en el colegio en EI y EP (3 a 12 años). La formación impartida siguió las recomendaciones ILCOR (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation) 2005, vigentes en aquel momento. En la fase 1 (año 2006) 19 profesores (79,2% de la plantilla) recibieron formación en RCPB y diseñaron con el personal sanitario los objetivos y material a emplear para cada curso. En la fase 2 (2006-2011) el personal sanitario formó a 646 escolares de EI y EP, y acreditó a 13 maestros (54,2% de la plantilla) para utilizar un DEA y como monitores de RCPB. En la fase 3 (2012-2014) 7 maestros formaron a 703 alumnos de EI, EP y ESO; 17 profesores (70,8% de la plantilla) recibieron cursos de monitor de RCPB y reciclajes DEA. En total recibieron formación en RCPB 1.349 niños entre 3 y 15 años. Desde el año 2011, el colegio cuenta con un DEA. Los profesores han mejorado el proyecto incorporando nuevos materiales, adelantado objetivos y extendiéndolo a los alumnos de ESO. La implantación de un proyecto educativo en RCPB en un colegio de enseñanza concertada de EI, EP y ESO de Asturias fue viable y ha perdurado. El profesorado ha mejorado el proyecto y lo ha extendido a los alumnos de secundaria, difundiendo la RCPB en medios de comunicación locales y en su página web, creando una cultura de la RCPB y acercándola a toda la comunidad


This project analyzed the feasibility, effectiveness, and sustainability of an educational project to teach cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This project has been carried out in a publicly subsidized school in a town in Asturias, Spain (population, over 80 000 inhabitants). The enrollment included students in preschool and both primary and secondary education classes. The project had 3 phases: 1) health care experts trained the teachers in CPR and they designed the educational project together; 2) health care experts taught CPR to schoolchildren, and 3) teachers taught CPR to the children. All the children enrolled in preschool and primary school (aged 3 to 12 years) initially participated in the study. Training followed the 2005 guidelines of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) in effect at the time of the study. In the first phase (2006), 19 teachers (79.2% of the faculty) were trained in basic CPR and collaborated with the health care professionals in designing the course, including setting its objectives and developing materials. In the second phase (2006-2011), the health care professionals trained 646 preschool and primary school children and accredited 13 teachers (54.2% of the faculty) in the use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) and to serve as CPR instructional monitors. In the third phase (2012-2014), 7 teachers trained 703 preschool and primary and secondary school students, and 17 teachers (70.8% of the faculty) received training to become CPR monitors and/or to update their knowledge of AED use. A total of 1349 students between the ages of 3 and 15 years received instruction in CPR. The school has had an AED on its premises since 2011. The teachers have made further improvements in the courses, incorporating new teaching materials, updating the objectives, and extending instruction to secondary school students. The implementation of an educational program to teach CPR in a school that enrolls preschool through secondary school students was feasible and sustainable. Teachers have improved the program, extended it to secondary school students, and made the project known in the local media and on the school's web site, thus contributing to the creation of a CPR culture that reached out to the community


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Projetos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Parada Cardíaca/reabilitação , Capacitação de Professores , Educação/métodos , Primeiros Socorros/métodos
14.
Work ; 63(1): 137-149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ergonomics/Human factors (HFE) is little considered in the engineering design practice and design methodologies do not adequately present the use of HFE. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to propose a systematic for the integration of HFE into product design, based on the user-centered design approach. Thus, an overview of the systematic is presented, as well as the suggestion of methods and support tools for each phase of the design process. METHODS: In order to verify the applicability of the systematic it was done an expert evaluation of the systematic and an experiment was carried out in the engineering education, in two classes of the product design course in a Brazilian University in 2016. RESULTS: The results showed that the students of the study group developed a better knowledge about HFE and its use in product design, besides the probability of using HFE in the product design went from low to high after the experiment. CONCLUSION: Presenting this information in a systematized way together with the design process allows students to be more likely to use it, to understand it better and know how to use it.


Assuntos
Engenharia/educação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Ergonomia/métodos , Brasil , Currículo/normas , Currículo/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Educação/métodos , Educação/tendências , Engenharia/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(5): e1006764, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120882

RESUMO

In a flipped classroom, students complete automated modules to replace a traditional lecture, allowing the time devoted for the lecture to be devoted to constructive tasks reinforcing student knowledge. Yet although the flipped classroom offers a compelling approach for fostering a constructivist, student-centric learning environment, research on the efficacy of flipped classes has been mixed. For that matter, is it possible to successfully flip a classroom in an advanced, heavily specialized course like a bioinformatics algorithms course? Over the past several years, the author has implemented a flipped version of such a course and will discuss some of the successes and pitfalls encountered.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Currículo , Educação/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Estudantes
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2027, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048694

RESUMO

Traditional tests of concept knowledge generate scores to assess how well a learner understands a concept. Here, we investigated whether patterns of brain activity collected during a concept knowledge task could be used to compute a neural 'score' to complement traditional scores of an individual's conceptual understanding. Using a novel data-driven multivariate neuroimaging approach-informational network analysis-we successfully derived a neural score from patterns of activity across the brain that predicted individual differences in multiple concept knowledge tasks in the physics and engineering domain. These tasks include an fMRI paradigm, as well as two other previously validated concept inventories. The informational network score outperformed alternative neural scores computed using data-driven neuroimaging methods, including multivariate representational similarity analysis. This technique could be applied to quantify concept knowledge in a wide range of domains, including classroom-based education research, machine learning, and other areas of cognitive science.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Educação/métodos , Individualidade , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Currículo , Engenharia/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Tecnologia/educação , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042765

RESUMO

We evaluate a bridging intervention for a group of young people aged 18-29, with no formal educational qualifications, who are not in employment, education or training. The bridging intervention consisted of classroom training, educational internships and mentoring. Based on Danish register data with a large number of control variables, a propensity score matching estimator was applied to assess the effectiveness of the bridging intervention. The results show that the bridging intervention was effective in increasing educational enrollment and completion for all participants. The effects of the intervention were particularly large for participants assessed to be 'not ready for education' and those diagnosed with psychiatric disorders suggesting that the bridging intervention may be especially beneficial for these subgroups.


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Desemprego/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Ensino/psicologia , Desemprego/tendências , Adulto Jovem
18.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(7): 660-666, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083797

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the effect of an interprofessional collaboration (IPC) promotion program among community healthcare professionals. METHODS: A non-randomized controlled study was carried out. Study participants were home healthcare-related professionals in a suburban city near Tokyo; program participants were compared with non-participants. The program consisted of two workshops each 2 h long and 4 months apart. The first workshop focused on developing a community resource map, and discussing community strengths and features. The second focused on examining a case of transitional care from hospital to home. Mail surveys were carried out before the first workshop and 6 months after. The IPC level was examined using an established seven-domain scale. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the program effect by comparing baseline and 6-month data in the two groups. RESULTS: Altogether, 213 professionals participated (intervention: n = 141 vs control: n = 72); approximately 60% were women, with a mean age of 45.9 ± 10.2 years. There were significant between-group differences in baseline IPC score, age, type of profession and number of other educational opportunities. After adjusting for these variables, the IPC domains of "familiarity" and "meeting and talking" improved significantly in the intervention group as compared with the control group (P = 0.011 and 0.036, respectively). When the intervention group was split in two (two-time vs one-time participants), the improvement at 6 months was not significantly different between two- and one-time participants. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that our program is effective to improve the IPC level; one-time participation might be enough to have expected improvement. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 660-666.


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/normas , Colaboração Intersetorial , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Cuidado Transicional/organização & administração , Adulto , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Relações Interprofissionais , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade
19.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The use of brain-computer interface in neurofeedback therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a relatively new approach. We conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to determine whether an 8-week brain computer interface (BCI)-based attention training program improved inattentive symptoms in children with ADHD compared to a waitlist-control group, and the effects of a subsequent 12-week lower-intensity training. STUDY DESIGN: We randomized 172 children aged 6-12 attending an outpatient child psychiatry clinic diagnosed with inattentive or combined subtypes of ADHD and not receiving concurrent pharmacotherapy or behavioral intervention to either the intervention or waitlist-control group. Intervention involved 3 sessions of BCI-based training for 8 weeks, followed by 3 training sessions per month over the subsequent 12 weeks. The waitlist-control group received similar 20-week intervention after a wait-time of 8 weeks. RESULTS: The participants' mean age was 8.6 years (SD = 1.51), with 147 males (85.5%) and 25 females (14.5%). Modified intention to treat analyzes conducted on 163 participants with at least one follow-up rating showed that at 8 weeks, clinician-rated inattentive symptoms on the ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) was reduced by 3.5 (SD 3.97) in the intervention group compared to 1.9 (SD 4.42) in the waitlist-control group (between-group difference of 1.6; 95% CI 0.3 to 2.9 p = 0.0177). At the end of the full 20-week treatment, the mean reduction (pre-post BCI) of the pooled group was 3.2 (95% CI 2.4 to 4.1). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the BCI-based attention training program can improve ADHD symptoms after a minimum of 24 sessions and maintenance training may sustain this improvement. This intervention may be an option for treating milder cases or as an adjunctive treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Atenção , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Educação/métodos , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 36(1): 100-105, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116322

RESUMO

Based on the epidemiological surveys on mental health applied to Health Science students of the School of Medicine (Medicine, Nursing, Obstetrics, Nutrition, and Medical Technology) of Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, the author postulates that there are two ways to understand the teaching needs of ethics: 1) as a curricular strategy, with theoretical information through specific courses; and, 2) as a support to the moral development of the personality with diverse innovative methods. Based on the results of the surveys mentioned, which show lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts and dissocial behaviors greater than in the general population, it is proposed that such teaching shall be planned for two groups of students with different needs: 1) those without a mental health pathology and who can benefit from the regular curricular strategy; and, 2) those who, with mental health problems and indicators of difficulties in their social behavior, shall also be helped with techniques aimed at offering them support in their moral development. And that this educational challenge must be the responsibility of the university of the 21st century, under the question: What does our country need, health professionals who know ethics or who behave ethically?


Assuntos
Ética Médica/educação , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Ocupações em Saúde/ética , Desenvolvimento Moral , Currículo , Educação/métodos
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