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2.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 125(6): 431-436, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943768

RESUMO

Student career aspirations are directly linked to the careers that they are exposed to and the esteem that they are given in society. Where schools are located in areas with low visibility of scientific careers this will have an impact on student aspirations. This project is demonstrating that aspirations can be altered by engaging 16-18-year-old A level biologists in sustained research. A total of 20 students from schools across Jersey are attempting to sequence the chloroplast genomes from daffodils that they have collected from non-cultivated locations using Oxford Nanopore Technologies' MinION. Despite site closures due to COVID-19 control measures, the project has developed insight into different scientific careers through experience and ownership of the entire project pipeline. This project demonstrates an opportunity for schools and academics to collaborate to further science and potentially improve student outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação/tendências , Pandemias , Plantas/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudantes
5.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(8): 2161-2163, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519138

RESUMO

Many GI training programs have needed to adjust to the serious disruption to the training and education of fellows worldwide due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A silent problem that has arisen within programs is the issue of burnout among their trainees. Burnout is common among gastroenterologists, especially in fellows (Keswani et al. in Gastroenterology 147(1):11-14, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2014.05.023 , Am J Gastroenterol 106(10):1734-1740, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2011.148 ), with negative consequences to patient care and the safety of the trainees if not effectively dealt with. In this article, the author describes several additional factors potentially contributing to the intensifying burnout of the fellows in their home institution during this pandemic. Moreover, he describes specific practical interventions that the hospital and program have taken in order to address these factors.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Psicológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação , Gastroenterologia/educação , Internato e Residência , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Psicológico/etiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Educação/ética , Educação/organização & administração , Educação/tendências , Ética Institucional , Bolsas de Estudo/métodos , Gastroenterologistas/psicologia , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Internato e Residência/tendências , Pandemias
8.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(3): e11-e12, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375914

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a respiratory disease that can spread from one person to person. This virus is a novel coronavirus that was first identified during an investigation into an outbreak in Wuhan, China. Iran's novel coronavirus cases reached 17,361 on 17 March, while death toll reached approximately 1,135. Its first death was officially announced on 20 February 2020 in Qom. The 2019 coronavirus pandemic has affected educational systems around the world, Also in Iran, and led to the closure of face to face courses in schools and universities. Therefore, virtual education can be seen as a turning point in education of these days in Iran.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Realidade Virtual , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Educação/tendências , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Ensino/psicologia , Ensino/normas
9.
Nature ; 580(7805): 636-639, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350468

RESUMO

Education is a key dimension of well-being and a crucial indicator of development1-4. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) prioritize progress in education, with a new focus on inequality5-7. Here we model the within-country distribution of years of schooling, and use this model to explore educational inequality since 1970 and to forecast progress towards the education-related 2030 SDG targets. We show that although the world is largely on track to achieve near-universal primary education by 2030, substantial challenges remain in the completion rates for secondary and tertiary education. Globally, the gender gap in schooling had nearly closed by 2018 but gender disparities remained acute in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and North Africa and the Middle East. It is predicted that, by 2030, females will have achieved significantly higher educational attainment than males in 18 countries. Inequality in education reached a peak globally in 2017 and is projected to decrease steadily up to 2030. The distributions and inequality metrics presented here represent a framework that can be used to track the progress of each country towards the SDG targets and the level of inequality over time. Reducing educational inequality is one way to promote a fairer distribution of human capital and the development of more equitable human societies.


Assuntos
Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação/tendências , Previsões , Objetivos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Educação/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
11.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(2): 429-433, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191200

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the development of an Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited emergency medical services (EMS) fellowship, there has been little published literature on effective methods of content delivery or training modalities. Here we explore a variety of innovative approaches to the development and revision of the EMS fellowship curriculum. METHODS: Three academic, university-based ACGME-accredited EMS fellowship programs each implemented an innovative change to their existing training curricula. These changes included the following: a novel didactic curriculum delivery modality and evaluation; implementation of a distance education program to improve EMS fellows' rural EMS experiences; and modification of an existing EMS fellowship curriculum to train a non-emergency medicine physician. RESULTS: Changes made to each of the above EMS fellowship programs addressed unique challenges, demonstrating areas of success and promise for more generalized implementation of these curricula. Obstacles remain in tailoring the described curricula to the needs of each unique institution and system. CONCLUSION: Three separate curricula and program changes were implemented to overcome specific challenges and achieve educational goals. It is our hope that our shared experiences will enable others in addressing common barriers to teaching the EMS fellowship core content and share similar innovative approaches to educational challenges.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Educação/tendências , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Bolsas de Estudo , Bolsas de Estudo/métodos , Bolsas de Estudo/organização & administração , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estados Unidos
12.
BMJ Open Qual ; 9(1)2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209593

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: 'Systems thinking' is often recommended in healthcare to support quality and safety activities but a shared understanding of this concept and purposeful guidance on its application are limited. Healthcare systems have been described as complex where human adaptation to localised circumstances is often necessary to achieve success. Principles for managing and improving system safety developed by the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL; a European intergovernmental air navigation organisation) incorporate a 'Safety-II systems approach' to promote understanding of how safety may be achieved in complex work systems. We aimed to adapt and contextualise the core principles of this systems approach and demonstrate the application in a healthcare setting. METHODS: The original EUROCONTROL principles were adapted using consensus-building methods with front-line staff and national safety leaders. RESULTS: Six interrelated principles for healthcare were agreed. The foundation concept acknowledges that 'most healthcare problems and solutions belong to the system'. Principle 1 outlines the need to seek multiple perspectives to understand system safety. Principle 2 prompts us to consider the influence of prevailing work conditions-demand, capacity, resources and constraints. Principle 3 stresses the importance of analysing interactions and work flow within the system. Principle 4 encourages us to attempt to understand why professional decisions made sense at the time and principle 5 prompts us to explore everyday work including the adjustments made to achieve success in changing system conditions.A case study is used to demonstrate the application in an analysis of a system and in the subsequent improvement intervention design. CONCLUSIONS: Application of the adapted principles underpins, and is characteristic of, a holistic systems approach and may aid care team and organisational system understanding and improvement.


Assuntos
Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Análise de Sistemas , Adulto , Educação/métodos , Educação/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229505, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents' high academic expectations predict future health and successful societal integration. Yet, little is known about which factors may promote adolescents' expectations of their future education and academic achievement. AIMS: To explore whether potentially modifiable factors such as parents' engagement and expectations regarding their child's education; or student individual factors such as school engagement, academic achievement, sense of identity, and positive mental health predict positive development of academic expectations in early adolescence. METHODS: A longitudinal study of 3,203 adolescents and their parents was conducted with information collected between 7th grade (13 years of age) and 9th grade (16 years of age). Parental and adolescents' own academic expectations and engagement in school, academic achievement, identity synthesis, and mental health were self-reported in annual questionnaires. We used logistic regression to analyze the associations between the aforementioned factors and two binary outcomes related to changes in expectations from 7th to 9th grade: A. resolved uncertainty regarding own academic expectations; B. raised academic expectations. RESULTS: Student engagement, and higher academic grades predicted both resolved uncertainty in expectations and raised academic expectations. Higher parental involvement in education was related to resolved uncertainty, while high parental expectations were related to raised student expectations. Identity synthesis and mental health did not appear to predict either outcome. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that a supportive parental attitude concerning their child's education during adolescence, student engagement, and positive progressions in academic achievements may contribute to a positive development of academic expectations, thus to positive educational trajectories.


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Previsões/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Adolescente , Adulto , Educação/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Motivação , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
15.
Muscle Nerve ; 61(6): 740-744, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108365

RESUMO

Limb contractures are debilitating complications associated with various muscle and nervous system disorders. This report summarizes presentations at a conference at the Shirley Ryan AbilityLab in Chicago, Illinois, on April 19-20, 2018, involving researchers and physicians from diverse disciplines who convened to discuss current clinical and preclinical understanding of contractures in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, stroke, cerebral palsy, and other conditions. Presenters described changes in muscle architecture, activation, extracellular matrix, satellite cells, and muscle fiber sarcomeric structure that accompany or predispose muscles to contracture. Participants identified ongoing and future research directions that may lead to understanding of the intersecting factors that trigger contractures. These include additional studies of changes in muscle, tendon, joint, and neuronal tissues during contracture development with imaging, molecular, and physiologic approaches. Participants identified the requirement for improved biomarkers and outcome measures to identify patients likely to develop contractures and to accurately measure efficacy of treatments currently available and under development.


Assuntos
Contratura/fisiopatologia , Educação/tendências , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Relatório de Pesquisa/tendências , Paralisia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Chicago , Contratura/diagnóstico , Contratura/terapia , Humanos , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/diagnóstico , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/fisiopatologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/terapia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia
16.
Epilepsy Behav ; 103(Pt A): 106839, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932179

RESUMO

Lafora disease (LD) is both a fatal childhood epilepsy and a glycogen storage disease caused by recessive mutations in either the Epilepsy progressive myoclonus 2A (EPM2A) or EPM2B genes. Hallmarks of LD are aberrant, cytoplasmic carbohydrate aggregates called Lafora bodies (LBs) that are a disease driver. The 5th International Lafora Epilepsy Workshop was recently held in Alcala de Henares, Spain. The workshop brought together nearly 100 clinicians, academic and industry scientists, trainees, National Institutes of Health (NIH) representation, and friends and family members of patients with LD. The workshop covered aspects of LD ranging from defining basic scientific mechanisms to elucidating a LD therapy or cure and a recently launched LD natural history study.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Educação/tendências , Internacionalidade , Doença de Lafora/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Doença de Lafora/epidemiologia , Doença de Lafora/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases não Receptoras/genética , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 6, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although psychosomatic medicine is not recognised as a medical specialisation globally, it has proven useful for treating many disorders in Germany. This paper reports on the impact of an educational workshop as a tool for raising awareness about psychosomatic medicine among international psychiatrists. METHODS: Psychiatrists from eight different countries were educated on psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy during a 90-min workshop using a video, a slide presentation and an innovative teaching format called 'speed coaching'. Learning outcomes were assessed by analysing questionnaires completed by the participants before and after the workshop. RESULTS: Half of the participants who initially rejected the notion that psychosomatic medicine should be a specialisation on its own changed their minds in favour for it to be a separate discipline (p = 0.125). Awareness about which diseases and patients psychosomatic doctors deal with was increased. The intent for treatment of patients with eating disorders by a psychosomatic physician quadrupled among the participants (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: A brief educational intervention can influence psychiatrists' decisions to opt for approaches by doctors specialized in psychosomatics for certain disorders. Further studies may explore why psychiatrists agree or disagree that psychosomatic medicine should be a separate specialisation on its own.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação/métodos , Psiquiatria/educação , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/terapia , Medicina Psicossomática/educação , Adulto , Educação/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Médico-Paciente , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 285-293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335582

RESUMO

This article serves as the introduction to "25 Years On: The State and Continuing Development of LGBTQ Studies Programs." It begins by placing the current issue in a commemorative context: marking the anniversary of a 1993 special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality dedicated to the emergence of "Gay and Lesbian Studies" and edited by Howard L. Minton. The introduction continues by providing an overview of early phases of academic transformations, primarily in the United States, with notes on particular legacies. This is followed by a brief survey of scholarship published since 1993 that pays particular attention to curricular and pedagogical concerns. It concludes by identifying themes articulated by the essays selected for this issue as well as commentary on their individual, yet richly interrelated, contributions.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Educação/tendências , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/educação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história , Estados Unidos
20.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 325-334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372374

RESUMO

This article explores the development of LGBTQ studies and scholarship in Bulgaria. In part, it brings to the forefront the personal experiences of some of the first Bulgarian scholars working on LGBTQ studies. The personal is interpreted in part through explorations of Bourdieu's concept of "symbolic violence." Elaborating on the challenges regarding the emergence and the development of LGBTQ studies on an institutional and personal level, I discuss three main topics: (1) the emergence and the development of LGBTQ scholarship and university courses in Bulgaria; (2) the main institutional obstacles and the "symbolic violence" within the academia against scholars dealing with LGBTQ subjects, including issues of funding, evaluation, and discrimination; and (3) the future development of the subject in Bulgaria, with a particular attention to the need for "LGBTQ studies solidarity" to overcome the disadvantaged position of LGBTQ scholars in post-socialist countries.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Bulgária , Educação/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa/tendências , Comunicação Acadêmica , Socialismo , Universidades , Violência
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