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1.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 325-334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372374

RESUMO

This article explores the development of LGBTQ studies and scholarship in Bulgaria. In part, it brings to the forefront the personal experiences of some of the first Bulgarian scholars working on LGBTQ studies. The personal is interpreted in part through explorations of Bourdieu's concept of "symbolic violence." Elaborating on the challenges regarding the emergence and the development of LGBTQ studies on an institutional and personal level, I discuss three main topics: (1) the emergence and the development of LGBTQ scholarship and university courses in Bulgaria; (2) the main institutional obstacles and the "symbolic violence" within the academia against scholars dealing with LGBTQ subjects, including issues of funding, evaluation, and discrimination; and (3) the future development of the subject in Bulgaria, with a particular attention to the need for "LGBTQ studies solidarity" to overcome the disadvantaged position of LGBTQ scholars in post-socialist countries.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Bulgária , Educação/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa/tendências , Comunicação Acadêmica , Socialismo , Universidades , Violência
2.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 285-293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335582

RESUMO

This article serves as the introduction to "25 Years On: The State and Continuing Development of LGBTQ Studies Programs." It begins by placing the current issue in a commemorative context: marking the anniversary of a 1993 special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality dedicated to the emergence of "Gay and Lesbian Studies" and edited by Howard L. Minton. The introduction continues by providing an overview of early phases of academic transformations, primarily in the United States, with notes on particular legacies. This is followed by a brief survey of scholarship published since 1993 that pays particular attention to curricular and pedagogical concerns. It concludes by identifying themes articulated by the essays selected for this issue as well as commentary on their individual, yet richly interrelated, contributions.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Educação/tendências , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/educação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história , Estados Unidos
4.
GMS J Med Educ ; 36(3): Doc24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211219

RESUMO

Aim: Due to the political demand for the integration of interprofessional (IP) learning into the undergraduate education of health professionals, teachers now have to create and perform IP courses. The IP and thus heterogeneous learning groups pose a special challenge. The presented project aimed at designing a workshop training to support teachers to reflect on heterogeneous learning cultures and to prepare for IP teaching. Methods: The workshop concept was developed in using the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle and included planning, several rounds of testing and the evaluation of the concept. All planning steps in the development of the workshop concept followed the principles of cooperative learning. The concept evolved in an iterative process based on participants' feedback and facilitators' self-reflection. Results: The resulting workshop concept includes theoretical input as well as discussion, teamwork and participants' self-reflection. The workshop's core element is the work assignment to develop an IP teaching session considering different learning cultures. Work results and experiences are discussed with the entire group and required skills of IP teachers are identified. Conclusion: The subjective feedback of participants regarding their satisfaction and knowledge gained indicates that the workshop concept is well received. The joint planning of an IP teaching session highlights particularities resulting from heterogeneous learning cultures. These should be utilized in IP education to better prepare learners for IP cooperation in the workplace.


Assuntos
Cultura , Educação/métodos , Docentes/educação , Educação/tendências , Docentes/psicologia , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Aprendizagem
5.
Work ; 63(1): 137-149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ergonomics/Human factors (HFE) is little considered in the engineering design practice and design methodologies do not adequately present the use of HFE. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to propose a systematic for the integration of HFE into product design, based on the user-centered design approach. Thus, an overview of the systematic is presented, as well as the suggestion of methods and support tools for each phase of the design process. METHODS: In order to verify the applicability of the systematic it was done an expert evaluation of the systematic and an experiment was carried out in the engineering education, in two classes of the product design course in a Brazilian University in 2016. RESULTS: The results showed that the students of the study group developed a better knowledge about HFE and its use in product design, besides the probability of using HFE in the product design went from low to high after the experiment. CONCLUSION: Presenting this information in a systematized way together with the design process allows students to be more likely to use it, to understand it better and know how to use it.


Assuntos
Engenharia/educação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Ergonomia/métodos , Brasil , Currículo/normas , Currículo/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Educação/métodos , Educação/tendências , Engenharia/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215971, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042748

RESUMO

Can participation in job-related training contribute to the formation and maintenance of adults' literacy skills? Although evidence suggests that participation in training is related to higher literacy skills, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal effect of training participation on literacy (training effects), results from the self-selection of more high-skilled individuals into training (selection effects), or is due to other sources of endogeneity (e.g., omitted variable bias). To unravel these possibilities, we used data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) and its German follow-up, PIAAC-Longitudinal (PIAAC-L). As these unique data offer repeated measures of literacy skills, spaced three years apart, in a large and representative sample, they allowed us to disentangle training effects from selection effects and to account for potential endogeneity. Analyses revealed that, even after taking account of formal education and a host of job characteristics, individuals with higher literacy skills were more likely to participate in training. By contrast, no evidence for effects of training on literacy skills emerged in any of our models, which comprised lagged-dependent, fixed effects, and instrumental-variable models. These findings suggest that, rather than job-related training contributing to literacy development, individuals with higher literacy skills are more likely to participate in training.


Assuntos
Educação/tendências , Alfabetização/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Competência em Informação , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Capacitação em Serviço , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração de Recursos Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(2): 375-382, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the pedagogical strategies and the elements that determine the construction of the educational workshop in healthcare at the teaching-service integration process. METHOD: Collective case study with qualitative approach. The cases consisted of two undergraduate courses in nursing. Thirty-one interviews were conducted with healthcare professionals, professors and students, in addition to participant observation in seven basic health units (UBS) that received the students interviewed. RESULTS: The following analytical categories emerged: teaching-service integration: articulating idealized situations with real situations; pedagogical workshop in health: development of collective pedagogical actions; reflection on the experiences in the pedagogical workshop in health: articulating the knowledge of the work world with the teaching world. FINAL CONSIDERATION: Despite the integration difficulties between teaching and service, we can conclude that their encounter generates a fertile field for the development of the educational workshop in healthcare. To this end, the agreement of the strategies presented in the constitution of the workshop is necessary.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Educação/organização & administração , Educação/tendências , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/tendências , Docentes de Enfermagem/educação , Docentes de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensino/organização & administração
8.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0213204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017907

RESUMO

A straightforward technique to explore the "total effects" of neighborhoods on health outcomes is to compare the degree of similarity of outcomes of neighbors with those of non-neighbors. Several issues arise in interpreting these estimates around spatial and temporal definitions of "neighbors" and life course mobility patterns. Indeed, much work uses "cross- sectional neighbors," which makes the interpretation of the estimates unclear because they combine short-term effects (for movers) and long-term effects (for stayers). This paper contributes to the literature by assessing the importance of measuring neighbor mobility as well as neighborhood selection. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we examine the extent to which having longitudinal measures of "neighbors" shapes estimates of neighborhood effects, and also use a negative test of neighborhood effects to assess the importance of neighborhood selection. Specifically, we estimate similarity in self-rated health of adults over 30 years old who live in the same county over various periods of time and find that "cross-sectional" neighbor definitions may understate neighborhood effect estimates by as much as 35%. However, when we contrast these health estimates with contemporaneous neighborhood "effects" on completed education, we find that much of the "understated" effects on health are likely related to selection effects rather than causal effects of neighborhoods.


Assuntos
Educação/tendências , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Censos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica Populacional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/psicologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/psicologia
9.
Pediatrics ; 143(5)2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023830

RESUMO

Hypertension affects >40% of the US population and is a major contributor to cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Although less common among children and adolescents, hypertension affects 1% to 5% of all youth. The 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents provided updates and strategies regarding the diagnosis and management of hypertension in youth. Despite this important information, many gaps in knowledge remain, such as the etiology, prevalence, and trends of hypertension; the utility and practicality of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; practical goals for lifestyle modification that are generalizable; the long-term end-organ impacts of hypertension in youth; and the long-term safety and efficacy of antihypertensive therapy in youth. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, in collaboration with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the US Food and Drug Administration, sponsored a workshop of experts to discuss the current state of childhood primary hypertension. We highlight the results of that workshop and aim to (1) provide an overview of current practices related to the diagnosis, management, and treatment of primary pediatric hypertension; (2) identify related research gaps; and (3) propose ways to address existing research gaps.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/terapia , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.) , Adolescente , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/tendências , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Educação/métodos , Educação/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Lactente , Masculino , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)/tendências , National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.)/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 21(81): e25-e30, ene.-mar. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184541

RESUMO

La teoría del apego formulada originariamente por John Bowlby en la década de los cincuenta ha permitido profundizar en el conocimiento del vínculo de los padres con el bebé, así como mostrar que este vínculo es esencial para que los niños se desarrollen sanamente. La calidad de este vínculo de apego con las personas que cuidan al niño influirá en el desarrollo de sus capacidades mentales. Los pediatras tienen un papel privilegiado para mostrar a padres y madres la manera adecuada de atender tanto las necesidades psicológicas como físicas del bebé y de los niños


The Psychological attachment theory originally formulated by John Bowlby in the fifties has allowed to deepen the knowledge of the link parents-baby and has showed that the bond of attachment is essential for children to develop healthily. The quality of this bond of attachment with the people who care for the child will influence the development of their mental capacities. Pediatricians have a privileged role to show fathers and mothers the proper way to meet both the psychological and physical needs of baby and children


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Cuidado da Criança/métodos , Educação Infantil/tendências , Poder Familiar , Desenvolvimento Infantil/classificação , Educação/tendências , Pediatria/tendências , Apego ao Objeto , Desempenho Psicomotor/classificação
12.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212692, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811455

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to document and understand how trends in educational variability and the gender gap in education developed jointly over time. Main questions include: Is the education distribution among women becoming more dispersed as their average attainment surpasses that of men? Is education variability among women higher than that of men? Does the reduction-and eventual reversal-of the gender gap in education go hand-in-hand with less educational variability overall? To answer these questions we first show how overall education variability can be decomposed into four clearly interpretable components (variability among women and men, educational advantage favoring women and favoring men). We subsequently document how these components have evolved over time in the world and its regions from 1950 to 2010 (with projections until 2040). Our findings suggest that (i) with education expansion, education variability tends to follow an inverted U-shape trajectory. (ii) The composition of education variability has been shifting dramatically over time; in particular (iii) variability among men was usually higher than variability among women until the turn of the millennium, from then onwards their educational attainment distributions have the same degree of dispersion. And (iv) while in the 1950s the educational advantage of men was by far the main contributor to education variability, nowadays the educational advantage of women has become the most important source of variability in high- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Educação/tendências , Escolaridade , Fatores Sexuais , Educação/história , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Res Synth Methods ; 10(2): 180-194, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616301

RESUMO

Having surveyed the history and methods of meta-regression in a previous paper, in this paper, we review which and how meta-regression methods are applied in recent research syntheses. To do so, we reviewed studies published in 2016 across four leading research synthesis journals: Psychological Bulletin, the Journal of Applied Psychology, Review of Educational Research, and the Cochrane Library. We find that the best practices defined in the previous review are rarely carried out in practice. In light of the identified discrepancies, we consider how to move forward, first by identifying areas where further methods development is needed to address persistent problems in the field and second by discussing how to more effectively disseminate points of methodological consensus.


Assuntos
Educação/tendências , Medicina/tendências , Psicologia/tendências , Publicações , Análise de Regressão , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Software
14.
Nurse Educ Today ; 72: 12-17, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher education teachers are increasingly challenged to adopt student-centered approaches. AIMS: To determine the strategic guidelines which promote a conceptual change in higher education students, in the context of student-centered approaches to teaching. METHODOLOGY: Integrative literature review, using the PICO method, applied to the ERIC and EBSCO electronic databases. We analyzed 10 articles that were published between 2012 and 2016. RESULTS: We identified four thematic categories: dissonance between concepts and approaches to teaching; mixed approaches with ICTs association; digital simulation; approaches employed in large classes. CONCLUSION: The use of new pedagogical practices promotes the involvement of students, improves critical and creative thinking, reduces apathy and contributes to peer-learning.


Assuntos
Educação/tendências , Ensino/tendências , Educação/normas , Humanos , Ensino/normas
16.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 42(4): 648-654, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387698

RESUMO

A great deal of interest has emerged recently in the flipped classroom (FC), a student-centered teaching approach. After attending a presentation by the first author on the FC, a faculty member of a medical school in Mexico arranged for a 3-day workshop for 13 faculty members. The goal of the workshop was to train faculty to use the FC strategy in their classrooms to increase student engagement in learning. The workshop was in the FC style, where the participants would assume the role of students. Pre- and posttraining surveys were administered to examine participants' current teaching practices and to evaluate their perceptions of the FC. The participants overwhelmingly reported the need to change their lecture-based teaching, as it was not engaging students. Their large class size, lack of technology, training, and uncertainty of the effectiveness of new teaching methods had hindered participants from changing their teaching technique. The on-site training not only allowed the entire department to work closely and discuss the new teaching approach, but also reinforced the idea of changing their teaching strategy and embracing FC teaching method. After the workshop, participants reported being determined to use the FC strategy in their classrooms and felt more prepared to do so. The post-survey results indicated that participants valued the FC training in the flipped style and wanted more of the hands-on activities. In conclusion, the 3-day faculty workshop on the FC was successful, since every participant was motivated to use this teaching method.


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Faculdades de Medicina , Educação/tendências , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Humanos , Técnicas de Planejamento , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/tendências , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 256: 87-97, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371463

RESUMO

With the increasing popularity of digital technologies, more and more digital learning materials are available in education. However, making digital learning materials accessible to diverse students can be a challenging task. In higher education institutions, faculty members play a vital role in ensuring the accessibility of digital learning materials. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the attitudes among faculty members towards this task by conducting a thematic analysis of 35 semi-structured interviews with computer science and engineering faculty members at four universities in Norway and Poland.


Assuntos
Docentes , Tecnologia , Atitude , Educação/tendências , Humanos , Noruega , Polônia
19.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 21(3): 70-72, oct. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016174

RESUMO

En este artículo, el autor reflexiona sobre sobre el presente y el futuro de la educación médica en el contexto de las tecnologías de la información y de la convivencia de nuestro trabajo con los dispositivos de inteligencia artificial, de los nuevos contenidos de genética y neurociencias, del trabajo en equipo y de la necesaria resignifificación de los términos "cura" y "cuidado". Se pregunta además si estamos en condiciones de encarar dicho desafío y de estar a la altura de las necesidades educativas de las próximas (y la actual) generación/es de médicos. (AU)


In this article, the author reflects on the present and the future of medical education in the context of information technologies and the coexistence of our work with artificial intelligence devices, the new contents of genetics and neurosciences, about team work and the necessary resignification of the terms "cure" and "care". He also wonders if we are able to face this challenge and to deal with the educational needs of the next (and the current) generation/s of doctors. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Inteligência Artificial/tendências , Educação/tendências , Educação Médica/tendências , Tecnologia da Informação/tendências , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Médicos/psicologia , Médicos/tendências , Neurociências/educação , Cura em Homeopatia/tendências , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Educacional , Empatia , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Genética/educação
20.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(7): 826-833, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236420

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While reports of critical thinking exist in the health professions literature, development of critical thinking across a broad range of health-professions students has not been systematically reviewed. METHODS: In this meta-analysis, multiple databases and journals were searched through February 2016 to identify longitudinal studies using standardized tests of critical thinking [California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT), and Defining Issues Test (DIT)] in any language. Two reviewers extracted information and collected information regarding primary author, publishing journal, health profession, critical thinking test, and time1/time2 means and standard deviations. Standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Four hundred sixty-two studies were screened, and 79 studies (representing 6884 students) were included. Studies contained 37 CCTST, 22 DIT, and 20 HSRT. Health professions comprised nursing, pharmacy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, dentistry, medicine, veterinary medicine, dental hygiene, clinical laboratory sciences, and allied health. Cohen's kappa was strong (0.82) for inter-reviewer agreement. Both the CCTST (SMD = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.23-0.52) and DIT (SMD = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.18-0.39) demonstrated significant increases in total scores, but the HSRT (SMD = 0.03, 95%CI = -0.05-0.12) did not show improvement. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, students from the majority of health professions consistently showed improvement in development of critical thinking. In this diverse population, only the CCTST and DIT appeared responsive to change.


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Estudos Longitudinais , Pensamento , Currículo/normas , Currículo/tendências , Educação/tendências , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos
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