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3.
J. negat. no posit. results ; 5(10): 1179-1194, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199390

RESUMO

El objetivo de este estudio es determinar el efecto del uso de los probióticos en relación a la mastitis, así como conocer la dosis adecuada de los probióticos y la semana ideal de gestación para que surja el efecto deseado. Para ello se ha realizado una revisión sistemática, con una cadena de búsqueda y unos filtros de acuerdo a cada una de las distintas bases. También, se realizó una búsqueda inversa a raíz de los resultados obtenidos. Se han aplicado criterios de inclusión y exclusión en la selección de los artículos. En cuanto a los resultados y según la evidencia actual se puede decir que el uso de probióticos como tratamiento alternativo a la mastitis humana podría resultar eficaz ya que existe diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la reducción de la carga bacteriana. En lo referente a la dosis y semana ideal de gestación para la administración de probióticos, se ha podido comprobar distintas dosis y semanas que han surtido efecto; pero sin poder concretar cuáles son las más efectivas e ideales


The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the use of probiotics in relation to mastitis, as well as to know the adequate dose of probiotic and the ideal week of gestation so that the desired effect appears. For this, a systematic review has been carried out, with a search string and filters according to each of the different bases. Also, an inverse search was performed to the root of the results obtained. Inclusion and exclusion criteria have been applied in the selection of articles. Regarding the results and according to current evidence, it can be said that the use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to human mastitis could be effective since there is a statistically significant difference in the reduction of bacterial load. Regarding the dose and the ideal week of gestation for the administration of probiotics, different doses and weeks have been determined that have taken effect; but without being able to specify problems they are the most effective and ideal


Assuntos
Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Mastite/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Lactação/epidemiologia , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Aleitamento Materno , Efeito Idade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
4.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 55(5): 258-265, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199480

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: Aproximadamente un tercio de los pacientes que han sufrido un ictus desarrollan espasticidad. Ante la impresión clínica por parte de los autores de menor proporción de pacientes espásticos entre la población de mayor edad tras un ictus y la falta de consenso en la literatura, se procedió a contrastar aquellas variables que influyen en el desarrollo de espasticidad a partir de los datos de dos centros de neurorrehabilitación. El objetivo del estudio es determinar los factores que influyen en el desarrollo de la espasticidad a los tres meses de evolución del ictus y la prevalencia de espasticidad en los pacientes que han sufrido un ictus y que requieren tratamiento rehabilitador intensivo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo observacional de 554 pacientes atendidos en dos centros de neurorrehabilitación. Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos; naturaleza, etiología y localización del ictus; déficit motóricos, sensitivos, del lenguaje y deglución; incontinencia; estado cognitivo y anímico. El grado de espasticidad se evaluó al ingreso y al tercer mes en 462 pacientes mediante la escala de Ashworth. Se empleó el análisis de regresión multivariante para determinar qué variables influyen en la evolución de la espasticidad al tercer mes de la instauración del ictus. RESULTADOS: Edad media: 67,3 años; 67,1%, de estos eran hombres; 76,5% tuvo un origen isquémico. Al ingreso el 31,4% de los pacientes presentaban espasticidad y a los tres meses el 54,8%. Los pacientes con un mayor índice motor al ingreso, mejoraban en mayor proporción su espasticidad a los tres meses (OR 1,04; IC 95% 1,03-1,05). En el caso de no tener en cuenta el índice motor, las variables relacionadas con la evolución de la espasticidad fueron: edad < 75 años (OR 0,52; IC 95% 0,30-0,90), alteración sensitiva (OR 0,66; IC 95% 0,37-1,20) e índice de Barthel (OR 1,02; IC 95% 1,01-1,03). No se encontró la existencia de relación significativa para las variables sexo, mecanismo fisiopatológico (isquémico/hemorrágico), localización del ictus, presencia de afasia o deterioro cognitivo. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de espasticidad en pacientes que han sufrido un ictus es del 54,8% al tercer mes de evolución. El índice motor al ingreso es predictor independiente de espasticidad a los tres meses de evolución. Los pacientes menores de 75 años, con alteración sensitiva y bajo índice de Barthel tienen más probabilidad de empeorar la espasticidad a los tres meses


OBJECTIVE: Approximately one third of patients who have suffered a stroke develop spasticity. Since clinical observations that spasticity in the elderly population is lower after stroke, and disagreement about risk factors between different authors, an analysis is performed on the variables that influence the development of spasticity. The objective of the study is to determine the how many factors influence spasticity outcome, and the prevalence of spasticity in patients who have suffered a stroke and require intensive rehabilitation treatment. METHOD: A retrospective assessment was carried out on a total of 554 patients from two neurorehabilitation centres. A record was made of sociodemographic data, aetiology, type and location of stroke, motor and sensory deficits, language and swallowing impairment, incontinence, cognitive and mood state. Spasticity levels at admission and at the third month were studied in 462 patients using the Ashworth scale. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the risk factors for spasticity present at the third month after stroke. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 67.3 years, of which 67.1% were men, and with ischemic aetiology in 76.5%. On admission 31.4% of patients had spasticity, and this increased to 54.8% at the 3rd month. The absolute risk factor for spasticity was motor index (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.03-1.05). When this factor was omitted, the variables with predictive ability were: age less than 75 years (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.30-0.90), sensory impairment (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.37-1.20), and lower Barthel index score (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.03). There was no significant relationship for gender, physiopathological mechanism (ischaemic/haemorrhagic), stroke location, aphasia, or cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of spasticity in stroke at third month of follow-up was 54.8%. Motor index is the independent predictor of spasticity. Patients younger than 75 years old, with sensory impairment and low Barthel index score are more likely to develop spasticity


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Espasticidade Muscular/epidemiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeito Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Reabilitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos , Previsões , Fatores de Risco
5.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(5): 480-484, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198871

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Cuantificar el efecto que tiene la inclusión de la población institucionalizada en la estimación del riesgo de mortalidad en las secciones censales de Euskadi (España) para las principales causas de mortalidad en el periodo 1996-2003. MÉTODO: Estudio ecológico transversal por áreas pequeñas. Se analizaron las principales causas de mortalidad y por sexo. RESULTADOS: Al analizar el efecto general que tiene en todas las secciones con población institucionalizada se ha visto que no hay apenas ningún efecto reseñable en hombres ni en mujeres. En cambio, cuando se han seleccionado las áreas geográficas donde la población institucionalizada supone un porcentaje importante, más del 10% de la población de esa área, sí se ha observado un efecto incrementando la estimación del riesgo de mortalidad. CONCLUSIONES: El efecto que tiene la inclusión de la población institucionalizada se ve claramente en aquellas causas de mortalidad relacionadas con una mayor dependencia o fragilidad, y por lo tanto con estar en una residencia de personas mayores, como son las demencias y la enfermedad de Alzheimer, y la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, sobrestimando el riesgo de mortalidad en torno a un 8% y un 4%, respectivamente, en esas áreas


OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effect of the inclusion of the population in collective dwellings on the estimation of mortality risk in the census areas of the Basque Country (Spain) for the main causes of mortality in the period 1996-2003. METHOD: Small-area ecological cross-sectional study. The main causes of mortality by sex were analyzed. RESULTS: When the general effect on all areas with a a population in collective dwellings was analyzed, hardly any noticeable effect was seen on either men or women. On the other hand, an effect was found when selecting the areas where the population in collective dwellings is more than 10% of the area's population. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of the inclusion of the population in collective dwellings clearly seen in causes of mortality, such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease, and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, related to greater dependence or frailty, and therefore related to being in a nursing or elderly persons' home, over-estimating the risk of mortality by approximately 8% and 4%, respectively, in these geographical areas


Assuntos
Humanos , Demência/mortalidade , Doença de Alzheimer/mortalidade , Registros de Mortalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , População Institucionalizada , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Efeito Idade , Fatores de Risco , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Análise de Pequenas Áreas , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Rev. clín. med. fam ; 13(1): 15-21, feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193914

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Identificar el antecedente heredofamiliar de hipertensión (padre-madre) como factor de riesgo para familia hipertensa (hijos).Diseño: Estudio de casos y controles. PARTICIPANTES: Familias con hijos mayores de 18 años, definiendo a la familia como el conjunto de hijos (unidad de análisis). MEDICIONES PRINCIPALES: Se consideró caso a la familia con al menos un hijo hipertenso (familia hipertensa); y control a la familia con hijos sin diagnóstico (familia no hipertensa). Se estudiaron 102 casos y 151 controles. El antecedente heredofamiliar de hipertensión se integró en cuatro categorías: padre hipertenso, madre hipertensa, padre y madre hipertensos y, padre y madre sin hipertensión (grupo de comparación). El análisis incluyó regresión logística múltiple y cálculo de probabilidad. RESULTADOS: El modelo que mejor explicó la hipertensión incluye antecedente heredofamiliar (padre y madre) y edad de la familia (p = 0,001) y= -7,754 +1,428 (padre y madre hipertensos) +0,144 (edad de la familia). Cuando el promedio de edad de la familia es 50 años y existe el antecedente de padre y madre con hipertensión, la probabilidad de que al menos uno de los hijos tenga hipertensión es 70,6 %, con la ausencia de padre y madre hipertensos la probabilidad es 36,5 %. CONCLUSIONES: El antecedente de padre y madre hipertensos asociados con la edad promedio de la familia (hijos) es un factor de riesgo para familia hipertensa (hijos)


OBJECTIVE: To identify the hereditary family history of hypertension (father-mother) as a risk factor for hypertensive family (children). Design: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Families with children over 18, defining the family as the group of children (unit of analysis). MAIN MEASURES: We considered case families when at least one child was hypertensive (hy-pertensive family). We considered control families those whose children had no diagnosis (non-hypertensive family). 102 cases and 151 controls were studied. The hereditary family history of hypertension was divided into four categories: hypertensive father, hypertensive mother, hyper-tensive father and mother, and non-hypertensive father and mother (comparison group). The analysis included multiple logistic regression and probability estimates. RESULTS: The model that best explained hypertension includes hereditary family history (father and mother) and age of the family (p=0.001). y= -7.754 + 1.428 (hypertensive father and mother) +0.144 (age of the family). When the average age of the family is 50 and there is a history of hypertensive father and mother, the probability that at least one of the children is hypertensive is 70.6 %; in the case of non-hypertensive father and mother, the probability is 36.5 %. CONCLUSIONS: A history of hypertensive father and mother associated with the average age of the family (children) is a risk factor for hypertensive family (children)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Efeito Idade , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo
9.
Rev. esp. cardiol. Supl. (Ed. impresa) ; 20(supl.A): 3-10, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197026

RESUMO

La fibrilación auricular es muy frecuente en el paciente anciano. Aunque existe una amplia experiencia con los antagonistas de la vitamina K, el empleo de estos fármacos en el paciente anciano presenta numerosas limitaciones, con una mayor susceptibilidad a las hemorragias y un peor control de la anticoagulación que en la población general. Los anticoagulantes orales de acción directa han demostrado ser una mejor alternativa terapéutica para los pacientes ancianos, no solo por su mayor simplicidad de uso, sino por sus mayores eficacia y seguridad en comparación con los antagonistas de la vitamina K, con datos que en general concuerdan con los ensayos clínicos fundamentales. Sin embargo, en el paciente anciano hay una tendencia al uso de dosis inadecuadas, generalmente por infradosificación, sobre todo con algunos de ellos, lo que conlleva una menor protección contra los ictus, sin una clara ventaja antihemorrágica. El rivaroxabán se ha estudiado ampliamente en la población anciana y no solo en ensayos clínicos, sino también en multitud de estudios en la práctica clínica real, con datos muy consistentes. En estos estudios, en comparación con los antagonistas de la vitamina K, se ha demostrado que el rivaroxabán reduce el riesgo de ictus sin un incremento de las hemorragias mortales, con lo que tiene un beneficio clínico neto favorable en la población con fibrilación auricular no valvular con mayor riesgo tromboembólico


Atrial fibrillation is common in elderly patients. Although vitamin K antagonists have been widely used for many years, they have a number of limitations in elderly patients, who are particularly susceptible to bleeding and in whom anticoagulation control is poorer than in the general population. Direct oral anticoagulants have been shown to be a better therapeutic option for these patients, not only because they are simpler to use, but also because they are more effective and safer than vitamin K antagonists. Moreover, their performance in practice is generally consistent with that in pivotal clinical trials. Nevertheless, there is a tendency to administer inappropriate doses to elderly patients, generally underdosing, particularly in certain subgroups. This can result in less protection against stroke without any clear reduction in bleeding risk. Rivaroxaban has been widely studied in the elderly population, not only in clinical trials, but also in a range of studies in routine clinical practice - findings have been highly consistent. According to these studies, and compared to vitamin K antagonists, rivaroxaban reduces the risk of stroke without increasing the rate of fatal bleeding, with a net clinical benefit in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and a high thromboembolic risk


Assuntos
Humanos , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fragilidade/complicações , Fragilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Polimedicação , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeito Idade , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/administração & dosagem
10.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(1,supl): 104-109, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-193168

RESUMO

Family and Work are mesosystems of human ecological development whose imba-lance exposes individuals to a particular adaptive difficulty. To understand the meaning that older workers attach to this dyad may contribute to improve their ability to work and family health. This was a descriptive, qualitative study that used Bardin's content analysis as a methodology. It was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample (n = 62), selected from a population of over 55-year-old health workers, who agreed to participate. The information was obtained by semi-structured interview and analyzed by the WebQda program. Participants perceived the Family as a "safe haven", as it was a source of support and personal fulfillment. The same attribution was not performed by participants who, due to the lack of return and / or isolation / abandonment expressed, pointed out that the family was "absent" in their lives. With respect to work, the gender difference was manifested by the overload perceived by the female gender. When asked about the Family / Work conciliation, the speeches mirrored the way the present time sustains itself in constructions that are lasting from the past. It was concluded that the Family / Work conciliation can adopt different scenarios depending on the meaning that individuals give to both throughout their life experiences and that, particularly in older workers, the intervention of occupational nurses can make the difference, when we want to promote active aging in the workplace


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida/classificação , Desempenho Profissional/classificação , Envelhecimento Saudável , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Condições de Trabalho , Satisfação no Emprego , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Efeito Idade , Competência Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(1,supl): 222-225, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193312

RESUMO

Quality of life (QoL) assessment represents an emerging focus in the health area since it use can complement clinical practice and optimize resources. Urinary incontinence is a common consequence in the oncologic pathology of the prostate that severely affects QoL.A descriptive, analytical and longitudinal study was conducted with the participation of oncological patients from the ambulatory urology department of an oncology hospital unit of the North of Portugal. The sample, obtained through convenience non-probabilistic sampling between October 2015 and July 2016, included 60 patients. The ICIQ-SF was used. The impact on QOL was classified as: zero (0), no impact; from 1 to 3, slight impact; 4 to 6, moderate; from 7 to 9, severe; and, of 10 or more, very serious. Urinary incontinence had a moderate impact on the perception of QoL of patients in M0 and M1. It was observed that as the symptoms decreased, the patients' perception of QoL increased and M3 and M6 had a slight impact


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Estudos Longitudinais , Efeito Idade
12.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(1,supl): 282-289, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-193320

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation, despite the success rate, is a procedure with complications that may decrease the functional capacity of the elderly person and hamper their return to daily life at home. In order to identify the nursing care to the elderly submitted to TAVI and family that facilitates the preparation of homecare, a literature review was performed based on the Joanna Briggs Institute model for Scoping Reviews. Of the all articles found, twelve were included. The authors highlighting the importance of the relationship of trust established between the nurse and the elderly and family in the development of an individualized nursing intervention in the preparation of homecare, in which the management of the expectations with the treatment, the screening of complications, pain control, and promotion of comfort and functionality of the elderly are central. We conclude that the multidimensional evaluation of the elderly at the time of admission allows planning of adequate interventions to prevent complications and maintain their functional capacity on the way home. It is important to develop nursing care protocols to meet these needs


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/enfermagem , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/enfermagem , Efeito Idade , Fragilidade/enfermagem , Serviços Hospitalares de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/organização & administração
13.
Span. j. psychol ; 23: e4.1-e4.9, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196579

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between self-reported life satisfaction, self-rated health, gender, and age in adolescents. 1,141 secondary school students aged between 12 and 17 participated in our study. The data were analyzed using bivariate and nonlinear canonical correlation analyses. The results of the bivariate correlation analysis support the results of previous studies. Life satisfaction was positively correlated with same-day perceived health (r = .37; p < .01) and negatively correlated with anxiety/depression (r = -.37; p < .01). Same-day perceived health was positively correlated with health in the past 12 months (r = .38; p < .01) and negatively correlated with pain/discomfort (r = -.32; p < .01) and with anxiety/depression (r = -.32; p < .01). The nonlinear canonical correlation analysis provided further evidence of the relationship between the variables, suggesting the complementarity of the indicators of self-rated health analyzed. Multiple fit values showed that demographic variables age (.61) and gender (.56) were the variables with the best discriminatory power. Graphically, two groups of related variables were displayed. A non-linear analysis better explains the relationships between the variables analyzed, showing that age and gender have a high level of discriminatory power for life satisfaction and self-rated health, suggesting a role as a moderator in the relationship between health and well-being variables


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Satisfação Pessoal , Identidade de Gênero , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Afeto/classificação , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Discriminação Psicológica , Estilo de Vida Saudável/classificação , Efeito Idade , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
14.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 94: 0-0, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192979

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Los datos clínico-epidemiológicos de base poblacional durante la actual pandemia de Covid-19 son escasos. Este estudio investigó la incidencia y riesgo de sufrir Covid-19 según condiciones basales subyacentes en la población ≥50 años de Tarragona durante marzo-abril 2020. MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohortes retrospectivo que incluyó a 79.071 personas ≥50 años en el área de Tarragona. Se establecieron características basales de la cohorte (edad, sexo, residencia, vacunaciones y comorbilidades previas), y se registró la ocurrencia de Covid-19 entre 01/03/2020-30/04/2020. Para la estimación de riesgos se realizó regresión de Cox, con cálculo de Hazard ratios (HRs) ajustados por edad, sexo y comorbilidad. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron PCR-tests en 1.547 personas (22,6% positivos) y 367 fueron codificados como presuntos casos sin realizarse PCR-test. Considerando Covid-19 confirmada (PCR positivo), la incidencia (por 100.000 personas-periodo) fue de 441 (248, 141, 424, 1.303 y 3.135 en 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 y ≥90 años, respectivamente; 380 en hombres frente a 497 en mujeres; 259 residentes en la comunidad respecto a 10.571 en institucionalizados). Según comorbilidades, las máximas incidencias aparecieron en enfermedad neurológica (2.723), fibrilación auricular (1.348), insuficiencia renal crónica (1.050), cardiopatía (856), enfermedad respiratoria (798) y diabetes (706). Menores incidencias aparecieron en enfermedad reumatológica (230) y fumadores (180). En personas no institucionalizadas (N=77.671), solo la enfermedad cardiaca (HR: 1,47; IC95%: 1,01-2,15; p = 0,045) y respiratoria (HR: 1,75; IC95%: 1,00-3,02; p = 0,051) se asociaron con incremento del riesgo, mientras que ser fumador (HR: 0,43; IC95%: 0,25-0,74; p = 0,002) y vacunación antigripal en otoño previo (HR: 0,63; IC95%: 0,43-0,92; p = 0,015) se asociaron con menor riesgo. CONCLUSIONES: Aparte de la edad y la institucionalización, la existencia de enfermedad respiratoria y/o cardiaca crónicas se asocia con una mayor incidencia de Covid-19 en adultos


OBJECTIVE: Population-based data on the current Covid-19 pandemic is scarce. This study investigated incidence and risk to suffer Covid-19 by baseline underlying conditions in people ≥50 years in Tarragona region across march-april 2020. METHODS: Population-based retrospective cohort study involving 79,071 adults ≥50 years-old in Tarragona region (Southern Catalonia, Spain). Cohort characteristics (age, sex, residence, vaccinations history and comorbidities) were established at baseline, and Covid-19 cases occurring between 01/03/2020-30/04/2020 were registered. Cox regression analysis calculating Hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted by age, sex and comorbidities was used to estimate risk for Covid-19. RESULTS: Across study period, 1,547 cohort members were PCR tested (22.6% positive) and 367 were presumptive cases without PCR tested. Considering PCR-confirmed Covid-19, incidence (per 100,000 persons-period) was 441 overall (248, 141, 424, 1,303 and 3,135 in 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and ≥90 years-old, respectively; 380 in men and 497 in women; 259 in community-dwelling and 10,571 in nursing-home). By comorbidities, maximum incidence emerged among persons with neurological disease (2,723), atrial fibrillation (1,348), chronic renal failure (1,050), cardiac disease (856), respiratory disease (798) and diabetes (706). Lower incidence appeared in rheumatic diseases (230) and smokers (180). In multivariable analysis focused on community-dwelling individuals (N=77,671), only cardiac disease (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.01-2.15; p = 0.045) and respiratory disease (HR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.00-3.02; p = 0.051) were associated with an increased risk, whereas smoking (HR:0.43; 95% CI: 0.25-0.74; p = 0.002) and influenza vaccinated (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43-0.92; p = 0.015) appeared associated with a decreased risk. CONCLUSIONS: Apart of increasing age and nursing-home residence, chronic respiratory and cardiac disease appear at increased risk for suffering covid19. This study investigated population-based incidence of Covid-19 infection by underlying conditions among adults ≥50 years in Tarragona (Southern Catalonia, Spain) across two first months pandemic period


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeito Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194522

RESUMO

La pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) ha tenido un gran impacto en los residentes de centros sociosanitarios. Es probable que las características de estos pacientes y su especial fragilidad clínica hayan contribuido a una mayor vulnerabilidad a la infección, pero no se pueden descartar otros factores asociados a la misma como son la gestión de los centros y la falta de planificación de las actuaciones antes y durante la crisis sanitaria. Ambos aspectos pertenecen al ámbito de la salud pública, donde la ética del bien común entra en conflicto con la autonomía de las personas


The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (Covid-19) has had a major impact on residents of assisted-living facilities. While it is plausible that the characteristics of these patients and their special clinical fragility have contributed to their greater vulnerability to infection, other related factors cannot be ruled out, such as the quality of management at these centers and the lack of planning for actions taken before and during the health crisis. Both aspects pertain to the field of public health, where the ethics of the common good conflicts with the autonomy of the individual


Assuntos
Humanos , Conversão de Leitos/ética , Planejamento de Instituições de Saúde/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Pandemias/ética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Planos de Emergência , Envelhecimento , Efeito Idade , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 10(2): 39-51, 2020. tab, tab, graf, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123457

RESUMO

Objetivo: evaluar la relación entre la condición de hipertensión arterial y las caracterís-ticas sociodemográficas de los pacientes atendidos en la clínica de atención prioritaria de odontología de la Universidad del Valle, entre los años 2013 y 2016. Métodos: este es un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de corte transversal. Las variables evaluadas fueron: edad, sexo, presión arterial diastólica y sistólica al inicio y al final de la consulta de valoración, grado de escolaridad, peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, conocimiento de condición de hipertensión, y prevalencia. Para analizar la información se empleó el programa Stata13. Como prueba de normalidad para las variables numéricas, se utilizó la prueba de Shapiro Wilks, para las variables que no se comportaron normal, la prueba U de Mann Whitney y para las variables categóricas con un error aceptado de p<0,05, la prueba de chi2. Resultados: se incluyeron 1815 pacientes en la muestra, de los cuales 528 tuvieron datos de tensión arterial ≥140/90 mm Hg. Así, el 70% desconocían que tenían valores ≥140/90 mm Hg. El 36% de las mujeres y el 23% de los hombres conocían su condición de hipertensión arterial. El índice de masa corporal por encima de 25.6, ser mayor de 50 años y el sexo femenino son factores de riesgo para la HTA. Conclusión:como factores de riesgo para la tensión arterial elevada se determinan el sexo, la edad y el índice de masa corporal. El 70% de los pacientes desconocían los valores de su tensión arterial y la prevalencia de probable hipertensión encontrada fue de 29%.


Objective: Evaluate the relationship between arterial hypertension condition and the sociodemographic characteristics of patients attended in the Priority dental care clinic at the Universidad del Valle between 2013-2016. Methods: This is a retrospective, cross sectional, descriptive study. The evaluated variables were: age, gender, diastolic and systolic BP at the beginning and at the end of the first assessment consultation, educational level, weight, size and body mass index (BMI), awareness of high blood pressure condition, and prevalence. The information was analyzed with STATA 13. The Shapiro Wilks test was used for normality in numerical variables , the Mann Whitney U test for the numerical variables which did not behave normal for frequency and distribution; and the chi square test for categorical variables with an accepted error of 5%. Results: 1815 patients were evaluated for their blood pressure levels, 528 with values ≥140/90 mm Hg. 70% were not aware they could be hypertensive, 36% of women and 23% of men were knew of their hypertension condition. Most of the patients with levels (≥140/90 mm Hg) were in the age range between 50-59 years. The variables of age, body mass index and gender showed to be risk related with HBP. Conclusions: Sex, age and body mass index were risk related with high blood pressure. The prevalence of probable hypertension in this study was 29%, and 70% of the patients ignored their possible high blood pressure condition.


Assuntos
Humanos , Prevalência , Hipertensão/patologia , Sexo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco , Efeito Idade , Pressão Arterial
19.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 7(2): 42-51, jul.-dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046634

RESUMO

Introducción: Es importante valorar el momento ideal en el que se producen los cambios tanto biológicos como estructurales en el crecimiento y desarrollo de los maxilares, para identificar en qué momento se inicia del crecimiento puberal en los pacientes jóvenes y corregir las alteraciones tanto dentarias como esqueléticas que se puedan presentar. Objetivo: Evaluar los estadios de maduración de las vértebras cervicales mediante el análisis propuesto por Baccetti y su relación con la edad cronológica y el sexo, en radiografías laterales de individuos de 8 a 14 años. Metodología: Estudio transversal, retrospectivo y descriptivo. Se evaluaron 280 radiografías laterales (140 de varones y 140 de mujeres). Un evaluador calibrado evaluó los estadios de maduración esquelética e identificó 6 de ellas. Se evaluó el pico de crecimiento de los individuos desde la segunda a la cuarta vértebra cervical en las radiografías y luego se relacionó con la edad y el sexo de los individuos. Se utilizaron las pruebas de asociación de Chi cuadrado p < 0,05. Resultados: En las edades de 11 y 12 años se observó que las mujeres tenían mayor grado de madurez que los varones; sin embargo, para apreciar mejor los resultados, se reagruparon según los estadios: 1 con 2, 3 con 4 y 5 con 6, y se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ellos (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: Existe asociación en el diagnóstico del pico de crecimiento y la maduración ósea de los pacientes según su edad cronológica, con una clara diferencia entre varones y mujeres, lo que evidencia que el método de Baccetti se pueda emplear de manera confiable en la población estudiada. (AU)


Introduction: In Orthodontics, it is important to assess the ideal moment where changes occur, both biological and structural in relation to the growth and development of the jaws, thus identifying, at what time, the onset of pubertal growth in young patients and substantiate their dental correction as skeletal, achieving a positive result through its planning and application, correcting its discrepancies or alterations that may occur. Objective: To evaluate the stages of maturation of the cervical vertebrae through the analysis proposed by Baccetti and its relationship with chronological age according to age and sex, on lateral head X-rays of individuals aged 8 to 14 years. Methodology: This was a crosssectional, retrospective, descriptive study. 280 lateral head X-rays were evaluated (140 men and 140 women). A trained and calibrated evaluator evaluated the stages of skeletal maturation with the method proposed by Baccetti, identifying 6 stages. The peak of growth of the individuals was evaluated through the second to the fourth cervical vertebra on radiographs and then related to the chronological age and sex of the individuals. Chi square association tests were used p < 0.05. Results: In the ages of 11 and 12, it is observed that women have a greater degree of maturity than men, however, in order to better appreciate the results, they were regrouped according to the stages of maturity of cervical vertebrae 1 with 2, 3 with 4 and 5 with 6 and statistically significant differences were found between the stages of maturation of the cervical vertebrae according to age and sex (p < 0.001). Conclusions: There is an association in the diagnosis of peak growth and bone maturation of patients according to their chronological age, producing a clear difference between men and women, which shows that the Baccetti method can be used reliably in the population studied. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Vértebras Cervicais , Maturidade Cervical , Efeito Idade , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(5): 415-420, sept.-oct. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189014

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the Spanish version of the modified Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (STICS-m) with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and predict its ability to detect the development of dementia. Method: 106 participants in a dietary intervention trial underwent face-to-face evaluation with the MMSE, and phone interview with the STICS-m. The correlation between STICS-m and MMSE was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of consistency. Secondly, 932 participants over 55 years old from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" cohort were evaluated with the STICS-m and data on dementia diagnosis were gathered (median follow-up time of 6.5 years). A logistic regression model evaluated the association between STICS-m score or 2-year changes in STICS-m score and risk of developing dementia, adjusting for ApoE, age and years of university education. Results: The ICC between the MMSE and the STICS-m was 0.31 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.13-0.48). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the development of dementia for each additional point in the baseline STICS-m score was 0.85 (95%CI: 0.72-1.02; p=0.084). When considering the 2-year change in the STICS-m score as exposure, the OR for the development of dementia was 0.79 (95%CI: 0.67-0.93; p=0.006). Conclusions: The weak correlation between the STICS-m and the MMSE reflects moderate-low concurrent validity. Even so, the STICS-m can be regarded as an useful tool in the epidemiological setting since increasing scores appear to be able to predict a lower risk of developing dementia


Objetivo: Estudiar la correlación de la Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status modificada en español (STICS-m) con el Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) y predecir la capacidad de la primera para detectar el desarrollo de demencia. Método: Ciento seis sujetos de un estudio de intervención dietética fueron evaluados personalmente con el MMSE y por teléfono con la STICS-m. La correlación entre ambos se midió con el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI) de consistencia. Además, 932 participantes mayores de 55 años de la cohorte "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" fueron evaluados con la STICS-m. Durante una mediana de seguimiento de 6,5 años, se recogió información sobre el desarrollo de demencia. Mediante regresión logística se estudió la asociación entre la puntuación de la STICS-m o el cambio a 2 años en la puntuación y el riesgo de desarrollar demencia, ajustando por apolipoproteína E, edad y años de educación universitaria. Resultados: El CCI entre el MMSE y la STICS-m fue de 0,31 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 0,13-0,48). La odds ratio (OR) ajustada para el desarrollo de demencia para cada punto adicional en la puntuación basal de la STICS-m fue de 0,85 (IC95%: 0,72-1,02; p=0,084). Al considerar el cambio en la puntuación a los 2 años como variable independiente, la OR fue de 0,79 (IC95%: 0,67-0,93; p=0,006). Conclusiones: La correlación débil entre la STICS-m y el MMSE refleja solo una moderada-baja validez concurrente. Aun así, la STICS-m puede considerarse útil en el contexto epidemiológico, ya que aumentos en la puntuación parecen predecir un menor riesgo de desarrollar demencia


Assuntos
Humanos , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/estatística & dados numéricos , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Apolipoproteínas E/análise , Demência/diagnóstico , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Comparação Transcultural , Tradução , Psicometria/instrumentação , Efeito Idade
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