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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444080

RESUMO

The evidence supporting the idea that natural disaster-related prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) influences the child's development has been accumulating for several years. We conducted a meta-analytical review to quantify this effect on different spheres of child development: birth outcomes, cognitive, motor, physical, socio-emotional, and behavioral development. We systematically searched the literature for articles on this topic (2756 articles retrieved and 37 articles included in the systematic review), extracted the relevant data to calculate the effect sizes, and then performed a meta-analysis for each category of outcomes (30 articles included across the meta-analyses) and meta-regressions to determine the effect of some factors of interest on the association between PNMS and child development: type of PNMS (objective, psychological, cognitive, diet), type of natural disaster (ice storm, flood/cyclone), type of report (maternal, third-party observer, medical), timing of exposure (preconception exposure included or not) and child age at assessment (under 10 or 10 years and older). We found that PNMS significantly influences all spheres of child development. Higher PNMS levels were associated with longer gestational age, larger newborns, and higher BMI and adiposity levels, as well as worse cognitive, motor, socio-emotional, and behavioral outcomes.


Assuntos
Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico
2.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(8): 861-872, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420151

RESUMO

Human health effects of airborne lower-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (LC-PCBs) are largely unexplored. Since PCBs may cross the placenta, maternal exposure could potentially have negative consequences for fetal development. We aimed to determine if exposure to airborne PCB during pregnancy was associated with adverse birth outcomes. In this cohort study, exposed women had lived in PCB contaminated apartments at least one year during the 3.6 years before conception or the entire first trimester of pregnancy. The women and their children were followed for birth outcomes in Danish health registers. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) for changes in secondary sex ratio, preterm birth, major congenital malformations, cryptorchidism, and being born small for gestational age. We performed linear regression to estimate difference in birth weight among children of exposed and unexposed mothers. All models were adjusted for maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and calendar time. We identified 885 exposed pregnancies and 3327 unexposed pregnancies. Relative to unexposed women, exposed women had OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.82, 1.15) for secondary sex ratio, OR 1.13 (95% CI 0.76, 1.67) for preterm birth, OR 1.28 (95% CI 0.81, 2.01) for having a child with major malformations, OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.01, 2.95) for cryptorchidism and OR 1.23 (95% CI 0.88, 1.72) for giving birth to a child born small for gestational age. The difference in birth weight for children of exposed compared to unexposed women was - 32 g (95% CI-79, 14). We observed an increased risk of cryptorchidism among boys after maternal airborne LC-PCB exposure, but due to the proxy measure of exposure, inability to perform dose-response analyses, and the lack of comparable literature, larger cohort studies with direct measures of exposure are needed to investigate the safety of airborne LC-PCB exposure during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15658, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341434

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a collective trauma that may have enduring stress effects during sensitive periods, such as pregnancy. Prenatal stress may result in epigenetic signatures of stress-related genes (e.g., the serotonin transporter gene, SLC6A4) that may in turn influence infants' behavioral development. In April 2020, we launched a longitudinal cohort study to assess the behavioral and epigenetic vestiges of COVID-19-related prenatal stress exposure in mothers and infants. COVID-19-related prenatal stress was retrospectively assessed at birth. SLC6A4 methylation was assessed in thirteen CpG sites in mothers and infants' buccal cells. Infants' temperament was assessed at 3-month-age. Complete data were available from 108 mother-infant dyads. Greater COVID-19-related prenatal stress was significantly associated with higher infants' SLC6A4 methylation in seven CpG sites. SLC6A4 methylation at these sites predicted infants' temperament at 3 months.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Metilação de DNA , Pandemias , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo
4.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117376, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380208

RESUMO

Despite the abundance of epidemiological evidence concerning the association between pesticide exposure and adverse health outcomes including acute childhood leukemia (AL), evidence remains inconclusive, and is inherently limited by heterogeneous exposure assessment and multiple statistical testing. We performed a literature search of peer-reviewed studies, published until January 2021, without language restrictions. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from stratified random-effects meta-analyses by type of exposure and outcome, exposed populations and window of exposure to address the large heterogeneity of existing literature. Heterogeneity and small-study effects were also assessed. We identified 55 eligible studies (n = 48 case-control and n = 7 cohorts) from over 30 countries assessing >200 different exposures of pesticides (n = 160,924 participants). The summary OR for maternal environmental exposure to pesticides (broad term) during pregnancy and AL was 1.88 (95%CI: 1.15-3.08), reaching 2.51 for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 95%CI: 1.39-4.55). Analysis by pesticide subtype yielded an increased risk for maternal herbicide (OR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.00-1.99) and insecticide (OR: 1.60, 95%CI: 1.11-2.29) exposure during pregnancy and AL without heterogeneity (p = 0.12-0.34). Meta-analyses of infant leukemia were only feasible for maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy. Higher magnitude risks were observed for maternal pesticide exposure and infant ALL (OR: 2.18, 95%CI: 1.44-3.29), and the highest for infant acute myeloid leukemia (OR: 3.42, 95%CI: 1.98-5.91). Overall, the associations were stronger for maternal exposure during pregnancy compared to childhood exposure. For occupational or mixed exposures, parental, and specifically paternal, pesticide exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of AL (ORparental: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.08-2.85; ORpaternal: 1.20, 95%CI: 1.07-1.35). The epidemiological evidence, supported by mechanistic studies, suggests that pesticide exposure, mainly during pregnancy, increases the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly among infants. Sufficiently powered studies using repeated biomarker analyses are needed to confirm whether there is public health merit in reducing prenatal pesticide exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Exposição Paterna , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200387

RESUMO

Neighborhood and individual level risks commonly co-occur for pregnant women and may cumulatively contribute to birth outcomes. Moreover, the relationship between favorable social and environmental neighborhood conditions and perinatal outcomes has been understudied. This study considered the accumulated impact of prenatal exposure to positive neighborhood social, environmental, and educational conditions in relation to maternal health during pregnancy and birth size outcomes. In a prospective study of a multi-ethnic and socioeconomically diverse cohort (n = 239) of pregnant women and their infants, neighborhoods were characterized by the Child Opportunity Index (COI), a census-tract composite indicator representing favorable social, environmental, and educational community conditions. Adjusted generalized estimating equations showed that favorable neighborhood conditions promoted the growth of longer and heavier infant bodies, and reduced the risk of intrauterine growth restriction. The associations were stronger for female versus male infants, though not significantly different. Moreover, COI was associated with better maternal mental health and diet during pregnancy; diet significantly mediated the association between COI and birth size outcomes. This study underscores the importance of considering the accumulated benefit of neighborhood assets for maternal and infant health. Interventions that capitalizes on the full range of contextual assets in which mothers live may promote pregnancy health and fetal growth.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Características de Residência
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e043416, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the association between famine exposure in early life and the odds of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in adulthood. DESIGN: A population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 111 706 participants (1775 with RA) born from 1956 to 1964 were selected from the baseline survey of a large cohort in China. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Four famine exposure groups were generated based on dates of birth, namely prenatal-exposed, infant-exposed, preschool-exposed and non-exposed groups. Logistic regressions were used to explore the association between famine exposure and self-reported RA in adulthood, adjusting for sex, region, monthly income, highest education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, body mass index (BMI) and metabolic equivalent tasks. Analyses were also performed with stratification for sex (female or male), residing region (urban or rural), famine severity (severe or non-severe) and BMI (≥24 or <24). RESULTS: The study included 1775 (1.59%) RA cases and 109 931 (98.41%) non-RA controls. Among them, 22 413 (20.06%) were prenatal-exposed, 14 899 (13.34%) were infant-exposed and 34 356 (30.76%) were preschool-exposed. Prenatal exposure to famine was not associated with onset of RA in adulthood. Infant-exposed group and preschool-exposed group had significantly elevated odds of getting RA compared with non-exposed group (infant-exposed: OR=1.44, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.67; preschool-exposed: OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.57, p<0.001), and the relationship was stronger among women, urban residents and participants with BMI ≥24. Similar results were additionally observed when an age-balanced control group was used. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to the Great Chinese Famine in early life after birth especially in infancy may be associated with a higher risk of RA in adulthood. Strengthening early-life nutrition could be an implication to prevent future RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fome Epidêmica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 79, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic (As) exposure through drinking water is a global public health concern. Epigenetic dysregulation including changes in DNA methylation (DNAm), may be involved in arsenic toxicity. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of arsenic exposure have been restricted to single populations and comparison across EWAS has been limited by methodological differences. Leveraging data from epidemiological studies conducted in Chile and Bangladesh, we use a harmonized data processing and analysis pipeline and meta-analysis to combine results from four EWAS. METHODS: DNAm was measured among adults in Chile with and without prenatal and early-life As exposure in PBMCs and buccal cells (N = 40, 850K array) and among men in Bangladesh with high and low As exposure in PBMCs (N = 32, 850K array; N = 48, 450K array). Linear models were used to identify differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and differentially variable positions (DVPs) adjusting for age, smoking, cell type, and sex in the Chile cohort. Probes common across EWAS were meta-analyzed using METAL, and differentially methylated and variable regions (DMRs and DVRs, respectively) were identified using comb-p. KEGG pathway analysis was used to understand biological functions of DMPs and DVPs. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis restricted to PBMCs, we identified one DMP and 23 DVPs associated with arsenic exposure; including buccal cells, we identified 3 DMPs and 19 DVPs (FDR < 0.05). Using meta-analyzed results, we identified 11 DMRs and 11 DVRs in PBMC samples, and 16 DMRs and 19 DVRs in PBMC and buccal cell samples. One region annotated to LRRC27 was identified as a DMR and DVR. Arsenic-associated KEGG pathways included lysosome, autophagy, and mTOR signaling, AMPK signaling, and one carbon pool by folate. CONCLUSIONS: Using a two-step process of (1) harmonized data processing and analysis and (2) meta-analysis, we leverage four DNAm datasets from two continents of individuals exposed to high levels of As prenatally and during adulthood to identify DMPs and DVPs associated with arsenic exposure. Our approach suggests that standardizing analytical pipelines can aid in identifying biological meaningful signals.


Assuntos
Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Mucosa Bucal/citologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
8.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 72, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM), a major component of ambient air pollution, accounts for a substantial burden of diseases and fatality worldwide. Maternal exposure to PM during pregnancy is particularly harmful to children's health since this is a phase of rapid human growth and development. METHOD: In this review, we synthesize the scientific evidence on adverse health outcomes in children following prenatal exposure to the smallest toxic components, fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) PM. We highlight the established and emerging findings from epidemiologic studies and experimental models. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to fine and ultrafine PM directly and indirectly yields numerous adverse birth outcomes and impacts on children's respiratory systems, immune status, brain development, and cardiometabolic health. The biological mechanisms underlying adverse effects include direct placental translocation of ultrafine particles, placental and systemic maternal oxidative stress and inflammation elicited by both fine and ultrafine PM, epigenetic changes, and potential endocrine effects that influence long-term health. CONCLUSION: Policies to reduce maternal exposure and health consequences in children should be a high priority. PM2.5 levels are regulated, yet it is recognized that minority and low socioeconomic status groups experience disproportionate exposures. Moreover, PM0.1 levels are not routinely measured or currently regulated. Consequently, preventive strategies that inform neighborhood/regional planning and clinical/nutritional recommendations are needed to mitigate maternal exposure and ultimately protect children's health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/induzido quimicamente , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/induzido quimicamente , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo , Tamanho da Partícula , Placenta , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148643, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198080

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of problems associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children, and there has been a growing interest in the relationship between environmental chemicals and children's health. The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between occupational or environmental prenatal maternal exposure to volatile organic compounds and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children using Japanese translations of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (J-ASQ-3). An increase in the risk of neurodevelopmental delay in 12-month-old children associated with maternal exposure to formalin or formaldehyde was identified in terms of problem-solving (odds ratio (OR): 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-3.12) and personal-social skills (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.46-7.55). It is not clear whether or not this tendency is reversible, and whether it is observed past 12 months of age. Further research and a preventive approach are needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 140: 149-158, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been reported to be associated with increased anxiety and depression behaviors in offspring. However, there is still scant evidence to support the link between MSDP and anxiety/depression. METHODS: Using the subjects from the UK Biobank cohort (n = 371,903-432,881). Logistic regression analyses were first conducted to test the correlation between MSDP and anxiety/depression in offspring. Second, genome-wide gene-environment interaction study (GWGEIS) analyses were conducted by PLINK, using MSDP as environmental factor. Genetic correlation analysis of anxiety/depression and smoking was conducted by the LDSC software using the published genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of four smoking traits (n = 337,334-1,232,091), anxiety (n = 31,880) and depression (n = 490,359). Finally, pathway enrichment analysis was carried out to detect the pathway involved in the development of offspring anxiety caused by the interaction of MSDP × SNPs. RESULTS: Observational analyses showed that anxiety and depression status in offspring were significantly associated with MSDP (all p < 0.0001). Further GWEGI analyses observed significant MSDP-gene interaction effects at UNC80 gene for anxiety (p = 9.09 × 10-9). LDSC did not detect significant genetic correlation between anxiety and smoking traits. Pathway analysis identified 19 significant pathways for anxiety, such as MANALO_HYPOXIA_UP (FDR = 5.50 × 10-4), REACTOME_ADHERENS_JUNCTIONS_INTERACTIONS (FDR = 0.0304) and ONDER_CDH1_TARGETS_2_UP (FDR = 0.0371). CONCLUSION: Our study results suggested the important impact of MDSP on the risk of anxiety in offspring, partly attributing to environment-gene interactions effects.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Proteínas de Transporte , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Fumar , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Biol Psychiatry ; 90(4): 253-262, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to clarify relationships of maternal psychiatric conditions and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use during preconception and pregnancy with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring. METHODS: We used data from the Study to Explore Early Development, a multisite case-control study conducted in the United States among children born between 2003 and 2011. Final study group classifications of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 1367), developmental delays or disorders (DDs) (n = 1750), and general population controls (n = 1671) were determined by an in-person standardized developmental assessment. Maternal psychiatric conditions and SSRI use during pregnancy were ascertained from both self-report and medical records. We used logistic regression to evaluate associations of ASD and DDs (vs. population controls) with maternal psychiatric conditions and SSRI treatment in pregnancy. To reduce confounding by indication, we also examined SSRI associations in analyses restricted to mothers with psychiatric conditions during pregnancy. RESULTS: Psychiatric conditions and SSRI use during pregnancy were significantly more common among mothers of children with either ASD or DDs than among population controls. Odds of ASD were similarly elevated among mothers with psychiatric conditions who did not use SSRIs during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.44-2.27) as in mothers who did use SSRIs (adjusted odds ratio 2.05, 95% confidence interval 1.50-2.80). Among mothers with psychiatric conditions, SSRI use was not significantly associated with ASD in offspring (adjusted odds ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.80-1.62). Primary findings for DDs exhibited similar relationships to those observed with ASD. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal psychiatric conditions but not use of SSRIs during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Complicações na Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26268, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115022

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To assess associations and interactions of maternal smoking and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genetic variants with the developments of congenital heart disease (CHD) and specific subtypes.A case-control study of 654 cases and 666 controls was conducted from November 2017 to March 2020. The exposures of interest were maternal active and passive smoking before/in the early pregnancy and CYP450 genetic polymorphisms. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis.After adjusting for the potential confounding factors, our study showed maternal active (ORadj = 2.34, 95%CI: 1.19-4.60) or passive (ORadj = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.34-2.31) smoking before pregnancy, passive smoking in the early pregnancy (ORadj = 3.05, 95%CI: 2.26-4.12), as well as polymorphisms of CYP450 at rs1065852 (G/A vs G/G: ORadj = 1.46, 95%CI: 1.07-1.99; A/A vs G/G: ORadj = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.15-2.33) and rs16947 (A/A vs G/G: ORadj = 3.61, 95%CI: 2.09-6.23), were significantly associated with risk of total CHD in offspring. Similar results were also found for some subtypes of CHD. Additionally, significant interactions between maternal smoking and CYP450 genes on the risk of CHD were observed.Maternal smoking and CYP450 genetic variants were associated with increased risk of CHD and specific subtypes in offspring. And the effects of CYP450 genes on CHD may be modified by maternal smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Complicações na Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Polimorfismo Genético , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Medição de Risco
13.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(2): 279-288, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081616

RESUMO

Objective: It has been suggested that adverse early life exposures increase the risk of developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in later life. We hypothesized that women born preterm would have more biochemical and clinical signs of PCOS than women born at term. Design: The ESTER Preterm Birth Study participants were born in Northern Finland and identified from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort and the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Altogether, 74 women born very or moderately preterm (<34 gestational weeks, VMPT), 127 born late preterm (at 34-36 weeks, LPT), and 184 born full term (≥37 weeks, controls) were included in the analysis (mean age: 23.2 years). Methods: We measured serum total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and calculated the free androgen index (FAI). PCOS according to the clinical and biochemical signs was defined either as hirsutism and oligoamenorrhea (via questionnaire) or as oligoamenorrhea and elevated testosterone levels (>2.4 nmol/L). Results: Women born VMPT/LPT exhibited 33.0% (8.7, 62.8)/16.4% (-2.0, 38.1) higher testosterone, 28.5% (5.3, 45.9)/24.1% (5.6, 38.9) lower SHBG levels, and 64.6% (19.4, 127.1)/42.5% (11.1, 82.9) higher FAI than controls after adjusting for age and recruitment cohort, maternal BMI, smoking, and pregnancy disorders, parental education, history of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction or stroke, and subject's birth weight s.d. Odds ratios for having PCOS were 1.67 (0.44, 6.23)/3.11 (1.26, 7.70). Conclusions: Women born preterm have a more hyperandrogenic hormonal profile, and those born LPT are approximately three times more likely at risk to have PCOS compared to women born at term.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Crianças Adultas/estatística & dados numéricos , Androgênios/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Hirsutismo/sangue , Hirsutismo/diagnóstico , Hirsutismo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
Chemosphere ; 282: 130991, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090006

RESUMO

Phthalates are non-persistent chemicals used in products of daily necessities. The evidence on the relationship of prenatal phthalates exposure and preterm birth remain uncertain and dimed. We Searched Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed and Qvid Medline and selected studies according to a priori defined inclusion criteria. A total of 20 relevant studies published before March 31, 2020, were included. The main methods to detect heterogeneity and publication bias of included studies were the Q-statistic and Begg's test. Overall summary estimates indicated positive association of prenatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [number of studies (n) = 11, odds ratio (OR) = 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89, 1.4], diethyl phthalate [n = 11, OR = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.3], dibutyl phthalate [n = 10, OR = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.4], butyl benzyl phthalate [n = 10, OR = 1.0; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.2], diisobutyl phthalate [n = 9, OR = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.3], diisononyl phthalate [n = 4, OR = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.3], and phthalates were negatively associated with gestational age except di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diisononyl phthalate. Most of them were not statistically significant. Subgroup analysis indicated that the heterogeneity was mainly found in the studies conducted in China and matrix collected at first trimester of pregnancy. Substantial heterogeneity and inconsistency of research methods may lead to inconsistent results of maternal phthalates exposure with preterm birth. We recommend a multicenter cohort study with a consistent approach to unravel the complex associations of prenatal phthalates exposure with birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
15.
Environ Res ; 200: 111459, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) and its alternatives, including BPF and BPS, exhibit endocrine disruption activities. However, the effects of bisphenols on fetal growth in twins remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of prenatal BPA, BPF, and BPS exposure with birth outcome differences in twins. METHODS: We recruited 289 twin pregnant women who visited the hospital for prenatal examination during the first trimester from 2013 to 2016. Urinary bisphenol levels were determined during the first, second, and third trimesters. The associations of maternal exposure to bisphenols with birth outcome differences in twins were analyzed after stratification by different trimesters. We applied the multiple informant model to estimate trimester-specific associations between urinary bisphenol concentrations and birth outcome differences in twins. RESULTS: We found low reproducibility (ICC<0.40) for maternal urinary BPA and moderate reproducibility (0.40 < ICC<0.75) for BPF and BPS. Urinary BPA concentrations were positively associated with within-pair twin birth weight difference when comparing the third vs. the first tertile in each of the three trimesters (i.e., 133.06 g, 95% CI: 68.19, 197.94; 144.5 g, 95%CI: 81.82-207.18 g; and 135.04 g, 95%CI: 71.37-198.71 g for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester, respectively). The effect of urinary BPA concentration on increased birth length difference within-pair twins were also observed across different trimesters (All P for trends < 0.05). Urinary BPA levels were positively associated with the within-pair birth weight and birth length differences across pregnancy trimesters (All of Type 3 P for values < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Maternal BPA exposure appeared to influence birth wight and birth length differences in twins. Our results warrant further confirmation.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 118(18): 313-319, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany, the 12-month prevalence of methamphetamine use among persons aged 15 to 34 is 1.9%. An increasing number of newborns are being born after a prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME). In 2014, in the German state of Saxony, approximately four out of 1000 newborns were affected. METHODS: This systematic review (Prospero registration number CRD42017060536) includes publications that were published between January 1990 and November 2019. The purpose was to determine the effects of PME on the peri- and neonatal condition of the affected children and on their further long-term development. Observational studies with a control group were included in the review and examined for their methodological quality. RESULTS: 31 publications, which dealt with two prospective and six retrospective cohort studies, were included in the review. The studies involved a total of 4446 mother-child pairs with PME, compared with 43 778 pairs without PME. A metaanalysis revealed that PME was associated with, among other findings, lower birth weight (SMD = -0.348; 95% confidence interval [-0.777; 0.081]), shorter body length (SMD= -0.198 [-0.348; -0.047]), and smaller head circumference (SMD= -0.479 [-1.047; 0.089]). Some differences between the groups with and without PME persist into the toddler years. Moreover, children with PME much more commonly display psychological and neurocognitive abnormalities, which are more severe in children growing up in problematic surroundings (discord, violence, poverty, low educational level of the parent or caregiver). A limitation of this review is that not all studies employed an objective or quantitative measure of methamphet - amine use. CONCLUSION: The documented effects of PME on child development necessitate early treatment of the affected expectant mothers, children, and families. Emphasis should be placed on structured and interdisciplinary preventive measures for methamphetamine use.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Rev Prat ; 71(3): 261-263, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161023

RESUMO

Health consequences of tobacco exposure during pregnancy and childhood.In France, about 15% of fetuses are exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy and about 30% of children are exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke. Furthermore, 20 to 25% of young adults are active smokers. These high rates underline the persistent need for preventive actions against tobacco exposure from pregnancy through adulthood.Tobacco exposure leads to numerous deleterious consequences on physical and mental health. During pregnancy, the main adverse effects are increased risks of congenital anomalies, in utero death, preterm delivery and low birthweight for gestational age. Children exposed to tobacco before or after birth have increased risks of sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory infections and recurrent otitis media.Adolescents and adults have similar tobacco-related complications.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Morte Súbita do Lactente , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar , Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(6): 732-736, 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139812

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the relationship between exposure to famine in early life and the risk of hypertension in adulthood. Methods: The medical data of Yichang Health Management Big Data Center from 2018 to 2019 were analyzed. A retrospective cohort study design was adopted, with hypertension as the study outcome, and different life periods exposed to the Great Famine in China were divided into groups. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between famine exposure in early life and hypertension in adulthood. At the same time, the interaction between gender and famine exposure was analyzed. Results: The age of 142 016 subjects was (60. 56±4.43). Among them, men accounted for 46.36% (65 845/142 016) and women accounted for 53.64% (76 171/142 016). There are 42 575(29.98%), 19 644(13.83%), 28 405(20.00%), 28 305(19.93%), 23 087 (19.93%) in non-famine exposure group, fetal famine exposure group, early childhood famine exposure group and late childhood famine exposure group, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 17.57% (24 947 cases). Multivariate logistic regression model analysis showed that after adjusting for related confounding factors, compared with non-famine exposure group, the risk of hypertension in fetal, early childhood, middle childhood and late childhood famine exposure group was higher and the OR (95%CI) values were 1.16 (1.11-1.22), 1.27 (1.21-1.33), 1.54 (1.47-1.60) and 1.84 (1.76-1.92), respectively. There was an interaction between sex and famine exposure group (P<0.001). The above association is stronger among women than among men. Conclusion: Famine exposure in early life may increase the risk of hypertension in adulthood, and the risk of women is greater than that of men.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Inanição , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fome Epidêmica , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3270, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075035

RESUMO

Little is known about the long-term neurological development of children diagnosed with congenital Zika infection at birth. Here, we report the imaging and clinical outcomes up to three years of life of a cohort of 129 children exposed to Zika virus in utero. Eighteen of them (14%) had a laboratory confirmed congenital Zika infection at birth. Infected neonates have a higher risk of adverse neonatal and early infantile outcomes (death, structural brain anomalies or neurologic symptoms) than those who tested negative: 8/18 (44%) vs 4/111 (4%), aRR 10.1 [3.5-29.0]. Neurological impairment, neurosensory alterations or delays in motor acquisition are more common in infants with a congenital Zika infection at birth: 6/15 (40%) vs 5/96 (5%), aRR 6.7 [2.2-20.0]. Finally, infected children also have an increased risk of subspecialty referral for suspected neurodevelopmental delay by three years of life: 7/11 (64%) vs 7/51 (14%), aRR 4.4 [1.9-10.1]. Infected infants without structural brain anomalies also appear to have an increased risk, although to a lesser extent, of neurological abnormalities. It seems paramount to offer systematic testing for congenital ZIKV infection in cases of in utero exposure and adapt counseling based on these results.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
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