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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 71-79, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768651

RESUMO

All vitamin K antagonist active substances used as rodenticides were reclassified in 2016 by the European authorities as active substances "toxic for reproduction", using a "read-across" alternative method based on warfarin, a human vitamin K antagonist drug. Recent study suggested that all vitamin K antagonist active substances are not all teratogenic. Using a neonatal exposure protocol, warfarin evokes skeletal deformities in rats, while bromadiolone, a widely used second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide, failed to cause such effects. Herein, using a rat model we investigated the mechanisms that may explain teratogenicity differences between warfarin and bromadiolone, despite their similar vitamin K antagonist mechanism of action. This study also included coumatetralyl, a first-generation active substance rodenticide. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in rats to evaluate a potential difference in the transfer of vitamin K antagonists from mother to fetus. The data clearly demonstrate that warfarin is highly transferred from the mother to the fetus during gestation or lactation. In contrast, bromadiolone transfer from dam to the fetus is modest (5% compared to warfarin). This difference appears to be associated to almost complete uptake of bromadiolone by mother's liver, resulting in very low exposure in plasma and eventually in other peripheric tissues. This study suggests that the pharmacokinetic properties of vitamin K antagonists are not identical and could challenge the classification of such active substances as "toxic for reproduction".


Assuntos
4-Hidroxicumarinas/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Rodenticidas/toxicidade , Teratogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Teratogênios/toxicidade , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Varfarina/toxicidade , 4-Hidroxicumarinas/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Animais Lactentes , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/embriologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Rodenticidas/farmacocinética , Teratogênios/farmacocinética , Varfarina/farmacocinética
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 222-231, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798538

RESUMO

Despite many hypothesized benefits of dietary isoflavone genistein (GEN) deriving from soy-based products, questions surrounding GEN's developmental effects are increasing. To understand if in utero GEN exposure modulated postnatal respiratory allergies in the middle age, we conducted a time course study in the B6C3F1 offspring (PND 240-330) using a common household allergen (house dust mites: HDM; 10 µg/mouse for PND 240 and 290, and 50 µg/mouse for PND 330, a middle age in mice) following intranasal instillation, a physiological route of allergen exposure. GEN was administered to dams by gavage from gestational day 14 to parturition at a physiologically relevant dose (20 mg/kg body weight). Female and male offspring were sensitized with HDM allergens beginning about one month prior to sacrifice followed by challenges with three weekly dosings of HDM extracts, and they were euthanized at day 3 following the final HDM exposure. In utero exposure to GEN decreased HDM allergen-induced respiratory allergy in male B6C3F1 offspring at PND 330 as reflected by decreases in airway hyperresponsiveness (e.g., Penh value), HDM-specific IgG1 (a Th2 type Ab) and the activity of eosinophil peroxidase in the lung (an indication of eosinophil recruitment to the lungs). However, in utero exposure to GEN had minimal effects on HDM allergen-induced respiratory allergy in the middle-aged female offspring. Changes in serum total IgE, HDM-specific IgE, and lung histopathology scores in both male and female offspring were not biologically significant. Overall, in utero GEN exposure exerted a protective effect on respiratory allergy in the middle-aged male, but not female, B6C3F1 offspring following later-life HDM exposures.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Genisteína/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Envelhecimento/sangue , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Peroxidase de Eosinófilo/metabolismo , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eosinófilos/enzimologia , Feminino , Genisteína/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Pulmão/embriologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/sangue , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/patologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237708, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817646

RESUMO

Parental high-fat diet (HFD) programs for obesity and hypertension in female offspring in rats, but it is unknown how the pregnancies of these offspring are impacted. Therefore, the hypothesis was tested that parental HFD exaggerates obesity and hypertension during pregnancy of the offspring. Wistar Hannover rat dams (the parental, P generation) were maintained on normal-fat diet (NFD) or HFD from weaning and were kept on respective diets through pregnancy and lactation. Their offspring (the first filial, F1 generation) were weaned onto the same diet as the P generation, or they were changed to the other diet to determine if combined HFD in the P and F1 generations exaggerates body weight and blood pressure levels during pregnancy in these offspring. This diet paradigm resulted in the following groups of pregnant F1 offspring: P-NFD/F1-NFD, P-HFD/F1-NFD, P-NFD/F1-HFD, and P-HFD/F1-HFD. Maternal body and adipose tissue weights were greatest in the P-HFD/F1-HFD group compared to the other 3 groups by the end of pregnancy. Plasma leptin and conscious mean arterial blood pressure were not significantly different between any group, although there was a main effect for increased blood pressure in the F1-HFD groups. Circulating levels of the antihypertensive pregnancy factor, placental growth factor (PlGF), were assessed. Although average PlGF levels were similar among all groups, correlative studies revealed that lower levels of PlGF were associated with higher blood pressure only in the P-HFD/F1-HFD group. In summary, HFD feeding from the P generation exaggerated HFD-induced body and adipose tissue weights in the pregnant offspring.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Adiposidade/genética , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Desmame
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238223, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853260

RESUMO

Being delivered as a low birthweight (LBW) infant is a risk factor for elevated blood pressure and future problems with cardiovascular and cerebellar diseases. Although premature babies are reported to have low numbers of nephrons, some unclear questions remain about the mechanisms underlying elevated blood pressure in full-term LBW infants. We previously reported that glucocorticoids increased miR-449a expression, and increased miR-449a expression suppressed Crhr1 expression and caused negative glucocorticoid feedback. Therefore, we conducted this study to clarify the involvement of pituitary miR-449a in the increase in blood pressure caused by higher glucocorticoids in LBW rats. We generated a fetal low-carbohydrate and calorie-restricted model rat (60% of standard chow), and some individuals showed postnatal growth failure caused by growth hormone receptor expression. Using this model, we examined how a high-fat diet (lard-based 45kcal% fat)-induced mismatch between prenatal and postnatal environments could elevate blood pressure after growth. Although LBW rats fed standard chow had slightly higher blood pressure than control rats, their blood pressure was significantly higher than controls when exposed to a high-fat diet. Observation of glomeruli subjected to periodic acid methenamine silver (PAM) staining showed no difference in number or size. Aortic and cardiac angiotensin II receptor expression was altered with compensatory responses. Blood aldosterone levels were not different between control and LBW rats, but blood corticosterone levels were significantly higher in the latter with high-fat diet exposure. Administration of metyrapone, a steroid synthesis inhibitor, reduced blood pressure to levels comparable to controls. We showed that high-fat diet exposure causes impairment of the pituitary glucocorticoid negative feedback via miR-449a. These results clarify that LBW rats have increased blood pressure due to high glucocorticoid levels when they are exposed to a high-fat diet. These findings suggest a new therapeutic target for hypertension of LBW individuals.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Glucocorticoides/sangue , Doenças da Hipófise/sangue , Doenças da Hipófise/fisiopatologia , Hipófise/fisiologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Corticosterona/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/sangue , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metirapona/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Hipófise/tratamento farmacológico , Hipófise/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
Life Sci ; 258: 118197, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781059

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with neurodevelopmental disorders, usually suffer from bone diseases. Many studies have revealed a higher risk of fracture after atypical antipsychotic drug Risperidone (RIS) treatment, which is usually used to treat such disorders. It remains debatable whether neurodevelopmental disorders by itself are the cause of bone diseases or pharmacotherapy may be the reason. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study attempts to evaluate the biomechanical, histological, stereological, and molecular properties of bones in the offspring of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and saline-treated mothers that received saline, drug vehicle or the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone (RIS) at different days of postnatal development. After postnatal drug treatment, animals were assessed for autistic-like behaviors. Then their bones were taken for evaluations. RESULTS: Maternal LPS exposure resulted in deficits in all behavioral tests and RIS ameliorated these behaviors (p < 0.01& p < 0.05). The administration of LPS and RIS individually led to a significant decrease in the biomechanical parameters such as bone stiffness, strength and the energy used to fracture of bone. The numerical density of osteocalcin-positive cells were significantly decreased in these groups. These rats also had decreased RUNX2 and osteocalcin gene expression. When LPS rats were treated with RIS, these conditions were accelerated (p < 0.001). DISCUSSIONS: The results of our preclinical study, consistent with previous studies in animals, explore that autistic-like deficits induced by prenatal exposure to LPS, can reduce bone stability and bone mass similar to those observed in neurodevelopmental disorders, and, for the first time, reveal that this condition worsened when these animals were treated with RIS.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/induzido quimicamente , Reabsorção Óssea/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Risperidona/efeitos adversos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Transtorno Autístico/sangue , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Comportamento Animal , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Reabsorção Óssea/sangue , Reabsorção Óssea/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Feminino , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Risperidona/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Estereotipado
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor vitamin D status is a global health problem and common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in high-income countries. There is less evidence on prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and nutrition and growth in HIV-infected and -exposed children in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To determine the vitamin D status in Batswana HIV-infected mothers and their children, differences among HIV-infected mothers and between HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children, and associations between vitamin D and disease-related outcomes, nutrition, and growth. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of HIV+ mothers and HIV-exposed infants and unrelated children (1-7.9 years). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured, among other nutritional indicators, for mothers, infants and children. Vitamin D status for HIV-infected mothers and children, and an immune panel was assessed. History of HIV anti-retroviral medications and breastfeeding were obtained. Data were collected prior to universal combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy. RESULTS: Mothers (n = 36) had a mean serum 25(OH)D of 37.2±12.4ng/mL; 11% had insufficient (<20ng/mL), 17% moderately low (20.0-29.9ng/mL) and 72% sufficient (≥30ng/mL) concentrations. No infants (n = 36) or children (n = 48) were vitamin D insufficient; 22% of HIV- and no HIV+ infants had moderately low concentrations and 78% of HIV- and 100% of HIV+ infants had sufficient status, 8% of HIV- and no HIV+ children had moderately low concentrations and 92% of HIV- and 100% HIV+ children had sufficient concentrations. HIV+ children had significantly lower length/height Z scores compared to HIV- children. Length/height Z score was positively correlated with serum 25(OH)D in all children (r = 0.33, p = 0.023), with a stronger correlation in the HIV+ children (r = 0.47 p = 0.021). In mothers, serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with CD4% (r = 0.40, p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Results showed a low prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in Botswana. Growth was positively correlated with vitamin D status in HIV-exposed children, and HIV+ children had poorer linear growth than HIV- children.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adulto , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maldescended testes or cryptorchidism is a genital birth defect that affects 2-9% of all male new-borns. Over the last 40 years there have been reports of increased prevalence in countries like the US, the UK and the Scandinavian countries. This possible increase has in some studies been linked to a foetal exposure to chemical pollutants. In this matched case-control study, we analysed maternal serum samples in early pregnancy for three different organochlorine compounds, to investigate whether the levels were associated with the risk of cryptorchidism. METHOD: Maternal serum samples taken during the first trimester of pregnancy from 165 cases (boys born with cryptorchidism) and 165 controls, matched for birth year and maternal age, parity and smoking habits during the pregnancy, were retrieved from the Southern Sweden Maternity Biobank. The samples were analysed for 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Associations between exposure and cryptorchidism were evaluated by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no statistically significantly associations between exposure to these compounds and cryptorchidism, either when the exposure variables were used as a continuous variable, or when the exposure levels were divided in quartiles. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of an association between maternal levels of PCB-153, p,p'-DDE or HCB during the pregnancy and the risk of having cryptorchidism in the sons.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criptorquidismo/induzido quimicamente , Criptorquidismo/epidemiologia , Criptorquidismo/patologia , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/sangue , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hexaclorobenzeno/sangue , Hexaclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
8.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127506, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673867

RESUMO

Ubiquitous exposure to the neonicotinoid insecticide nitenpyram has raised concerns about its potential toxicity. In this study, we explored its health effects on the female offspring of mice that had been exposed during pregnancy. We found that exposure of pregnant mice to nitenpyram resulted in decreased levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose in female offspring, and additional research uncovered gut microbiota disturbances, accompanied by abnormal fecal metabolic profiles. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, we found that decreased abundance of Lactobacillus may play the most critical role, and changes in gut bacterial purine metabolism, BCAAs metabolism, and the TCA cycle are all closely related to the abundance of Lactobacillus. In summary, these results help explain the observed serum biochemical abnormalities and provide new insights into the intergenerational toxicity of nitenpyram.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias , Glicemia/análise , Colesterol/sangue , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 328: 109188, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679048

RESUMO

We have reported that gestational exposure to hexavalent chromium (CrVI) represses androgen receptor (Ar) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) in Sertoli cells (SCs) of adult rats, while the mechanism underlying remains obscure. We tested the hypothesis "transient gestational exposure to CrVI during the critical embryonic windows of testicular differentiation and growth may have adverse impact on transcription factors controlling the expression of Ar and Fshr in SCs of the F1 progeny". CrVI (K2Cr2O7) was given through drinking water (50 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm), to pregnant rats from gestational day 9-14 (testicular differentiation) and 15 to 21 (prenatal differentiation and proliferation of SC); male progenies were sacrificed on postnatal day 30 (Completion of postnatal SC maturation). A significant increase in free radicals and decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed in SCs of experimental rats. Real time PCR and western blot data showed decreased expression of Ar, Fshr, Inhibin B, Transferrin, Androgen binding protein, Claudin 11 and Occludin in SCs of experimental rats; concentrations of lactate, pyruvate and retinoic acid also decreased. Serum FSH, luteinizing hormone and estradiol increased, whereas testosterone and prolactin decreased in experimental rats. Western blot detection revealed decreased levels of transcription factors regulating Fshr viz., USF-1, USF-2, SF-1, c-fos, c-jun and GATA 1, and those of Ar viz., Sp-1, ARA54, SRC-1 and CBP in experimental rats, whereas the levels of cyclinD1 and p53, repressors of Ar increased. ChIP assay detected decreased USF-1 and USF-2 binding to Fshr promoter, and binding of Sp-1 to Ar promoter. We conclude that gestational exposure to CrVI affects SC structure and function in F1 progeny by inducing oxidative stress and diminishing the expression of Ar and Fshr through attenuation of their specific transcriptional regulators and their interaction with the respective promoter.


Assuntos
Cromo/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores do FSH/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Feminino , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Hormônios/sangue , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores do FSH/genética , Células de Sertoli/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
10.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115077, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479917

RESUMO

Triclocarban (TCC) is an antimicrobial compound, widely used in personal care products, such as soaps, toothpaste, and shampoo. This agent is incompletely removed by wastewater treatment and represents an environmental contaminant. Studies show that TCC has been associated with some endocrine disruptions. In vitro, TCC demonstrated potent androgen-augmenting activity and aromatase inhibition. In this sense, exposure during critical periods of development (gestation and lactation) could lead to some adverse health outcomes in offspring. Therefore, the present study evaluated if maternal exposure to three different doses of TCC could interfere in the reproductive parameters of male offspring. Pregnant female Wistar rats were separated into four groups: vehicle Control (CTR); TCC 0.3 mg/kg (TCC 0.3); TCC 1.5 mg/kg (TCC 1.5); TCC 3.0 mg/kg (TCC 3.0). Dams were treated daily by oral gavage from gestational day 0 to lactational day 21. The males were evaluated in different timepoint: infancy (PND 21), puberty (PND 50) and adult life (PND 90-120). The histomorphometric analysis of testis and testosterone level were assessed on PND 21, 50, 120; sexual behavior and sperm parameters at adulthood. In the TCC 3.0 group, a decrease in the testis interstitial volume and an increase in testosterone levels were observed on PND 21. Moreover, there was a decrease in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules on PND 50, and a decrease in sexual competency in adulthood. These results suggest that exposure to a human relevant dose of TCC may interfere with reproduction and could have implications for human health.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/toxicidade , Carbanilidas/toxicidade , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue
11.
Toxicol Lett ; 331: 167-177, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535229

RESUMO

Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) could increase offspring's susceptibility to adult liver lipid-metabolism diseases. This study aimed to confirm intrauterine programming mechanism of glucocorticoid-insulin-like growth factor 1 (GC-IGF1) axis for liver dysfunction in offspring rats induced by PEE. The results showed that levels of hepatic IGF1, lipid metabolism-related enzymes (e.g. FASN and HMGCR) and serum phenotype (TG, TCH, HDL-C, and LDL-C) were low in fetal rats of PEE but high in adult offspring except for HDL-C, meanwhile, hepatic H3K9ac and expression levels of IGF1 were low in fetal rats but high in adult offspring. Furthermore, levels of serum corticosterone and hepatic glucocorticoid-activation system (mainly including expression of 11ß-HSD1, GR, and C/EBPα as well as 11ß-HSD1/11ß-HSD2 ratio) were high in fetal rats of PEE but low or unchanged in adult offspring. The adult F2 generation of PEE maintained the same GC-IGF1 axis programming alteration as the F1 generation despite gender differences. In vitro, cortisol was proved to activate hepatocyte glucocorticoid-activation system and decrease H3K9ac and expression levels of IGF1 by GR. Therefore, PEE has a long-term effect on the offspring's liver functional development, which may be mainly related to the epigenetic programming alteration of the GC-IGF1 axis mediated by the glucocorticoid-activation system.


Assuntos
Etanol/toxicidade , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Corticosterona/sangue , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/sangue , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/embriologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 323: 109076, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240654

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence indicates that exposure to nonylphenol (NP), a typical persistent organic pollutant (POP), in early life results in the impairment of the central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying mechanism still remains to be elucidated. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the brain have been implicated in the CNS damages. The animal model of exposure to NP in early life was established by maternal gavage during the pregnancy and lactation in the present study. We found that exposure to NP in early life increased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the rat prefrontal cortex. Interestingly, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the intestine as well as in the serum were also increased by NP exposure. Furthermore, the increased permeability of intestinal barrier and blood-brain barrier (BBB), two critical barriers in the gut to brain communication, was observed in the rats exposed to NP in early lives. The decreased expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-1 (CLDN-1), tight junction proteins (TJs) that responsible for maintaining the permeability of intestinal barrier and BBB, was found, which may underlie these increases in permeability. Taken together, these results suggested that the disturbed gut-brain communication may contribute to the increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the prefrontal cortex caused by NP exposure in early life.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Fenóis/toxicidade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/patologia , Exposição Materna , Permeabilidade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 872: 172978, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014487

RESUMO

Evidences from human and animal studies indicate that exposure to infection during early life act as a stressor to impair the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and may be one of the contributing factors of mental illness of later life. Several atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) proved to be effective in alleviating psychiatric illness through normalization of HPA axis. However, AAPD are least tried to evaluate their efficacy in modulation of HPA axis impaired under infection. The present study elucidated that the treatment with AAPD paliperidone (PAL: 0.025 mg/kg/bw and 0.05 mg/kg/bw) during periadolescence period (postnatal day 35- postnatal day 56) dose-dependently normalized the HPA axis of the female mice who were gestationally (gestational day 15 and 17) exposed to bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS: 800 µg/kg/bw; intraperitoneally). The effectiveness of PAL treatment in counteracting the LPS induced hyperactivity of HPA axis was age-related, better observed at postnatal day 120 than at postnatal day 200. The PAL modulation of HPA axis reflected at different levels: inhibition of hypothalamic CRF expression and reduction in plasma levels of adrenocorticotropin and corticosterone. Histopathological alterations such as hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia in cortical zona fasciculata as well as medullary chromaffin cells of adrenal also normalized on PAL treatment. The comparatively long wash out period after drug treatment (postnatal day 57- postnatal day 200) along with age related hormonal imbalance could be correlated to less effectiveness of PAL on HPA axis at postnatal day 200. PAL modulation of HPA axis might be through maintenance of cytokines and reproductive axis homeostasis.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Células Cromafins/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cromafins/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/sangue , Transtornos Mentais/imunologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Palmitato de Paliperidona/administração & dosagem , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem , Zona Fasciculada/efeitos dos fármacos , Zona Fasciculada/metabolismo , Zona Fasciculada/patologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2672, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060323

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones are critical for mammalian brain development. Thus, chemicals that can affect thyroid hormone signaling during pregnancy are of great concern. Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) is a widespread environmental contaminant found in human serum, breastmilk, and other tissues, capable of lowering serum thyroxine (T4) in rats. Here, we investigated its effects on the thyroid system and neurodevelopment following maternal exposure from early gestation through lactation (0.05, 5 or 25 mg/kg/day PFHxS), alone or in combination with a mixture of 12 environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDmix). PFHxS lowered thyroid hormone levels in both dams and offspring in a dose-dependent manner, but did not change TSH levels, weight, histology, or expression of marker genes of the thyroid gland. No evidence of thyroid hormone-mediated neurobehavioral disruption in offspring was observed. Since human brain development appear very sensitive to low T4 levels, we maintain that PFHxS is of potential concern to human health. It is our view that current rodent models are not sufficiently sensitive to detect adverse neurodevelopmental effects of maternal and perinatal hypothyroxinemia and that we need to develop more sensitive brain-based markers or measurable metrics of thyroid hormone-dependent perturbations in brain development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacologia , Hipotireoidismo/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Sulfônicos/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue
15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(2): 246.e1-246.e10, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity increases the risk for pregnancy complications and adverse neonatal outcome and has been associated with long-lasting adverse effects in the offspring, including increased body fat mass, insulin resistance, and increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle interventions in pregnancy have produced no or modest effects in the reduction of adverse pregnancy outcomes in obese mothers. The Metformin in Obese Pregnant Women trial was associated with reduced adverse pregnancy outcomes and had no effect on birthweight. However, the long-term implications of metformin on the health of offspring remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether prenatal exposure to metformin can improve the cardiovascular profile and body composition in the offspring of obese mothers. STUDY DESIGN: In 151 children from the Metformin in Obese Pregnant Women trial, body composition, peripheral blood pressure, and arterial pulse wave velocity were measured. Central hemodynamics (central blood pressure and augmentation index) were estimated with the use of an oscillometric device. Left ventricular cardiac function and structure were assessed by echocardiography. RESULTS: Children were 3.9±1.0 years old, and 77 of them had been exposed to metformin prenatally. There was no significant difference in peripheral blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and body composition apart from gluteal and tricep circumferences, which were lower in the metformin group (P<.05). The metformin group, compared with the placebo group, had lower central hemodynamics (mean adjusted decrease, -0.707 mm Hg for aortic systolic blood pressure, -1.65 mm Hg for aortic pulse pressure, and -2.68% for augmentation index; P<.05 for all) and lower left ventricular diastolic function (adjusted difference in left atrial area, -0.525 cm2, in isovolumic relaxation time, -0.324 msec, and in pulmonary venous systolic wave, 2.97 cm/s; P<.05 for all). There were no significant differences in metabolic profile between the groups. CONCLUSION: Children of obese mothers who were exposed prenatally to metformin, compared with those who were exposed to placebo, had lower central hemodynamic and cardiac diastolic indices. These results suggest that the administration of metformin in obese pregnant women potentially may have a beneficial cardiovascular effect for their offspring.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Obesidade Materna/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
16.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125499, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050328

RESUMO

Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal that has been suggested to be responsible for oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, few studies have focused on the relationship of prenatal Tl exposure with children's neurobehavioural development. The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between prenatal Tl exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in 36-month-old children. We used data from 2851 mother-newborn pairs from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study (MABC); serum Tl concentration was assessed in the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy as well as in the umbilical cord blood. We assessed ADHD symptoms in the children using the Chinese version of the Conners abbreviated symptom questionnaire (C-ASQ). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the risk of ADHD symptoms was 2.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 3.32] and 2.08 (95% CI: 1.26, 3.43) for the third (60.25-75.21 ng/L) and fourth quartiles of serum Tl (>75.21 ng/L), respectively, in the second trimester of pregnancy, in comparison with the first quartile of serum Tl (<50.86 ng/L). The risk of ADHD symptoms was elevated among boys exposed to the fourth quartile of serum Tl in the second trimester of pregnancy (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.13, 3.83). Our results demonstrated that high levels of Tl exposure in the second trimester of pregnancy were related to a higher risk of ADHD symptoms in 36-month-old children, and the association of higher serum Tl exposure in the second trimester with ADHD symptoms was only found in boys.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Tálio/sangue , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Fatores Sexuais , Tálio/toxicidade
17.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(3): 254-261, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has been associated with pregnancy and birth complications and fetal exposure to inflammation is thought to be a common underlying mechanism. However, whether the risk is specific to particular phases of pregnancy is unclear. The aim of this study was to characterise and compare longitudinal patterns of maternal serum concentrations of cytokines across pregnancy between offspring who were later ascertained to have a psychotic disorder, non-psychotic siblings of these cases, and unrelated, non-psychotic individuals who served as controls. METHODS: The National Collaborative Perinatal Project was a large-scale prospective longitudinal study that assessed the effects of perinatal factors on infant and child development. At sites across the USA, over 50 000 pregnant women were enrolled during prenatal clinical visits between 1959 and 1965. The present study draws from the Philadelphia cohort, which includes 9236 surviving offspring of 6753 pregnant women. Psychotic disorder diagnoses in adulthood were assessed with review of medical records and were confirmed with a validation study. Concentrations of TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17a were assessed using a multiplex bead assay in archived maternal serum samples collected across prenatal visits and birth. We characterized cytokine patterns with linear mixed models. FINDINGS: Our final sample comprised 90 cases, 79 siblings (of 40 cases), and 273 matched controls. Concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1ß, and IL-6 were significantly higher in maternal serum of offspring who later developed psychosis compared with maternal serum of matched controls. These differences were greatest in the first half of pregnancy (7-20 weeks), with no difference observed during the second half of pregnancy. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that exposure to high maternal proinflammatory cytokine concentrations in early pregnancy might play a part in psychosis. These findings place the timing of risk associated with maternal inflammation much earlier in prenatal development than previously documented in humans and provide insight into a potential developmental pathway to the disorder. FUNDING: National Institute of Mental Health (P50) Silvio O Conte Center at Johns Hopkins, Stanley Foundation, March of Dimes, Yale University, National Science Foundation, and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/Division of Intramural Population Health Research.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Transtornos Psicóticos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto , Crianças Adultas/psicologia , Crianças Adultas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez/sangue , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Life Sci ; 246: 117432, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061867

RESUMO

Our previous studies have shown that prenatal cold stress leads to placental inflammatory response and induces anxiety-like behavior reduced in offspring rats. However, the role and mechanisms by which prenatal cold stress affects offspring remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic profiles from the maternal serum and helpful in understanding the role and mechanisms by which prenatal cold stress affects the offspring. In this study, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to analyze serum metabolites, and PCA, PLS-DA, and OPLS-DA were performed to analyze changes in metabolites in the maternal serum after cold stress of 3 or 7 days. The results showed that 19 metabolites in the CS (cold stress 7 days)-NS (control) group and 23 metabolites in the CT (cold stress 3 days)-NT (control) group were significantly altered. These metabolites were mainly associated with unsaturated fatty acid synthesis, and arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and glutamine and glutamate metabolism. The data indicated that prenatal cold stress not only affected the maternal neuroendocrine system, but also affected the immune system, and lipid and amino acid metabolism. These results further supported the findings of our previous studies on the effects of prenatal cold stress on the mother and offspring. A more comprehensive understanding of these data may lead to maternal intervention that can reverse the damage of prenatal stressors.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Metabolômica , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Animais , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947955

RESUMO

Maternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic dysregulation in rodent offspring, especially when offspring are exposed to a high-fat (HF), obesogenic diet later in life. We previously demonstrated that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) in HF-fed mouse dams during gestation prevents fetal overgrowth and excess adiposity. In this study, we examined the long-term metabolic influence of MCS. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet with or without choline supplementation prior to and during gestation. After weaning, their pups were exposed to either a HF or control diet for 6 weeks before measurements. Prenatal and post-weaning dietary treatments led to sexually dimorphic responses. In male offspring, while post-weaning HF led to impaired fasting glucose and worse glucose tolerance (p < 0.05), MCS in HF dams (HFCS) attenuated these changes. HFCS (versus maternal normal fat control) appeared to improve metabolic functioning of visceral adipose tissue during post-weaning HF feeding, preventing the elevation in leptin and increasing (p < 0.05) mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1) that promotes peripheral insulin signaling in male offspring. In contrast, MCS had minimal effects on metabolic outcomes of female offspring. In conclusion, MCS during HF feeding in mice improves long-term blood glucose homeostasis in male offspring when they are faced with a postnatal obesogenic environment.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colina/administração & dosagem , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade , Animais , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/etiologia , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Desmame
20.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 111: 104576, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911196

RESUMO

Ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase enzyme, leading to reduction in Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Due to the importance of PGE2 in promoting the brain masculinization in male fetus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of in utero and lactational exposure to ibuprofen and their late repercussions on reproductive parameters in male rats. Pregnant rats were exposed to ibuprofen (10, 30 or 60 mg/kg) or vehicle (control group) per gavage daily from gestational day 15 to day 21 after birth, and late reproductive effects were assessed during the sexual development and in the reproductive adult life in the male offspring. Males exposed to ibuprofen had a decrease in body weight and anogenital distance, as well as a delay in the ages of testicular descent and preputial separation. In adulthood, there was a decrease in the Leydig cells nuclei volume, testosterone levels and percentage of normal sperm morphology. All animals exposed to ibuprofen presented male copulatory behavior, however, in the presence of another male, they also presented a female-typical behavior. Maternal exposure to ibuprofen during the sensitive windows of brain development adversely impacted the reproductive parameters of male rats, suggesting an incomplete masculinization of the hypothalamus.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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