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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 239-248, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957401

RESUMO

With Tongxin, Xiji, and Longde counties in the mountainous area of southern Ningxia as the research area, we used extended-exergy analysis (EEA) to compare their ecological efficiency driving mechanism in 2008-2017 to explore the causes of their variation in ecological degradation. The results showed that the overall difference of ecological efficiency in the three counties was significant during the study period. The ecological efficiency of Tongxin was low, with large inter-annual variation. The ecological efficiency of Xiji was stable, and the overall efficiency of Longde was the highest. The difference of exergy scale was small among the three counties. The exergy proportion in the economic sectors was not coordinated, which were dominated by agricultural and residential sectors. The economic sectors presented significant capital-pull-type and labor-intensive characteristics, indicating the driving force for ecological degradation mainly came from agricultural production and residents' lives in underdeveloped regions. The system's internal exergy conversion rate and the external energy exchange rate of the three counties were extremely low, constituting a simple network circulation path with high input, low storage, low opening and low conversion, which weakened the endogenous development of social economic subsystem and threatened the fragile ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Agricultura , China , Eficiência
3.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1855-1861, nov./dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049146

RESUMO

Upland cotton fiber is one of the most used natural fibers in the production of textile materials worldwide. For this reason, the selection of genotypes that meet the industry's requirements is one of the main goals of cotton breeding programs. This study aimed to estimate the phenotypic and genotypic correlations among fiber traits and identify the direct and indirect effects of these traits on seed cotton yield of upland cotton genotypes in the semi-arid Brazilian Northeast. This study assessed 21 upland cotton genotypes from a complete diallel cross without reciprocals. The design was randomized blocks, with three replications and 21 treatments. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Patos - PB, in 2015. The statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance by the F test, phenotypic and genotypic correlation analysis, and path analysis. The studied materials revealed genetic variability for all traits. Path analysis has shown that the traits fiber elongation, fiber strength, and fiber fineness have a direct positive effect on seed cotton yield.


A fibra do algodoeiro herbáceo é uma das fibras naturais mais utilizadas na produção de materiais têxteis no mundo. Portanto, a seleção de genótipos que atendam às exigências desta indústria é um dos principais objetivos dos programas de melhoramento do algodoeiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar as correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas entre as características tecnológicas da fibra e identificar os efeitos diretos e indiretos destas características sobre a produtividade de algodão em caroço de genótipos de algodoeiro herbáceo no semiárido nordestino. Foram avaliados 21 genótipos de algodoeiro herbáceo provenientes de um cruzamento dialélico completo sem os recíprocos. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Patos - PB, em 2015. As análises estatísticas consistiram de análise de variância pelo teste F, análise de correlação fenotípica e genotípica e análise de trilha. Todas as características apresentaram variabilidade genética entre os genótipos estudados. A correlação fenotípica foi positiva entre CSP, COMP, UNF e RES. Foram observados efeitos indiretos de ALON, COMP e FIN sobre PROD, por meio das variáveis FIN, RD e +b.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Zona Semiárida , Fibra de Algodão , Eficiência
4.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25026, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048001

RESUMO

Esta pesquisa realizou uma avaliação de desempenho em um polo do Programa Academia da Saúde em Belo Horizonte/MG. É uma pesquisa qualitativa, descritiva, do tipo estudo de caso. A escolha do polo e dos participantes foi intencional. Adotamos a entrevista em profundidade para a coleta dos dados, sendo que a amostra foi estipulada pela técnica de saturação. Para a interpretação das informações usamos a análise crítica do discurso. Os resultados indicam algumas lacunas existentes no programa, como aspectos logísticos adequados; inadequação da articulação entre polo e Unidade Básica de Saúde; ausência de metas definidas. Como aspectos positivos identificamos a satisfação dos profissionais em atuar no programa e dos alunos em participar das aulas. Concluímos que o modelo de avaliação adotado contribuiu para diagnosticar importantes condições operacionais executadas que podem auxiliar a tomada de decisões dos gestores quanto ao desenvolvimento do programa


This research conducted a performance evaluation on the Health Gym Program in Belo Horizonte, MG. It is a qualitative case study and the choice of Gym and participants was intentional. We used in-depth interview to collect data and the sample was set by saturation. To interpret the information, we used critical discourse analysis. The results point to some gaps in the program such as proper logistics, coordination between Gym and Basic Health Unit, and clear goals. As positive aspects we found professionals' satisfaction in working in the program and students' satisfaction in participating in the classes. We concluded that the evaluation model adopted contributed to finding important operational conditions that can help managers to make decisions regarding the development of the program


Esta investigación realizó una evaluación de desempeño en un polo del Programa Academia de la Salud en Belo Horizonte/MG. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, descriptiva, del tipo estudio de caso. La elección del polo y de los participantes fue intencional. Se adoptó la entrevista en profundidad para la recolección de los datos, siendo que la muestra fue estipulada por la técnica de saturación. Para la interpretación de las informaciones usamos el análisis crítico del discurso. Los resultados indican algunas lagunas existentes en el programa, como: aspectos logísticos adecuados, inadecuación de la articulación entre polo y Unidad Básica de Salud; ausencia de metas definidas. Como aspectos positivos, identificamos la satisfacción de los profesionales en actuar en el programa y de los alumnos en participar de las clases. Concluimos que el modelo de evaluación adoptado contribuyó para diagnosticar importantes condiciones operacionales ejecutadas que pueden auxiliar en la toma de decisiones de los gestores en cuanto al desarrollo del programa


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Programas Governamentais , Efetividade , Eficácia , Eficiência
5.
Pediatr Dent ; 41(6): 451-454, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882031

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether disparities in promotion and academic productivity exist within academic pediatric dentistry. Methods: The top 15 schools funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research were included in this study. Gender differences in productivity and advancement were evaluated. Results: Women comprised 48.9 percent of all faculty surveyed (n=184). Less than a third of full professors were women. Female faculty graduated more recently (18.2 years; [95 percent confidence interval (95% CI) equals 15.4 to 20.9], versus 28.5 years for men [95% CI equals 24.8 to 32.1]; P<0.001) and had fewer senior author publications (1.6 [95% CI equals 1.9 to 5.1] versus 3.5 [95% CI equals 0.7 to 2.4]; P=0.03) than their male colleagues. In a linear regression correcting for number of publications and years since graduation, gender was not a significant predictor of academic advancement. Conclusions: Most women in academic pediatric dentistry remain in lower academic tiers with fewer senior author publications. This discrepancy is explained by the years since graduation between male and female faculty at lower levels of academic advancement. Increasing scholarship opportunities and compensation for female faculty members may help improve gender equity in dental academia.


Assuntos
Docentes de Odontologia , Docentes de Medicina , Criança , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 778, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the h-index, and subsequently the research productivity, among different ophthalmic subspecialties in the United States. METHODS: A cohort of over 15,000 academic ophthalmologists residing in the United States (US) was identified out of the physician list of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Of them, 1000 ophthalmologists with at least one publication were randomly retrieved, 100 in each of the following 10 subspecialties: cataract, cornea/external disease, glaucoma, medical retina, neuro-ophthalmology, pediatric ophthalmology, plastic/reconstructive ophthalmology, refractive surgery, retina/vitreous surgery and uveitis. Data collected included: number of published papers, h-index score, annual increase in h-index and the mean number of authors on each paper. RESULTS: The mean h-index amongst all subspecialties was 9.87 ± 13.90, and the mean average annual increase in h-index was 0.22 ± 0.21. The mean number of papers published was 37.20 ± 80.08 and the mean number of authors on each paper was 3.39 ± 0.84. Uveitis was the most prolific subspecialty in mean number of papers (74.78 ± 131.37), in mean h-index (16.69 ± 20.00) and in mean annual increase in h-index (0.35 ± 0.28). The least fertile subspecialty with regards to research was cataract with 11.06 ± 27.65 mean number of papers, a mean h-index of 3.89 ± 5.84, and a mean annual increase in h-index of 0.11 ± 0.11. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the research productivity in each ophthalmic subspecialty in the US, thus providing information on the research performance of each field and on the expected academic accomplishments within it.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência , Oftalmologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
8.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020418, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656606

RESUMO

Background: There has been a growing interest in the economic burden of mortality; however, a majority of evidence is concerned with particular diseases. Less is known on the overall cost of all-cause early deaths, principally in international context. Therefore, this study aims to estimate production losses of premature mortality across 28 European Union (EU-28) countries in 2015. Methods: The human capital method was applied to estimate the production losses (indirect costs) of all-cause deaths occurring at working age. The sex- and age-specific data on the number of deaths were taken from Eurostat's database and a set of labour market measures was used to determine time of work during whole lifespan in particular countries. Results: The total production losses of all-cause premature mortality in EU-28 in 2015 were €174.6 billion, adjusted for purchasing power parity. The per capita production losses associated with early deaths were €342.39 for the whole EU-28 population on average; Lithuania experienced the highest per capita burden (€643.68), while the average costs were lowest in Greece (€188.69). These figures translated to an economic burden of 1.179% of gross domestic product in EU-28 and this share ranged from 0.679% in Luxembourg to 3.176% in Latvia. Most of the losses were due to men's deaths and the proportion of losses associated with male mortality ranged from 64.7% in the Netherlands to 81.2% in Poland. Conclusions: Premature mortality is a considerable economic burden for European societies; however, the production losses associated with early deaths vary notably in particular countries.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , União Europeia/economia , Mortalidade Prematura , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109577, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627099

RESUMO

Production-theoretical decomposition analysis (PDA), built on production theory and data envelopment analysis, has been widely used to quantify the factors that drive CO2 emission changes to support policy analysis and making. Existing PDA methods are usually linked to Shephard distance function and Malmquist productivity index. However, decomposition results associated with these methods may be biased and incomplete. The challenges with these methods mainly stem from the problems associated with underestimating disaggregated efficiencies and the infeasibility of linear programming. This paper proposes a modified PDA approach based on a non-radial directional distance function and global Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index. This new approach addresses the problems associated with conventional PDA methods. To show the usefulness of the proposed approach, we apply it to study CO2 emissions in China and use the bootstrap method to test the statistical significance of the estimated results.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Eficiência , China
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3527-3534, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621240

RESUMO

Ecological capital is an important fulcrum for the construction of ecological civilization. Measuring the spatial and temporal changes and influencing factors of ecological capital efficiency can help understand the current status of ecological capital efficiency and improve the level of ecological civilization to achieve green development. We used the super-efficient DEA model and Malmquist index to measure the spatial and temporal changes of ecological capital efficiency in Northeast China and analyzed the influencing factors. The results showed that the ecological capital efficiency in Northeast China was generally good, showing a trend of rising first and then decreasing. The ecological capital efficiency of Heilongjiang was high, showing U-shaped development, while that in Jilin and Liaoning provinces was relatively low. Results from the Malmquist index analysis showed that technological progress was the main driving force for the improvement of ecological capital efficiency. The results of Tobit regression analysis showed that the environment scale effect and the demographic effect variables had a significant positive impact on the efficiency of ecological capital. The low efficiency of science and technology investment led to negative correlation between environmental technology effect variables and ecological capital efficiency. To improve the ecological capital efficiency in Northeast China, on the one hand, we should accelerate the adjustment of industrial structure and develop ecological economy, on the other hand, we should increase the input efficiency of science and technology funds and rely on technological progress to realize green development of economy in Northeast China.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia , China , Eficiência , Indústrias
12.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109659, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610447

RESUMO

This study scrutinizes the impacts of efficiency innovations as well as affluence on residential energy consumption, which is a major driver of greenhouse gas emissions. The study draws on the ecological-modernization perspective, which is optimistic about how technological innovations and affluence can help societies overcome environmental challenges associated with production and consumption, and the political-economy perspective, which raises doubts about whether these factors are beneficial to the environment, given their tendency to drive more consumption. Analysis of nationally representative longitudinal data reveals mixed relationships between efficiency innovations and residential energy consumption: while some measures of efficiency innovations, generally those not requiring human-technology interactions, are negatively related to residential energy consumption, others are either unrelated to it or drive more consumption. These findings suggest efficiency innovations offer only minimal opportunities for conserving energy, and may depend on the nature of the innovation. Raising doubts about the potential for rising affluence to promote environmental protection, this study reveals positive relationships between our measures of affluence and residential energy consumption.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Habitação , Eficiência , Humanos , Mudança Social , Tecnologia
15.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109619, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574374

RESUMO

China is now facing the formidable tasks of saving energy and reducing emissions, so it is very important to analyze China's energy and environmental efficiency. However, previous studies have rarely paid attention to the cross-impacts that different forms of public environmental concern (PEC) have simultaneously on energy and environmental efficiency. To investigate how these two types of efficiency change along with PEC variations, this paper employs six extended programming models which are developed based upon the theory of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the directional distance function (DDF). An empirical analysis of data from 239 Chinese prefecture-level cities demonstrates the techniques. The empirical results show that PEC variations can significantly affect the environmental efficiency only if the city is experiencing unsustainable development. This work also shows that PEC about input resources may exaggerate the environmental efficiency, implying that the public may be more tolerant of resource over-consumption than of pollutant over-emission.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China , Cidades , Pesquisa Empírica
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33169-33180, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520372

RESUMO

This paper investigates the relationship between "replacing business tax with value-added tax" (RBTVT) and the total factor energy efficiency (TFEE) of the logistics industry using regression discontinuity (RD) method, and the research shows that the TFEE of the logistics industry in China has presented a benign growth trend. RBTVT has significantly promoted the development of TFEE in the logistics industry, and its influence has mainly stemmed from the improvement of green technology progress. Moreover, the promotion mechanism of policy in the eastern region reacts more sharp than that in the central and western regions does. So this paper claims that the government should built a tax incentive mechanism of green production and energy conservation. It is necessary to use RBTVT to promote the high-quality development of the logistics industry and create an environment which coexist low-carbon environmental protection and economic benefits.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Eficiência , Indústrias , Impostos , China , Comércio , Política Ambiental , Tecnologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540523

RESUMO

Improvement of ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) is crucial for transformation of China's economic growth pattern, energy conservation and emissions abatement. Here we combined the epsilon-based measure (EBM) and the Global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML) productivity index to evaluate ETFEE and ecological total-factor energy productivity (ETFEP) and its decompositions for 283 prefecture-level cities in China between 2003 and 2013. A spatial econometric model is used to investigate factors influencing ETFEE and ETFEP. Results indicated that ETFEE, ETFEP and corresponding trends differ significantly depending on whether environmental constraints are considered. No convergence trend was found in ETFEE between prefecture-level cities. Technical progress plays the largest role in increasing ETFEP growth. Pure efficiency change and scale efficiency change, however, are the main hindering factors. Boosting cumulative technological progress, cumulative scale efficiency growth rate and cumulative pure efficiency growth rate are important means of increasing ETFEP. I also found that areas with high levels of economic development do not completely overlap with areas of high ETFEE. Surprisingly, the fiscal expenditure on scientific undertakings and technological spillover effects from foreign direct investment (FDI) have not substantially increased ETFEE. Whereas increased industrialization hinders the improvement of ETFEE. Furthermore, reducing per capita energy consumption help boost ETFEE. In addition, endowment advantages of factors of production have a positive overall effect on improving ETFEE. Lastly, important policy implications are inferred.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Eficiência , China , Cidades , Ecologia , Fenômenos Físicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
18.
Orthopade ; 48(11): 963-968, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506824

RESUMO

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a frequent operation in Germany and in 2017 a total of 191,272 interventions were carried out. These interventions are associated with high costs and involve complex clinical workflow organization and time-consuming instrument logistics. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to identify the economic potential of the instrument configuration in order to optimize the entire process in TKA. Changing the composition of the set of instruments used in the operating theater for TKA resulted in time and cost saving for the complete TKA procedure, including all personnel and off-shoot procedures. In addition, the operating time saved by the introduction of a patient-specific instrumentation set meant that the operating theater could be used for more or other surgical procedures, also generating additional revenue.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/instrumentação , Salas Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/economia , Artroplastia do Joelho/economia , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Redução de Custos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Eficiência , Alemanha , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas/economia
19.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109578, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546142

RESUMO

Oil is an indispensable and important energy source in modern society, and oil production plays a vital role in economic development. However, there is no denying that oil production has a very bad impact on the environment. To realize the sustainable development of oil production, the environmental problems caused by oil production need to be controlled and managed strictly. Aiming at the practical problems of insufficient recoverable reserves of high quality oil and aggravating environmental pollution, efficient oil production and wastewater treatment become more and more important. Therefore, the whole system is divided into two stages. The stage 1 is oil development, and the stage 2 is wastewater treatment. Considering that the model needs to solve the undesirable output, an extended two-stage Slacks-Based Measure (SBM) Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) network structure model with a feedback variable is established. The efficiency value of each stage can be obtained, and the weakness of each stage can be identified, so that the efficiency value of the whole system is more accurate. And then thirteen oilfields are selected for the numerical analysis to verify the validity and accuracy of the proposed model, the results demonstrate that the overall system is efficient only if the two stages are efficient; the oil production has higher efficiencies than the oilfield wastewater treatment; There is a stronger relationship between the efficiency of oilfield wastewater treatment and the whole system. A comparison with a traditional model demonstrated that the proposed model has a more scientific, stable and practical evaluation methods.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Águas Residuárias , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fontes Geradoras de Energia
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3087-3096, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529884

RESUMO

This study used Super-SBM model considering the undesirable outputs to measure inter-provincial green inclusive efficiency in China, analyzed the spatial and temporal changes and the influencing factors by panel Tobit model during 2000 to 2016. The results showed that green inclusive efficiency considering both social and eco-environmental factors was significantly lower than that only considering social factors. Green inclusive factors had significant impacts on the measurements. From 2000 to 2016, the inter-provincial green inclusive efficiency in China showed a trend of U-shaped evolution with obvious staged characteristics. The absolute and relative differences of green inclusive efficiency between provinces were expanding. China's inter-provincial green inclusive efficiency showed an unbalanced spatial pattern. There were three high-efficient agglomeration areas in the whole country: Beijing-Tianjin, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta. The low-efficient types were scattered in the southwestern, northwestern, northern China, as well as in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. To comprehensively improve green inclusive efficiency, it should take more measures by promoting the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure, upgrading the level of macro-control of local governments, optimizing the import and export structure, fully considering the role of the market, and improving the level of scientific and technological innovation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Eficiência , Rios , Pequim , China , Indústrias
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