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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246460, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350310

RESUMO

Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.


Resumo O estudo de pesquisa de campo foi realizado na temporada (2017). A soja e as ervas daninhas foram amostradas semanalmente de forma aleatória. Tripes adultos foram identificados e contados. A detecção do vírus isolado e a incidência natural foram determinadas usando transmissão mecânica, gama de hospedeiros, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. A incidência natural de tripes em indivíduos foi detectada dependendo da % de SVNV em tripes e hospedeiros infestantes. Dez espécies de tripes foram associadas a plantas de soja no campo. A espécie mais abundante foi T. tabaci, com média de 256,5 número médio de indivíduos, seguida por F. occidentalis (142,5) e N. variabilis (86,6 / número médio de indivíduos). Catorze espécies de tripes ocorreram em 5 culturas de leguminosas e 41 espécies de plantas daninhas dentro de campos de soja. O maior número médio de 40,6 indivíduos foi registrado em Ammi majus. Enquanto o mais baixo, 3,3 número médio de indivíduos, foi no Urtica urens. Apenas 21 espécies de plantas diagnosticadas foram suscetíveis à infecção com SVNV. G. max e Vigna radiate foram os maiores percentuais de infecção, 80%, seguidos por V. unguilata e N. benthamiana, 75%. O isolado egípcio neste estudo mostrou um alto grau de similaridade e está intimamente relacionado ao TSWV do Egito (DQ479968) e ao TCSV dos EUA (KY820965), com identidade de sequência de nucleotídeos de 78%. Quatro espécies de tripes transmitiram SVNV (F. fusca 4,0%, F. schultzei 4,3%, F. tritici 3,3% e N. variabilis 68,0% de transmissão). Tanto C. phaseoli quanto M. sjostedti podem adquirir o vírus, mas não podem transmiti-lo. As seguintes espécies, T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis e T. palmi não podem adquirir ou transmitir SVNV. A incidência de SVNV no campo, iniciada no final de julho, aumentou gradativamente de 12,7 para 71,3% no final da temporada. Em conclusão, poucos indivíduos de tripes invadiram a cultura da soja e são suficientes para transmitir alta taxa de SVNV dentro da cultura. Além disso, várias espécies de vetores também abundam em ervas daninhas, que são as principais fontes dos vírus da soja transmitidos às lavouras. Essas informações podem ser importantes para controlar e reduzir a incidência de infecção por SVNV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tospovirus , Doenças das Plantas , Soja , Incidência , Urticaceae , Egito/epidemiologia , Plantas Daninhas , Necrose
2.
Acta Trop ; 237: 106733, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341782

RESUMO

PCR-testing coupled to isolate sequencing was conducted to detect prevalence and various genotypes/subtypes of 3 neglected waterborne protists (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria fowleri and Blastocystis) in water samples from various sources in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. Out of 62 protozoan-suspected samples by microscopy, Acanthamoeba was molecularly confirmed in 24 (38.7%) samples from various sources including tap water. Twenty Acanthamoeba isolates were successfully-sequenced; 18 were designated as the genotype T3 and 2 as T4. Naegleria spp. were detected in 6 (9.6%) samples from the Nile, of them 2 (3.2%) were identified as N. fowleri. Blastocystis spp. were found in 4 (6.4%) samples from waste water and ground water. Blastocystis subtype 2 was found in a sample from waste water, which may reflect human infection with this subtype and constitutes a public health hazard because waste water is occasionally discharged in the Nile with minimal treatments. Findings of the present study were analyzed in combination with those of earlier surveys from the other Egyptian governorates to evaluate the whole situation of the 3 protists in water from Egypt. Results of this analysis showed that Acanthamoeba had a high mean prevalence (43.03%) throughout Egypt, with insignificant variations among various water sources. Various Acanthamoeba genotypes were detected, and the highly pathogenic T4 was the most significantly identified type. A common T4 haplotype circulated in water from Egypt and 3 other countries (Tanzania, Rwanda, Uganda) located on the Nile basin, and included isolates from keratitis-infected patients, which confirms the potential role of water in the epidemiology of Acanthamoeba keratitis infecting humans in these countries. The estimated mean prevalence for Naegleria spp. was 23.79%, being the highest in the Nile water. In the present study, occurrence of 3 potentially pathogenic protists has been confirmed in water from Egypt, which should alert the authorities to revise the procedures for controlling these pathogens in water.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba , Blastocystis , Naegleria fowleri , Naegleria , Humanos , Naegleria fowleri/genética , Egito/epidemiologia , Águas Residuárias , Acanthamoeba/genética , Naegleria/genética
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19832, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400940

RESUMO

The promise of COVID-19 vaccines in ending the pandemic can only be achieved by overcoming the challenge of vaccine refusal. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are the trusted advisors of vaccination decisions. Recommendations for vaccinating children against COVID-19 are recently gaining more public health attention due to the role of children in disease transmission and associated morbidities. Vaccination is one of the first medical decisions parents or guardians make on behalf of their children. To investigate the determinants associated with vaccine acceptability among the general population through a direct interview questionnaire and assess guardians' views towards childhood COVID-19 vaccinations. This cross-sectional study included 2919 participants A pre-designed structured questionnaire about COVID-19 vaccination acceptability was completed by trained interviewers and interviewing the participants or their guardians (for those below 18 years old). Nearly two-thirds of participants (66.5%) accepted vaccination, 20.2% were refusing and 13.3% were hesitant. Most participants who were guardians of children below 12 years and from 13 to 17 years reported that they would accept vaccination of their children (72.5% and 70.5%, respectively). The acceptance rate among HCWs was 58.2%. The main reasons beyond vaccine refusal were mistrust of vaccine efficacy (39.5%) and having concerns regarding vaccine safety (38.8%). In a multivariable regression model, being male (OR 1.362, 95% CI 1.082-1.714, p = 0.008) resident in rural area (OR 1.796, 95% CI 1.435-2.247, p = 0.000), and lower education (OR 1.245, 95% CI 1.018-1.523, p = 0.033) were associated with an increased acceptance to be vaccinated. The acceptance rate for vaccinating children reported among their guardians was higher than adults for themselves. Extremes of age showed higher vaccine acceptance compared to young adults. Upper Egypt governorates (Faiyum and Giza) were outpacing Lower Egypt governorates in vaccination acceptance rates.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Enquadramento Interseccional , Pessoal de Saúde
4.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(2): 350-361, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407403

RESUMO

Background: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a public health problem. Elderly present a greater predisposition to the development of AKI, either due to kidney senility, or due to high prevalence of comorbidities and polypharmacy. Considering the scarcity of studies on AKI in the elderly particularly in developing countries, this study emphasizes on the pattern and outcome of AKI in the Egyptian elderly. Objective: To analyze the demographics, risk factors and outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in the Egyptian elderly. Methods: A total of 199 patients were included over one year and were divided into two groups; group I (79 elderly patients) and group II (120 non-elderly patients). The two groups were compared regarding demographics, risk factors and major outcomes including patient and renal survival. Results: Elderly patients showed a higher prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and chronic kidney disease (p=0.004 and 0.005 respectively). Pre-renal causes of AKI principally dehydration represented the major risk factor (p=0.003). Sepsis and hypertension predicted mortality in the elderly (p=0.001 and 0.035 respectively). Conclusion: In our locality; the elderly is highly vulnerable to AKI. Pre-renal causes principally dehydration represent the main triggers of AKI. Sepsis and hypertension contribute to mortality in this population. Preventive strategies are crucial not only in the hospital but also at home.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Hipertensão , Sepse , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Egito/epidemiologia , Desidratação/complicações , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1357, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herd immunity is necessary to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Vaccination is the fastest and safest pandemic control strategy. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are essential in providing vaccination information. The aim of this study was to assess intent to be vaccinated against COVID-19 among HCWs in Egypt and to determine the factors that may influence their decision. METHODS: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs who care for patients in several hospitals in Delta region, Egypt. The questionnaire included sociodemographic, clinical, and occupational data, intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, and beliefs and attitudes towards COVID-19 and its vaccination. RESULTS: The study included 455 HCWs with a mean age of 36.55 years (SD = 10.31) and 80% were females. The acceptance rate for the COVID-19 vaccine was 70.5%, while hesitancy and resistancy were both 17.6 and 11.9% respectively. About one-third (33.4%) of the subjects had previously contracted COVID-19. Most participants believed that they had a higher risk of contracting COVID-19 (71.6%). More than 64% believed they were at risk for vaccination side effects. Fear of infection and being at high risk of infection were the main drivers for COVID-19 vaccination, while the major barriers were waiting for additional experience with these new vaccines and having doubts about the vaccines' efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: The acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccination among HCWs is very high. This crucial group needs to be the focus of educational initiatives and campaigns designed to increase public awareness of the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Egito/epidemiologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Vacinação , Pessoal de Saúde
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31156, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397404

RESUMO

Liver transplantation (LT) is the definitive treatment of end-stage liver disease. The long-term survival following LT spurred more interest in improving the quality of life of patients. This was a cohort study that included 23 pediatric liver transplant recipients who underwent LT due to hereditary or metabolic liver diseases. Bone health assessment was performed at their last follow up clinically (anthropometric measures), biochemically and radiologically (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DEXA] scans). Poor bone health was defined as z-score <-1. Mean age at LT was 5.77 years (standard deviation [SD] 3.64) and 43% were males. Biliary atresia was the most common cause of end stage liver disease (35%). Mean age at follow up was 14 years (SD 5.48) and mean follow up was 8 years (SD 4.12 years). Eleven patients (48%) had poor bone health (osteopenia 22% and osteoporosis 26%). On univariate analysis, being on steroids at last follow up (odds ratio [OR] 13.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-140.67, P = .03), weight at last follow up (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.20-0.99, P = .04), platelets at last follow up (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-s0.99, P = .02), hemoglobin at last follow up (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.89, P = .03) were significantly associated with poor bone health. None of the variables were significant on multivariate analysis. At most recent follow up, 48% of patients demonstrated poor bone health by DEXA scans. More studies are required to evaluate predictors of poor bone health after LT in children.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Doença Hepática Terminal , Transplante de Fígado , Doenças Metabólicas , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Egito/epidemiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/etiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19498, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376369

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC), the most common type of malignant tumor, is the leading cause of death, having the highest incidence rate among women. The lack of early diagnostic tools is one of the clinical obstacles for BC treatment. The current study was designed to evaluate a panel of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) BC040587, HOTAIR, MALAT1, CCAT1, CCAT2, PVT1, UCA1, SPRY4-IT1, PANDAR, and AK058003-and two mRNAs (SNCG, BDNF) as novel prognostic biomarkers for BC. This study was ethically approved by the Institutional Review Board of the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Our study included 75 women recently diagnosed with BC and 25 healthy women as normal controls. Patients were divided into three groups: 24 with benign breast diseases, 28 with metastatic breast cancer (MBC, stage IV), and 23 with non-metastatic breast cancer (NMBC, stage III). LncRNA and mRNA expression levels were measured in patient plasma using quantitative real-time PCR. We found that 10 lncRNAs (BCO40587, HOTAIR, PVT1, CCAT2, PANDAR, CCAT1, UCA1, SPRY4-IT1, AK058003, and MALAT1) and both mRNAs demonstrated at least a 2-fold change in expression with a more than 95% probability of significance. BCO40587 and SNCG were significantly up-regulated in MBC and NMBC patients (3.2- and 4-fold, respectively) compared with normal controls. The expression of UCA1 was repressed by 1.78-fold in MBC and NMBC patients compared with those with benign diseases. SPRY4-IT1 was down-regulated by 1.45-fold in MBC patients compared with NMBC and benign disease patients. Up-regulation of lncRNAs plays an important role in BC development. SNCG and BCO40587 may be potential prognostic markers for BC.The organization number is IORG0003381 (IRB No: IRB00004025).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , RNA Longo não Codificante , Humanos , Feminino , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Prognóstico , Egito/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo
8.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(10): 725-732, 2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382727

RESUMO

Background: There have been system inefficiencies in the profiling and management of female breast cancer in Alexandria, Egypt. Aims: To identify barriers to full implementation of international guidelines for the management of female breast cancer patients. Methods: Female breast cancer data were extracted from records of 3 public oncology services in Alexandria, Egypt, from 2007 to 2016 and analysed. Results: A total of 5236 of the available 7125 records were usable. Median age of the patients was 54 years, and the median duration of pre-diagnosis complaint was 3.1 months. Some 522 (31.5%) of the patients had a family history of cancer. For tumour stage, 2527 (55.2%) were early, 1717 (37.6%) were locally advanced, and 331 (7.2%) were at stage IV. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 were positive in 3869 (85%), 3545 (78%), and 461 (15.3%) patients, respectively. Chemotherapy started after a median 1.03 months. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to 3667 (91.7 %) patients and neoadjuvant chemotherapy to 333 (8.3%); 3686 (92.1%) received anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy, and 3613 (86%) received hormonal treatment. One hundred and eighty of 317 eligible patients received Trastuzumab. Local and/or distant recurrence was seen in 1109 (21.2%) patients. In nonmetastatic cases, median overall and disease-free survival were 149.1 and 77.1 months, respectively. In metastatic cases, median progression-free survival was 19.6 months. Conclusion: We observed defects in the record system, there was delay in diagnosis and treatment, and nonadherence to targeted therapy in many patients. Strengthening of national and hospital-based registries is needed in Alexandria, Egypt, with a robust patient navigation system and targeted information, education and communication strategies. Continuous outcomes monitoring and adaptation to implementation needs should be sustained.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Receptor ErbB-2/uso terapêutico , Egito/epidemiologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 36: 100788, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36436899

RESUMO

Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious ectoparasitic disease that causes significant economic losses in the rabbit industry. The current study intended to reveal the infection rate, histopathology, and genetic characterization of Sarcoptes scabiei (S. scabiei) in naturally infected rabbits in Minoufiya governorate, Egypt. A total of 1120 rabbits were physically inspected for sarcoptic mange lesions and infections were confirmed microscopically. In addition, the various hematologic and serum biochemical parameters in naturally infected and non-infected rabbits were evaluated. A histopathological examination was performed. Genomic DNA was isolated from skin scraping samples and amplified using PCR primers targeting the ITS-2 region and Cox1 and Actin genes, which were then sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The overall prevalence of S. scabiei was 5.98%. Although the infection was higher in females than males, the analysis showed no statistically significant difference. White blood cells, lymphocytes, liver enzymes (GOT and GPT), urea, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde dramatically increased whereas RBCs, Hb, and MCV significantly decreased. There were epidermal thickening and hyperkeratosis, inflammation, and homogenous faint pink edematous lesions, and the S. scabiei was attached to the stratum corneum and/or burrowing through it, causing tunnels. PCR and sequence analysis of the ITS-2 region and Cox1 and Actin genes showed that the sequences in the present study were highly identical to the homologous sequences from several countries and confirmed that the mite was S. scabiei. This study presented the first molecular characterization of S. scabiei in rabbits from Minoufiya Governorate, Egypt.


Assuntos
Sarcoptes scabiei , Escabiose , Masculino , Feminino , Coelhos , Animais , Sarcoptes scabiei/genética , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Prevalência , Egito/epidemiologia , Actinas
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2125, 2022 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401249

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The spread of contradictory health information was a hallmark of the early COVID-19 pandemic. Because of a limited understanding of the disease, its mode of transmission, and its pathogenicity, the public turned to easily accessible and familiar sources of information. Some of these sources included wrong or incomplete information that could increase health risks and incidents of toxicity due to improper information about the usage of disinfectants. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between sources of information about the COVID-19 pandemic, the related household cleaning and disinfection practices among adult women living in Egypt, and the associated adverse effects of bleach toxicity during a national lockdown. METHODS: Through a self-administered online survey, 452 adult women (18 years and older) living in Egypt were recruited from 13 cities between 4 June 2022 and 4 July 2022 to answer the questionnaire. The questionnaire included (41) questions in Arabic and collected data about respondents' household cleaning and disinfection practices to prevent the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and protect their families during the lockdown that started in Egypt in March 2020. RESULTS: The study found that 88.1% (n = 398) of participants reported increased use of disinfectants during the lockdown. Women who chose social media as their primary source of information to learn about disinfection practices reported an increased frequency of respiratory symptoms associated with bleach toxicity (correlation coefficient = 0.10, p-value = 0.03), followed by women who depended on relatives and friends as the primary source of information (correlation coefficient = 0.10, p-value = 0.02). CONCLUSION: This study showed that social media is an easily accessible, efficient and fast communication tool that can act as a primary source for individuals seeking medical information compared to other media platforms (e.g., websites, T.V., satellite channels). However, better regulations and monitoring of its content may help limit the harms caused by the misinformation and disinformation spread by these popular platforms, particularly in times of uncertainty and upheaval.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desinfetantes , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Desinfecção , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Egito/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Desinfetantes/efeitos adversos
11.
Virol J ; 19(1): 185, 2022 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine influenza is an important cause of respiratory disease in equids. The causative virus; EIV, is highly variable and can evolve by accumulation of mutations, particularly in the haemagglutinin (HA) gene. Currently, H3N8 is the sole subtype circulating worldwide with Florida clade 1 (FC1) is most prevalent in the Americas and FC2 in Asia and Europe. In Egypt, EIV was detected in two occasions: subtype H7N7 in 1989 and subtype H3N8 (FC1) in 2008. No data is available on the circulation pattern of EIV during the last decade despite frequent observation of suspected cases. METHODS: Twenty-two nasal swabs were collected from vaccinated and non-vaccinated horses showing respiratory signs suggestive of EIV infection in 2017-18. Three additional swabs were retrieved during a national race event in January 2018 from Arabian mares with high fever, gait stiffness and dry cough. Samples were screened by RT-qPCR and HA1 domain of the hemagglutinin gene was amplified and sequenced for sequence and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: RT-qPCR screening revealed that only the 3 samples from the race were positive with cycle thresholds ranging from 16 to 21 indicating high viral load. Isolation attempts in hen's eggs were unsuccessful. Sequence analysis of the HA1 domain gene has revealed two identical nucleotide sequences, while the third contained 3 synonymous mutations. Phylogenetic analysis clustered study sequences with recent FC2 sequences from Europe. Amino acid alignments revealed 14 and 13 amino acid differences in the study sequences compared to A/equine/Egypt/6066NANRU-VSVRI/08 (H3N8) and A/equine/Kentucky/1997 (H3N8), respectively, available as EIV vaccines in Egypt. Nine amino acids were different from A/equine/Richmond/1/2007 (H3N8), the recommended FC2 vaccine strain by the world organization of animal health expert surveillance panel (OIE-ESP), two of which were unique to the Egyptian sequences while the remaining 7 changes were shared with the FC2-144V subgroup detected in the United Kingdom from late 2015 to 2016. CONCLUSIONS: The study represents the first reported detection of FC2-144V related EIV from Arabian mares in Egypt, and probably from the entire middle east region. The presented information about EIV epidemiology and spread may require reconsideration of the vaccine strains used in the national vaccination programs.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N7 , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Cavalos , Animais , Feminino , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/genética , Egito/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Galinhas , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Hemaglutininas , Aminoácidos/genética
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19084, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351984

RESUMO

In Egypt, Blastocystis sp. is not yet on the diagnostic list of parasitology reports, and information about its subtypes (STs) is scarce. This study investigated its prevalence and its STs/alleles, performed phylogenetic analysis, and considered the distribution of risk factors associated with Blastocystis sp. infections in West Ismailia, Ismailia governorate. Sociodemographic data, exposure factors, and previous parasitic infection status were recorded for symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis for Blastocystis sp. isolated from fecal samples were performed. Eighty Blastocystis sp.-infected individuals (15.3%) were examined. The age of the individuals ranged between 0.60 and 85.0 (mean 17.10 ± 15.70), the male/female ratio was 33/47, and the asymptomatic/symptomatic ratio was 55/25. The findings demonstrate clear evidence of direct contact with animals, poor water quality, and previous parasitic infections. Eleven samples yielded three Blastocystis STs (ST1: allele 4, ST2: alleles 9 and 12, and ST3: allele 34), with ST3 (45.5%) representing the most common subtype. Phylogenetic analysis with a robust bootstrap revealed three distinct clades for isolates of each subtype. This study updates the epidemiological knowledge of the distribution of Blastocystis sp. STs in Egypt and expands the current understanding of the prevalence, risk factor frequencies, and genetic diversity of this protist in the studied area.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Blastocystis/genética , Filogenia , Egito/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Variação Genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1437, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and forms of workplace violence (WPV) at the emergency departments (EDs) of Ain Shams University Hospitals (ASUH), Cairo and identify risk factors for WPV. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the EDs of ASUH comprising attending physicians and nurses using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Interviews were conducted with patients and relatives attending these departments to explore attitudes toward WPV against healthcare workers. RESULTS: The present study comprised 108 healthcare professionals working in EDs. Verbal violence was the most common type of WPV (86.1%), followed by sexual (48.1%) and physical violence (34.3%). Patient relatives were the most common perpetrator of all types of violence. A lack of facilities was the most common risk factor for violence (82.4%), followed by overcrowding (50.9%) and patient culture (47.2%). On the other hand, approximately 78% of interviewed patients and relatives agreed that the occurrence of violence at EDs was due to several triggering factors, including improper manner of communication by healthcare workers (63.2%), lack of facilities (32.4%), waiting time (22.1%), and unmet expectations (22.1%). CONCLUSION: WPV represents a significant issue in EDs with violent behavior against healthcare workers widely accepted by attending patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus , Violência no Trabalho , Humanos , Hospitais Universitários , Egito/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19773, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396799

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 epidemic, Egypt established a unique care model based on quarantine hospitals where only externally-referred confirmed COVID-19 patients were admitted, and healthcare workers resided continuously over 1- to 2-week working shifts. Using a mathematical model accounting for the false-negative rates of RT-PCR tests, we computed the incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs, while unveiling the proportion of infections remaining undiagnosed despite routine testing. We relied on longitudinal data, including results of routine RT-PCR tests, collected within three Egyptian quarantine hospitals. We estimated an incidence rate (per 100 person-day, PD) of 1.05 (95% CrI 0.58-1.65) at Hospital 1, 1.92 (95% CrI 0.93-3.28) at Hospital 2 and 7.62 (95% CrI 3.47-13.70) at Hospital 3. We found that the risk for an HCW to be infected during a working shift lay within the range of risk levels previously documented in standard healthcare settings for Hospitals 1-2, whereas it was > threefold higher for Hospital 3. This large variation suggests that HCWs from quarantine hospitals may face a high occupational risk of infection, but that, with sufficient infection control measures, this risk can be brought down to levels similar to those observed in standard healthcare settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Quarentena , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Hospitais , SARS-CoV-2 , Medição de Risco
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 336, 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207639

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a serious veterinary health concern worldwide. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of persistent infections (PI) and identify the current strain among some dairy cattle herds in Egypt. A total of 240 serum samples were collected from six Egyptian provinces. Between 2019 and 2020, samples were tested by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of PI animals, and then molecular characterization was performed. Six calves were found PI with a prevalence of 2.5% (6/240). Using molecular characterization, HoBi-like Pestivirus (BVD-3) was successfully identified in Egypt for the first time. Based on the BVD-3 reference strains on Genbank, the detected strains had an identity ranging from 98.8 to 99.6%. Partial nucleotide sequence of the 5'UTR gene for six tested samples was submitted to Genbank with accessions: OM324396, OM324397, OM324398, OM324399, OM3243100, and OM3243101.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Infecções por Pestivirus , Pestivirus , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Animais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Pestivirus/genética , Infecções por Pestivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pestivirus/veterinária
16.
Egypt J Immunol ; 29(4): 1-11, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197149

RESUMO

Pollen is responsible for seasonal allergies, such as allergic rhino-conjunctivitis (AR), and has become a growing public health concern. Climate change affects the range of allergenic species as well as the timing and length of the pollen season. In Egypt, data on pollinosis are scarce. This study aimed to identify the most prevalent pollen causing allergies among Egyptian patients with respiratory allergies. A total of 200 patients with respiratory allergic diseases, allergic rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma (BA), were included. Medical history taking and physical examinations were conducted on each patient. Complete blood count (CBC), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) determination, spirometry, specific IgE, and skin prick tests (SPTs) for common aeroallergens and food were performed. Of the 200 patients, 106 (53%) were females. The age of study subjects ranged 16-66 years (mean ± SD, 34.42 ± 13.0), and 65% were living in urban areas. Grass pollen, mainly from Timothy grass and maize, were the most prevalent allergens (28.5%). Timothy grass was the most common type of pollen in patients with AR (28.3 %). Elder pollen was more prevalent among asthmatic patients (P = 0.004). Bermuda grass was statistically more prevalent in rural than in urban areas (P = 0.008). Maize was linked to uncontrolled BA, whereas Timothy grass was the most prevalent among patients with moderate/severe AR. Forty-three patients had oral allergy syndrome; oranges and tomatoes were the most cross-reactive food allergies (12% and 11.5%, respectively). Exacerbation of allergic symptoms was noted during January, December, March, and June. In conclusion, pollen plays a substantial role in affecting patients with respiratory allergies in Egypt. Grass pollen is the most prevalent type of pollen, especially in urban areas.


Assuntos
Asma , Conjuntivite Alérgica , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alérgenos , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pólen , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/diagnóstico , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18062, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302880

RESUMO

The present study investigated the association between COVID-19 stresses and oral conditions including gingivitis, oral hygiene, oral ulcers, and dry mouth. This was a cross-sectional study that collected data from adults in community settings in Alexandria, Egypt, between October 2021, and February 2022. Gingival condition and oral hygiene were assessed using the gingival and plaque indices. Participants were asked if they experienced oral ulcers during the past week and dry mouth during the past year. COVID-19 fears and coping were assessed using the COVID Stress Scale (CSS), and the Brief Resilience Coping Scale (BRCS), respectively. Oral health behaviors were assessed using the World Health Organization questionnaire. Regression analyses were used to assess the association between the dependent variables (clinically assessed gingival and plaque indices, reported presence of oral ulcers, and dry mouth) and explanatory variables (CSS and BRCS) after adjusting for confounders (COVID-19 status, oral health behaviors, smoking, age in years, sex, and highest educational level). The response rate was 88.8% (373/420). The mean (SD) age = 39.26 (11.45) with 74.3% females and 49.3% reporting completing high school or higher education. The mean (SD) plaque and gingival indices were 1.59 (0.66) and 1.39 (0.59), respectively. Only 20.1% reported the presence of oral ulcers and 41.6% reported xerostomia. Lower plaque score was associated with higher COVID-19 contamination fears (B = - 0.03, 95% CI - 0.05, - 0.02) and higher compulsive checking and reassurance-seeking (B = - 0.02, 95% CI - 0.03, - 0.009). Lower gingival score was associated with higher COVID-19 contamination fears (B = - 0.02, 95% CI - 0.03, - 0.002). Higher odds of reporting dry mouth were associated with greater fear of COVID-19 socioeconomic consequences (AOR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.001, 1.09), and lower coping scores (AOR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88, 0.99). The findings suggest an association between COVID-19 specific stresses and stress-related oral conditions and shed light on the possible link between mental and oral health, emphasizing the importance of integrated planning of care services.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gengivite , Úlceras Orais , Xerostomia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Gengivite/complicações , Adaptação Psicológica
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 607, 2022 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36258181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the commonest congenital anomalies with increased risk in children born from families with affected members. However, various recurrence patterns of CHDs have been reported in different populations. Therefore, this work aimed to assess the recurrence patterns of CHDs in a large sample of Egyptian families. METHODS: From January 2020 to October 2021, non-syndromic children with confirmed CHDs were recruited. Data were collected from guardians of the recruited children and hospital records, including the index case's cardiac diagnosis and CHD diagnosis of other affected family members with to determine their recurrence pattern, consanguinity, and multi-gestation status. RESULTS: A total of 130 recurrent cases with CHD were documented in 1960 families of children with CHD, including 66,989 members. Most recurrences were detected among first-degree relatives 50/130 (38.46%), especially siblings. Discordant recurrence was the most detected pattern (45.38%), followed by concordant recurrence (42.31%), and the least was group concordance. Recurrence rate was the highest for septal defects with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) (11.8%) and anomalous venous drainage (11.1%), followed by septal defect with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO) (9.4%), isolated ventricular septal defect (VSD) category (8.2%) and LVOTO (8%). Familial recurrence was significant in consanguineous marriages [p = 0.0001; OR (95%CI) = 4.5 (2.25-9.01)] and in multi-gestations siblings: [p = 0.036; OR (95%CI) = 12.5(1.03-6.04)]. CONCLUSION: The recurrence of non-syndromic CHD is evident among first-degree relatives in Egyptian families, with mostly a discordant recurrence pattern. Recurrence was more notable in septal defects with LVOTO, anomalous venous drainage, septal defect with RVOTO, isolated VSD, and isolated LVOTO diagnostic categories. This finding will significantly impact family counseling, emphasizing higher recurrence in consanguineous parents.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Comunicação Interventricular , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos , Criança , Humanos , Egito/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Estudos de Coortes
19.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298799

RESUMO

Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) genotype VII is a highly pathogenic Orthoavulavirus that has caused multiple outbreaks among poultry in Egypt since 2011. This study aimed to observe the prevalence and genetic diversity of NDV prevailing in domestic and wild birds in Egyptian governorates. A total of 37 oropharyngeal swabs from wild birds and 101 swabs from domestic bird flocks including chickens, ducks, turkeys, and pelicans, were collected from different geographic regions within 13 governorates during 2019-2020. Virus isolation and propagation via embryonated eggs revealed 91 swab samples produced allantoic fluid containing haemagglutination activity, suggestive of virus presence. The use of RT-PCR targeted to the F gene successfully detected NDV in 85 samples. The geographical prevalence of NDV was isolated in 12 governorates in domestic birds, migratory, and non-migratory wild birds. Following whole genome sequencing, we assembled six NDV genome sequences (70-99% of genome coverage), including five full F gene sequences. All NDV strains carried high virulence, with phylogenetic analysis revealing that the strains belonged to class II within genotype VII.1.1. The genetically similar yet geographically distinct virulent NDV isolates in poultry and a wild bird may allude to an external role contributing to the dissemination of NDV in poultry populations across Egypt. One such contribution may be the migratory behaviour of wild birds; however further investigation must be implemented to support the findings of this study. Additionally, continued genomic surveillance in both wild birds and poultry would be necessary for monitoring NDV dissemination and genetic diversification across Egypt, with the aim of controlling the disease and protecting poultry production.


Assuntos
Doença de Newcastle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Doença de Newcastle/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Egito/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Galinhas , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Animais Selvagens , Genótipo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais Domésticos
20.
Per Med ; 19(6): 495-507, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36239598

RESUMO

Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the healthcare professionals working at Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt regarding pharmacovigilance (PV) and adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting, in addition to the ADR reporting barriers. Materials & methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt from July to September 2021 using a validated questionnaire. Results: About 37 physicians (20.3%) and 145 pharmacists (79.7%) responded to the survey. Overall, the knowledge (median: 40%) and practice (median: 50%) of PV and the reporting of ADRs were low; however, attitudes were mostly positive. The main barrier to reporting ADRs was The difficulty of determining whether or not ADRs occurred (42.3%). Conclusion: Understanding of PV and ADR reporting could improve the huge gap between ADRs experienced and ADRs reported. In order to be able to assess the impact of personalized medicine implementation, adequate ADR reporting should be well established.


Since no medication is completely safe, many of them are associated with multiple adverse reactions that may affect patients' health in terms of morbidity and, even worse, mortality. These concerns greatly increase the importance of reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs), which highlights the essential role of pharmacovigilance (PV) centers. This study was performed at Children's Cancer Hospital using a validated questionnaire; to collect information on healthcare professionals' demographics and their knowledge of, attitudes toward and practices in PV; analyze reasons for the the under-reporting of ADRs; and recommend possible ways to improve reporting. The majority of the healthcare professionals had poor knowledge and practice of PV and ADR reporting, which clearly explains the huge gap between ADRs experienced and ADRs reported. However, they have a positive attitude toward PV and ADR reporting.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Médicos , Criança , Humanos , Farmacovigilância , Farmacêuticos , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Medicina de Precisão , Egito/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia
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