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2.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(7): 768-773, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794161

RESUMO

Background: On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Egypt is among the five countries reporting the highest number of cases in Africa. Aims: We aimed to provide an overview of the epidemic features of COVID-19 in Egypt in order to help guide an effective lockdown-exit strategy. Methods: The incidence proportions, case fatality rates (CFR), growth rates, doubling time (Td), basic reproductive number (R0) and Herd Immunity Threshold (HIT) were calculated weekly and reviewed. Results: As of 21 May 2020, the epidemic growth rate and R0 have decreased significantly; the averages (±SD) were 0.35 (±0.33) and 2.6 (±1.55) respectively. However, the incidence proportion has increased to 14 cases /100 000 population. Conclusion: COVID-19 transmissibility has declined but the incidence rate has increased, underscoring that any lockdown-exit strategy should include measures to strengthen physical distancing, and case-based interventions to prevent an uncontrolled upsurge of COVID-19 cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Quarentena
3.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2361-2365, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743697

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis D virus (HDV) antibodies in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive children after 25 years of obligatory vaccination of infants against hepatitis B virus. This cross-sectional study included 120 treatment-naïve HBsAg-positive children, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.8:1 and a mean age of 7.8 ± 3.8 years (range, 1-17 years). Mothers were positive for HBsAg in 96.6% of the cases. HBeAg-positive chronic infection was observed in 60% of the cases, HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis in 12.5%, and HBeAg-negative chronic infection in 26.7%. Anti-HDV antibodies were not detected in any of the cases. Thus, there is a lack of anti-HDV antibodies in HBsAg-positive children, despite the current burden in adults.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite D Crônica/epidemiologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/imunologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite D Crônica/sangue , Hepatite D Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite D Crônica/virologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/patogenicidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(9): 1197-1202, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812862

RESUMO

Introduction. Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a recently discovered parvovirus; it has been shown to be a common cause of respiratory infections and gastroenteritis in children. Since its identification, HBoV has been detected worldwide in nasopharyngeal swabs, serum and stool samples particularly those obtained from young children suffering from respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections.Aim. The aim of this work was to determine HBoV prevalence among children with acute respiratory tract infection in Egypt, to detect the most prevalent HBoV genotype and to compare PCR and ELISA as diagnostic techniques for HBoV infection.Methods. Nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were obtained within the first day of admission from 75 children diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infection in El-Shatby University Hospital for Children in Alexandria, Egypt from October 2018 to March 2019. Conventional PCR was used to detect HBoV DNA, ELISA was used to detect HBoV IgM antibodies and sequencing of the VP1/2 genes was used for genotyping.Results. Seven (9.3%) of the 75 nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from patients with acute respiratory tract infection were positive for HBoV by PCR, while 5 (6.7 %) of the 75 serum samples were positive for HBoV IgM antibodies using ELISA. The correlation between PCR and ELISA results showed a highly significant association between PCR and ELISA techniques (X 2=52.041, P<0.01) and a highly significant agreement between the two methods (Kappa=81.9 %, P<0.01). Phylogenetic analysis showed that all positive samples were related to the HBoV-1 genotype.Conclusion. Human bocavirus was detected at 9.3 % prevalence in nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from children with acute respiratory tract infection. The HBoV-1 genotype was the only genotype detected, suggesting that a single genetic lineage of HBoV is circulating in Egypt. PCR and ELISA are two reliable methods for detection and diagnosis of HBoV.


Assuntos
Bocavirus Humano/classificação , Bocavirus Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Bocavirus Humano/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
6.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 114(10): 715-717, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report the first person with SARS-CoV-2 in Egypt. METHODS: We interviewed the index case and contacts. RESULTS: The 36-year old man was healthy when he traveled on business to Wuhan, China in January 2020. Upon his return to Cairo, he became ill, went to work, and subsequent autochthonous viral spread occurred. CONCLUSION: We linked SARS-CoV-2 importation to global business travel. The extent to which physical distancing, hand/face/surface hygiene, mask use, viral testing/contact tracing, restricted travel, small gatherings, and/or stay-in-residence mandates will be implemented and limit further spread in the Middle East and North Africa remains to be seen.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viagem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236918, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726340

RESUMO

The current Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted and changed lives on a global scale since its emergence and spread from China in late 2019. It has caused millions of infections, and thousands of deaths worldwide. However, the control of this pandemic still remains unachievable in many African countries including Egypt and Nigeria, despite the application of some strict preventive and control measures. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of Egyptians and Nigerians towards the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was designed as a cross-sectional community-based questionnaire survey in both countries. Participants' demography, knowledge, attitude, and perceptions towards the COVID-19 outbreak were obtained using a convenience sampling technique. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. A total of 1437 respondents were included in this preliminary report. The mean knowledge score was 14.7±2.3. The majority of the respondents (61.6%) had a satisfactory knowledge of the disease. Age (18-39 years), education (College/bachelors), and background of respondents were factors influencing knowledge levels. The attitude of most respondents (68.9%) towards instituted preventive measures was satisfactory with an average attitude score of 6.9 ± 1.2. The majority of the respondents (96%) practiced self-isolation and social-distancing but only 36% follow all health recommendations. The perception of most respondents (62.1%) on the global efforts at controlling the virus and preventing further spread was satisfactory with an average score of 10.9 ± 2.7. Only 22% of the respondents were satisfied with their country's handling of the pandemic. An apprehensive understanding of the current status in Africa through studies like KAP is crucial to avoid Africa being the next epicenter of the pandemic. For the populace to follow standard infection prevention and control measures adequately, governments need to gain the trust of citizens by strengthening the health systems and improving surveillance activities in detecting cases, to offer the optimum health services to their communities.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Conhecimento , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(10): 1599-1611, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710198

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to trace how rheumatologists all over Egypt are approaching the COVID-19 pandemic and what changes it has brought about in the patients' care with special attention to its effect on vulnerable rheumatic disease (RD) patients. This survey further aims to help inform the rheumatology community about the changes in practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey included 26 questions distributed to University staff members across Egypt members of the Egyptian College of Rheumatology (ECR). It takes 5-10 min to fill out. The practice setting of participating rheumatologists included University Teaching Hospitals that are the main rheumatology and clinical immunology service providers for adults and children RD patients. There was an overall agreement across the country in the responses to the survey that took a median time of 7 min to fill in. Potential changes in rheumatology outpatient practice by staff members evolved since the COVID-19 pandemic. None of the university rheumatology staff members has prescribed chloroquine or HCQ to prevent or treat COVID-19 in a non-hospitalized patient who was not previously on it. Twenty-three recommended decrease/avoid NSAIDs if the RD patient had confirmed COVID-19 or symptoms. There is an agreement to the key emerging frontline role of rheumatologists in treating COVID-19. During the pandemic, RD cases requiring admission were dealt with by several modified strategies. The overall agreement among the different university rheumatology departments during such critical situation has provoked the ECR to consider providing provisional guidelines for dealing with RD patients during this global catastrophe.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Reumatologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Antirreumáticos/provisão & distribução , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desprescrições , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/provisão & distribução , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Reumatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108784, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659521

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is endemic in developed and developing countries. Although the seroprevalence of HEV among the Egyptians is high, the sources of HEV infection in Egypt are not completely identified. Zoonotic HEV transmission among Egyptians is underestimated. Recently, we detected HEV in the milk of cows, this suggests the possibility of HEV transmission through the ingestion of contaminated milk. However, the role of small ruminants especially the goats in HEV epidemiology in Egypt remains unclear. Herein, we screened HEV markers in the edible goat products, mainly the milk and liver and we assessed the risk factor for HEV infection to the goat owners. A total of 280 goat milk samples were collected from 15 villages in the Assiut governorate. Anti-HEV IgG and HEV Ag were detected in 7.14% and 1.8% of the samples, respectively. HEV RNA was detected in 2 milk samples, cladogram analysis revealed that the isolated viruses belonged to HEV-3 subtype 3a. One viral isolate showed high homology to HEV recently isolated from the cow milk in the same geographic area. The level of anti-HEV IgG and HEV Ag were comparable in the milk and matched blood samples. While the urine and stool of HEV seropositive goats tested negative for HEV markers. HEV RNA was also detectable in the fresh goat liver samples (n = 2) derived from HEV seropositive goats. Finally, we analyzed HEV seroprevalence in households (n = 5) that owned the seropositive goats and households (n = 5) that owned the seronegative goats. Interestingly, anti-HEV IgG was recorded in 80% of households owned and frequently consumed the products of HEV seropositive goats, while HEV markers were not detectable in the owners of the seronegative goats. In conclusion: Here, we report HEV in the milk and liver of goats distributed in the villages of Assiut governorate. Higher HEV seroprevalence was recorded in the households that owned the seropositive goats. Investigation of the goat products is pivotal to assess the risk factor of HEV transmission to villagers in the Assiut governorate.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/veterinária , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Leite/virologia , Animais , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cabras , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/análise , Antígenos de Hepatite/análise , Hepatite E/transmissão , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Fígado/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
11.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 183-192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592457

RESUMO

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are serious neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies have found a high seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in psychiatric patients. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. A case-control study was conducted in Assiut University Hospitals on 53 patients with schizophrenia, 57 patients with bipolar disorder, and 50 healthy volunteers. The psychiatric patients were recruited from the psychiatry department and the controls from their relatives. Both groups were subjected to socio-demographic assessment. Neither of them was immunodeficient nor with any other psychiatric disorders. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were detected by indirect-ELISA to find the relationship between T. gondii infection and psychiatric disorders. Data were analysed using Chi-square test. The seropositivity rate, among patients with schizophrenia (50.9%) and patients with bipolar disorders (52.6%), was significantly higher than control group (30%) (P = 0.031 and 0.018 respectively). We found no statistically significant difference among all groups regarding environmental risk factors associated with T. gondii infection, except cat contact which was higher in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients (P = 0.011 and 0.007 respectively). The results of our study confirm that T. gondii infection is significantly correlated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and significantly associated with cat contact rather than beef consumption.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Transtorno Bipolar , Esquizofrenia , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , Grupos Controle , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 328: 108669, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497922

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections and staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP). This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and enterotoxigenicity of MRSA in broiler chicken meat and giblets. A total of 5.5% (8/144) of the examined samples were contaminated with mecA positive/mecC negative MRSA, with staphylococcal counts of approximately 102 colony forming units (CFU)/g in breast, leg and gizzard samples and approximately 3.3 × 103 CFU/g in frozen liver samples. Most MRSA isolates (75%, 6/8) harboured the staphylococcal enterotoxin B (seb) gene. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that MRSA isolates initiated SEB production in experimentally contaminated chicken livers within 24 h of storage at temperatures over 8 °C. SEB was maximally produced at 24 °C when the MRSA counts reached 7.3 × 103 ± 1.2 × 103 CFU/g sample homogenate. The current study concludes that the main broiler chicken MRSA isolates in Egypt harbour the seb gene. To mitigate possible SEB production, especially in broiler chicken livers, a maximum "out of refrigeration" time limit should be implemented for cold chain poultry products.


Assuntos
Enterotoxinas/genética , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fígado/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/metabolismo , Refrigeração , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
13.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(6): e469-e478, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transfusion-dependent haemoglobinopathies require lifelong iron chelation therapy with one of the three iron chelators (deferiprone, deferasirox, or deferoxamine). Deferasirox and deferiprone are the only two oral chelators used in adult patients with transfusion-dependent haemoglobinopathies. To our knowledge, there are no randomised clinical trials comparing deferiprone, a less expensive iron chelator, with deferasirox in paediatric patients. We aimed to show the non-inferiority of deferiprone versus deferasirox. METHODS: DEEP-2 was a phase 3, multicentre, randomised trial in paediatric patients (aged 1 month to 18 years) with transfusion-dependent haemoglobinopathies. The study was done in 21 research hospitals and universities in Italy, Egypt, Greece, Albania, Cyprus, Tunisia, and the UK. Participants were receiving at least 150 mL/kg per year of red blood cells for the past 2 years at the time of enrolment, and were receiving deferoxamine (<100 mg/kg per day) or deferasirox (<40 mg/kg per day; deferasirox is not registered for use in children aged <2 years so only deferoxamine was being used in these patients). Any previous chelation treatment was permitted with a 7-day washout period. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive orally administered daily deferiprone (75-100 mg/kg per day) or daily deferasirox (20-40 mg/kg per day) administered as dispersible tablets, both with dose adjustment for 12 months, stratified by age (<10 years and ≥10 years) and balanced by country. The primary efficacy endpoint was based on predefined success criteria for changes in serum ferritin concentration (all patients) and cardiac MRI T2-star (T2*; patients aged >10 years) to show non-inferiority of deferiprone versus deferasirox in the per-protocol population, defined as all randomly assigned patients who received the study drugs and had available data for both variables at baseline and after 1 year of treatment, without major protocol violations. Non-inferiority was based on the two-sided 95% CI of the difference in the proportion of patients with treatment success between the two groups and was shown if the lower limit of the two-sided 95% CI was greater than -12·5%. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with EudraCT, 2012-000353-31, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01825512. FINDINGS: 435 patients were enrolled between March 17, 2014, and June 16, 2016, 393 of whom were randomly assigned to a treatment group (194 to the deferiprone group; 199 to the deferasirox group). 352 (90%) of 390 patients had ß-thalassaemia major, 27 (7%) had sickle cell disease, five (1%) had thalassodrepanocytosis, and six (2%) had other haemoglobinopathies. Median follow-up was 379 days (IQR 294-392) for deferiprone and 381 days (350-392) for deferasirox. Non-inferiority of deferiprone versus deferasirox was established (treatment success in 69 [55·2%] of 125 patients assigned deferiprone with primary composite efficacy endpoint data available at baseline and 1 year vs 80 [54·8%] of 146 assigned deferasirox, difference 0·4%; 95% CI -11·9 to 12·6). No significant difference between the groups was shown in the occurrence of serious and drug-related adverse events. Three (2%) cases of reversible agranulocytosis occurred in the 193 patients in the safety analysis in the deferiprone group and two (1%) cases of reversible renal and urinary disorders (one case of each) occurred in the 197 patients in the deferasirox group. Compliance was similar between treatment groups: 183 (95%) of 193 patients in the deferiprone group versus 192 (97%) of 197 patients in the deferisirox group. INTERPRETATION: In paediatric patients with transfusion-dependent haemoglobinopathies, deferiprone was effective and safe in inducing control of iron overload during 12 months of treatment. Considering the need for availability of more chelation treatments in paediatric populations, deferiprone offers a valuable treatment option for this age group. FUNDING: EU Seventh Framework Programme.


Assuntos
Deferasirox/uso terapêutico , Deferiprona/uso terapêutico , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Hemoglobinopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Quelantes de Ferro/uso terapêutico , Sobrecarga de Ferro/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Agranulocitose/induzido quimicamente , Agranulocitose/epidemiologia , Albânia/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chipre/epidemiologia , Deferasirox/administração & dosagem , Deferasirox/economia , Deferiprona/administração & dosagem , Deferiprona/economia , Egito/epidemiologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Ferritinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Grécia/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinopatias/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Quelantes de Ferro/administração & dosagem , Quelantes de Ferro/economia , Sobrecarga de Ferro/sangue , Itália/epidemiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Doenças Urológicas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Urológicas/epidemiologia , Talassemia beta/terapia
14.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 25(5): 402-404, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436744

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly evolving pandemic. It is well-known that pregnant women are more susceptible to viral infection due to immune and anatomic factors. Therefore, the viral pandemic might affect the reproductive health and maternity services especially in low-resource countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this article, we tried to highlight the impact of COVID-19 on reproductive health and maternity health services in low resource countries with emphasis on adapting some of the published best practice recommendations to suit a struggling environment. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women residing in low resource countries represent a uniquely vulnerable group in epidemics due to several factors. Maternity services in low resource countries are adapting to provide antenatal and postnatal care amidst a rapidly shifting health system environment due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Pandemias , Assistência Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva/normas , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Serviços de Saúde Materna/provisão & distribução , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Assistência Perinatal/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/tendências , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle
15.
J Community Health ; 45(4): 689-695, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468155

RESUMO

The psychological impact of outbreaks on individuals includes an intense and wide range of psychiatric morbidities. People are likely to experience feelings as; worry about being infected or getting sick, increased self-blame, and helplessness. This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on mental health and social support among Egyptian adults during the period of the pandemic. This is a cross-sectional observational study using an anonymous online questionnaire. The survey was conducted through a link shared on social networking sites. It was conducted from 2 May 2020 to 9 May 2020. The general populations of the Egyptian adults were included by using convenience and snowball sampling technique (510 adults). Impact Event scale mean 34.3 ± 15. About 211 (41.4%) suffered a severe impact. There was an increase in stress from work in 174 (34.1%), financial stress in 284 (55.7%), and stress from home in 320 (62.7%). Half of them felt horrified and helpless in 275 (53.9%), and 265 (52%) respectively, while 338 (66.3%) felt apprehensive. only 24.2% reported increased support from friends, while increased support from family members in 207 (40.6%). 46.5% shared their feelings with family members, while 176 (34.5%) shared with others. Caring for family members' feelings increased in 330 (64.7%). Age and rural residency were negative predictors for the impact of event score, while female gender or presence of chronic condition was a positive predictor for the impact of event score. Covid-19 pandemic has a great psychological impact on adult Egyptians and affected social support.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Emoções , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 595, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood injuries are a significant and growing global public health problem, often with high morbidity and, at times, mortality. A large proportion of injuries in preschool children occur in or around the home. We aimed to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with preschool children injuries in Egypt. METHODS: Secondary data analysis were done for the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS), 2014. Potential associated factors were measured from data on child welfare and questions on the prevalence of accidents and injuries of preschool children. These data were linked to the children demographic data, maternal age at marriage, working status of the mother, and questions on childcare arrangements. RESULTS: Out of the 634 injured children, 520 (83.4%) children required medical care for their injuries. The most common reported injury was an open wound 288 (45.5%), followed by fractures 237 (35.7%), burns 124 (19.7%), electrical shock 12 (1.9%) and other unknown types of injury 15 (2.4%). There was a positive correlation between injury and child's age, household wealth, mother's age at marriage, and unsupervised children or children left in the care of a minor. CONCLUSION: Leaving children unsupervised or in the presence of other young children is significantly associated with the occurrence of child injuries.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Arch Virol ; 165(6): 1357-1366, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285202

RESUMO

Since the incursion of avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 in Egypt in late 2016, it has spread rapidly, causing severe losses in poultry production. Multiple introductions of different reassorted strains were observed in 2017. In this study, a genetic characterization of the HA gene was carried out with 31 isolates selected from different governorates and sectors. Fifteen isolates were selected for NA gene sequence analysis. The HA and NA genes were divided into two subgroups (I and II) with positive selection pressure identified at positions 174 and 29, respectively. The HA gene contained two novel mutations in the antigenic sites, A and E. The HA nucleotide sequence identity ranged from 77 to 90% with different vaccine seeds. Full-genome sequence analysis was carried out for eight viruses, representing different governorates and sectors, to identify the predominant reassorted strain in Egypt. All viruses were similar to a reassorted strain of clade 2.3.4.4b that has been identified in Germany, among other countries. Analysis of these viruses revealed mutations specific to Egyptian strains and not the original virus characterized in 2017 (A/duck/Egypt/F446/2017), with a novel antiviral resistance marker, V27A, indicating resistance to amantadine in the M2 protein of two strains. The results indicate increased variability of circulating H5N8 viruses compared to earlier viruses sequenced in 2016 and 2017. The predominant reassorted virus circulating in 2017 and 2018 originated from an early 2017 strain. It is important to continue this surveillance of avian influenza viruses to monitor the evolution of circulating viruses.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vírus Reordenados , Animais , Aves/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Egito/epidemiologia , Genes Virais , Genótipo , Geografia Médica , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/classificação , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral
18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 31, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) selected for worldwide elimination in the near future. Egypt has made strong progress against its two endemic species of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. The former is prevalent in the Nile Delta with the latter dominating in the Nile south of Cairo. Innovative efforts are needed to reach the goal as further reduction of the prevalence has stalled due to ongoing transmission. In this study we aimed to explore the difference between low and high prevalence villages with regard to knowledge attitude and practice about schistosomiasis, utilization of health services, infection and transmission indices. METHODS: A hybrid cross-sectional longitudinal study was conducted with three annual follow-ups conducted during 1994-1996. We used a representative systematic random sampling technique investigating 993 individuals from the high prevalence village and 614 from the low prevalence village. Data were analyzed using SPSS, comparing proportions with the Chi square test and means with the Student t test, and ANOVA. RESULTS: Compliance of faecal sampling and chemotherapy was above 70% in both villages over the whole study period. Selective praziquantel treatment resulted in a significant reduction of prevalence and intensity of infection in both villages, dropping from 35.8% prevalence to 20.6%, in the low-prevalence village, and from 69.5 to 45.9% in the high-prevalence one. Intensity of infection at the base line was 30 eggs per gram (EPG) of stool in the low-prevalence village versus 105 EPG in the high-prevalence village. However, after the second round, reinfection rebounded by 22% in the high-prevalence village, while a slight improvement of the infection indices was demonstrated in the low-prevalence one. The level of knowledge was modest in both villages: people knew about self-protection and treatment, but not much about the role of human excreta for schistosomiasis transmission. While all participants maintained that using the water from the canals was inevitable, inhabitants in the high-prevalence village showed significantly lower scores reflecting higher water contact compared to the low-prevalence one. Many of them (67%) did not utilize the health centre at all compared to 26% of the people in the low-prevalence village. Interestingly, private clinics were seen as the primary source of health care by both villages, but more frequently so in the high-prevalence village (used by 87.2% of the inhabitants) compared to the low-prevalence one (59.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Even if chemotherapy works well as reflected by the observed downregulation of intensity of infection in both villages, reinfection continued due to difficulties to avoid water contact. Efforts must be made to make people understand the role of human excreta for transmission. There is also a need to make people better trust the medical services available.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Schistosoma haematobium/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Saúde da População Rural , Schistosoma haematobium/efeitos dos fármacos , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(4): 534-538, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246661

RESUMO

Objectives: To study the prevalence of middle mesial and middle distal canals in permanent mandibular molars in Egyptian subpopulation using micro-computed tomography. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty extracted mandibular permanent molars of Egyptian patients were scanned using micro-computed tomography, then the images were reconstructed to allow for the detection of the middle mesial (MM) and middle distal (MD) canals of the molars examined. The path of each extra canal was studied to determine the configuration of each canal. Data were analyzed statistically using the Chi-square test with a level of significance set at P< 0.05. Results: The evaluation of three-dimensional (3D) images of this study showed that no significant difference was found between the percentage of MM (27.5%) and MD canals (22.5%) (P = 0.2064); however, there was a significant difference between the percentage of teeth having both extra canals (10%) and teeth having only one of these canals (P < 0.05). The confluent configuration (71%) was significantly higher than the other configurations (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A higher percentage of MM canal was detected followed by the MD canal. The least significant was both canals occurring within the same molar. The percentage of the confluent configuration was the highest. The apt knowledge of the variations of the root canal system anatomy and the respect of the discrepancies associated with diverse demographic areas will ensure the proper management of each tooth with endodontic involvement and its long-term success.


Assuntos
Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Raiz Dentária/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/efeitos adversos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(7): 499-503, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233867

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine thyroid carcinoma with parafollicular C cell differentiation. It can occur in either sporadic or hereditary form. Surgery is still the only curative treatment. The efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is poor. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 31 patients treated surgically for MTC in our oncology centre at Mansoura University between January 2008 and February 2019. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 39.9 years. The median pathological size was 4cm. Multifocal disease was found in 12 patients and extrathyroid extension in 3 cases. Twenty patients were pathologically node positive. The median number of positive lymph nodes was four. Seven cases were metastatic at diagnosis. Local recurrence occurred in six individuals while distant recurrence occurred only in one. The median time from surgery to local recurrence was 12 months. The estimated mean disease free survival was 56.5 months. Disease free survival was significantly related to age, metastasis and side of nodal spread. CONCLUSIONS: In our study cohort, the disease occurred predominantly in women and younger patients. Age, distant metastasis and nodal spread were the most significant prognostic factors. This study has also demonstrated that prognosis is not only affected by nodal involvement but also by side of involvement. The role of hemithyroidectomy in node negative unifocal disease with a small tumour size warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Adulto , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/secundário , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Excisão de Linfonodo , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/secundário
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