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1.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(2): 98-112, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417001

RESUMO

The two poets, an American Sylvia Plath and a Hungarian, Attila József were separated by a quarter of century of time, they lived and worked in different spaces, cultures, but both created in their poetry a radically new style of self-expression, called confessional poetry. The "Belated Lament" of Attila József was written in 1936, and in the following year its author - after repeated earlier attempts - committed suicide. The "Daddy" of Sylvia Plath was written in 1962. She, again, after several attempts, killed herself the following year. They both talk about the powerful effect of the disruptive effect of unresolved Oedipal memories, both are deeply concerned with mourning of the Oedipal other a father and a mother (who died several decades before), and they also construct the death of their own. They both present themselves as an unsuccessful Oedipus and articulate a disturbing and disruptive arrival to Kolonos.


Assuntos
Ego , Pessoas Famosas , Poesia como Assunto/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Complexo de Édipo , Suicídio/história , Estados Unidos , Redação/história
2.
Psychoanal Rev ; 106(2): 113-130, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977705

RESUMO

We tend to think of Narcissus as foolishly enamored with his own image, morbidly preoccupied with self-love. Yet when we study him closely in Ovid's Metamorphoses, he does not seem to recognize himself in the water but believes to be encountering another person; he appears lost to himself. Freud's theories of ego formation, narcissism, and melancholia are examined for explanations of this loss. In contrast to Freud, who believed that identification with the lost object facilitates the subject's separation from it, identification is redescribed as a mechanism preserving the (imaginary) union with the object. Identification with the negative object is viewed as an inevitable aspect of ego formation rather than only as indicative of depressive pathology. Finally, narcissism, initially defined as a state of diminished object cathexis, is understood as a defense structure disavowing separation and leading to the conflation of self and other.


Assuntos
Teoria Freudiana , Narcisismo , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Transtorno Depressivo , Ego , Humanos
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(14): 6548-6553, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886101

RESUMO

For a long time, social scientists have used correlations in social status, measured by such characteristics as schooling, income, or occupation, across family members to capture family resemblance in social status. In this study, we use millions of records from a public registry to estimate the wealth correlations among Taiwanese kinship members, from the closest parent-child pairing to the farthest kinship ties, with only 1/32 genetic relatedness. Based on this wealth correlation, we present a complete picture of economic similarity among kin members. These correlations give us a better grasp of the hitherto obscure Chinese family structure than that of mechanical genetic relatedness. We obtain statistical evidence to support the following hypotheses: Family members' wealth resemblance to male egos is stronger than to female egos, wealth correlations are larger along patrilineal lines than along matrilineal counterparts, wealthy families have larger correlations within the nuclear family members but smaller correlations outside it, and adopted children have weaker wealth resemblance with close relatives.


Assuntos
Ego , Renda , Relações Pais-Filho , Sistema de Registros , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taiwan
4.
Bull Menninger Clin ; 83(1): 25-52, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888856

RESUMO

This article presents a clinical guide for relating psychological test findings from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Rorschach Technique to various levels of ego development. The original three validity and 10 clinical scales from the MMPI and a selected group of traditional determinants from the Rorschach are employed. Expected testing results from these instruments are derived from both the authors' clinical experience and the research literature. These results are presented along a continuum of nine levels of ego development and their associated disorders. The nine levels of ego development are "normal" neurotic, neurotic trait, and neurotic symptom organization; high-, mid-, and low-level borderline organization; and affective, cognitive-affective, and cognitive psychotic organization. The relationships between typical testing responses and indices of personality functioning at each level of ego development would hopefully facilitate accurate diagnosis, which in turn would result in more effective treatment planning.


Assuntos
MMPI , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Teste de Rorschach , Adulto , Ego , Humanos
5.
Psych J ; 8(1): 82-89, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912627

RESUMO

Phenomenologists have provided a detailed description of the disorders of the subjective experience associated with minimal-self disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Those patients report a range of distortions of their conscious experiences, including a sense of inner void, confusion between self and others, and, sometimes, a disruption of the sense of time. These reports have been interpreted as distortion of the first-person perspective and a lack of immersion in the world, associated with a breakdown of the temporal structure of consciousness, and especially a disruption of the sense of time continuity. Further, it has been proposed that these disruptions are based on a difficulty to retain past information and to predict future information, that is, the mechanisms that help to relate events with one another and to reach a sense of time continuity. Experimental psychology results seem to converge to similar conclusions, inasmuch as some results in patients with schizophrenia suggest a deficient ability to predict sequences of events at the millisecond level. Several studies have underlined this convergence. Here we reflect on the limits of both the phenomenological and experimental psychology approaches, and of the convergence of their hypotheses. We think that this reflection is necessary to avoid premature conclusions on the mechanisms underlying the impairments in patients, but also to enrich our understanding of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Ego , Filosofia , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Humanos
6.
AIDS Behav ; 23(5): 1368-1374, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680538

RESUMO

Men who have sex with men (MSM) disclose same-sex behaviors with others, creating disclosure networks. This study examined the characteristics of disclosure networks that are associated with HIV testing among MSM in China through an online nationwide survey. Name-generator questions were used to ask each participant ("ego") to nominate up to five social network members ("alters") with whom he had disclosed same-sex behaviors. Among the 806 men, the average disclosure network size was 4.05. MSM who reported larger disclosure networks were more likely to have been tested for HIV (aOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08-1.34). The most common disclosure network alters were friends (45.1%), followed by sex partners (18.7%) and healthcare professionals (2.5%). Men who disclosed to healthcare professionals were more likely to test for HIV compared to men who disclosed to family members (aOR 5.43, 95% CI 2.11-14.04). Our findings can inform disclosure network-based interventions to promote MSM HIV testing.


Assuntos
Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Ego , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Anal Psychol ; 64(1): 32-42, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618142

RESUMO

This article explores the significance of the image of the Chinese character for 'enlightenment'. The oracle bone script form for 'enlightenment' is comprised of the symbol for the 'true self' and the symbol for the 'heart'. In Chinese Taoist philosophy, the true self is close to Tao, a concept akin to that of the self in Analytical Psychology. The combination of the 'self' meeting with the 'heart' conveys both the aspect of inspiration and of profound meaning. The paper is composed of three parts in order to facilitate the analysis and interpretation of this Chinese character: 1) an exploration of the image and meaning of the character; 2) an exploration of the link between the self and enlightenment; and 3) reflections on the relationship between insight and enlightenment. The image of this Chinese character contains not only what enlightenment is, but also the way to enlightenment and the meaning of the way.


Assuntos
Ego , Linguagem , Teoria Psicanalítica , Filosofias Religiosas , China , Humanos , Teoria Junguiana
8.
Eur Addict Res ; 25(1): 20-29, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-stigma is a result of internalizing negative stereotypes by the affected person. Research on self-stigma in substance use disorders (SUD) is still scarce, especially regarding the role of childhood trauma and subsequent posttraumatic disorders. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the progressive model of self-stigma in women with SUD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the predictive value of PTSD severity and childhood trauma experiences on self-stigma. METHOD: In a cross-sectional study with 343 women with SUD and PTSD, we used the Self-Stigma in Alcohol Dependency Scale, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview (PSS-I), and to control for SUD severity and depression, the Addiction Severity Index Lite and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted for each stage of self-stigma (aware-agree-apply-harm). RESULTS: The interrelated successive stages of self-stigma were largely confirmed. In the regression models, no significant effects of the PSS-I- and the CTQ-scores were observed at any stage of self-stigma. Agreeing with negative stereotypes was solely predicted by younger age, applying these stereotypes to oneself was higher in women with younger age, higher depression and SUD severity, and suffering from the application (harm) was only predicted by depression. CONCLUSIONS: The progressive model of self-stigma could be confirmed in women with SUD and PTSD, but PTSD severity and childhood trauma did not directly affect this process. Self-stigma appears to be related to depression in a stronger way than PTSD is related to women with SUD and PTSD.


Assuntos
Ego , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Poiésis (En línea) ; 36: 184-191, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-994850

RESUMO

El texto posibilita adentrarse y reflexionar sobre el mundo psíquico y lo subjetivo que impera en él. Además de ello aborda el objeto de estudio de la psicología, el psiquismo, desde dos conceptos específicos, lo absurdo y lo paradójico.


The text makes it possible to enter and reflect on the psychic world and the subjective that prevails in it. Besides, it addresses the object of study of psychology, the psyche, from two specific concepts, the absurd and the paradoxical.


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Psicoterapia , Ego
10.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 28(1): 89-96, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181045

RESUMO

La vorágine de actividades extraescolares como el fútbol entre los escolares ha implicado nuevas maneras de capitalizar los aprendizajes que se promueven, con implicaciones sobre su autoestima. Este estudio tiene por objetivo comprender las implicaciones que tiene para el joven deportista su participación en este escenario, en el que asume un rol específico en el microsistema del equipo, sobre la construcción de su identidad. Se aplica un diseño de estudio de caso, modalidad etnográfica, a través de la observación participante de 10 equipos de fútbol prebenjamín durante un curso escolar y entrevistas semiestructuradas con sus maestros. El análisis de los datos cualitativos evidencia que el rol que los jugadores asumen incipientemente en sus equipos de fútbol se orienta hacia el rendimiento y tiene implicaciones en su autoestima. Las expectativas del entorno adulto afectan al modo en el que se evalúa el éxito personal de cada jugador según su rol. Se discute sobre la pertinencia de repensar el modo en el que se ofrecen las prácticas formativo-deportivas en el deporte escolar a fin de que las expectativas converjan con el potencial particular de cada niño. La sensibilización adulta es indispensable


The increase in extracurricular activities such as football among schoolchildren has involved new ways of capitalizing on the learning that is promoted, with implications for their self-esteem. The purpose of this study is to understand the implications for the young sportsman his participation in this framework, in which he assumes a specific role in the microsystem of the team, on the construction of their identity. An ethnographic case study design is applied through participant observation of 10 under’7 football teams during a school year and semi-structured interviews with their teachers. The analysis of qualitative data shows that the role that players assume incipiently in their teams is oriented toward performance and it has implications on their self-esteem. The expectations of the adult environment affect the way in which the personal success of each player is assessed according to their role. It is discussed the relevance of rethinking the way in which sports-training practices are offered in school sports so that expectations converge with the particular potential of each child. Adult sensitization is indispensable


O aumento de atividades extracurriculares como o futebol entre os escolares implica novas formas de capitalizar o aprendizado promovido, com implicações em sua autoestima. O objetivo deste estudo é compreender as implicações para os jovens atletas de sua participação neste cenário, em que assumem um papel especí"co no microssistema da equipe, na construção de sua identidade. Um desenho de estudo de caso, modalidade etnográ"ca, é aplicado através da observação participante de 10 equipes de futebol prebenjamín durante um ano letivo e entrevistas semiestruturadas com seus professores. A análise dos dados qualitativos mostra que o papel que os jogadores assumem incipientemente em suas equipes de futebol é orientado para o desempenho e tem implicações para sua autoestima. As expectativas do ambiente adulto afetam a avaliação do sucesso pessoal de cada jogador, de acordo com o seu papel. Propõe-se repensar a maneira pela qual as práticas de treinamento-esporte são oferecidas nos esportes escolares, de modo que as expectativas convergem com o potencial particular de cada criança. A conscientização de adultos é esencial


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Comportamento Competitivo , Futebol/psicologia , Ego , Autoimagem , Análise Qualitativa , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Análise de Dados , Moral , Hierarquia Social
11.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 71(11): 2395-2410, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362406

RESUMO

In the Sandbox Task, participants indicate where a protagonist who has a false belief about the location of an object will look for that object in a trough filled with a substrate that conceals the hidden object's location. Previous findings that participants tend to indicate a location closer to where they themselves know the object to be located have been interpreted as evidence of egocentric bias when attributing mental states to others. We tested the assumption that such biases occur as a result of reasoning about mental states specifically. We found that participants showed more egocentric bias when reasoning from a protagonist's false belief than from their own memory, but found equivalent levels of bias when they were asked to indicate where a false film would depict the object as when they were asked about a protagonist's false belief. Our findings suggest that that egocentric biases found in adult false belief tasks are more likely due to a general difficulty with reasoning about false representations than a specialised difficulty with reasoning about false mental states.


Assuntos
Viés , Ego , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica , Software , Adulto Jovem
12.
Croat Med J ; 59(4): 156-164, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203629

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the differences between aggressive and non-aggressive alcoholics in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and ego strength. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 111 aggressive and 123 non-aggressive male alcoholics aged between 25 and 60 years who were admitted to the Department for Alcoholism, University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce, Zagreb, Croatia, from January to December 2016. All participants met the diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence according to the Croatian Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), 4th revised edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and the International Classification of Diseases. Participants were clinically assessed by an experienced psychiatrist using a clinical interview, MINI, Questionnaire from the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression, and Ego Identity Scale (EIS) according to Erikson. A clinical psychologist performed cognitive function measurements. EIS scores were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: In comparison with non-aggressive alcoholics, aggressive alcoholics were more often divorced, unemployed, hospitalized, and first treated for alcoholism at an earlier age (P<0.05 for all). They more frequently experienced depression (42.4% vs 19.4%, P=0.013) and attempted suicide (34.7% vs 6.2%, P=0.003), achieved a lower level of maturity at the second stage of psychosocial development related to shame and doubt (14.0±4.1 vs 17.4±3.7, P=0.013) and at the fourth stage related to inferiority (13.1±6.8 vs 18.1±9.3, P=0.011), and had lower total EIS score (75.8±20.4 vs 85.2±21.5, P<0.012) than non-aggressive alcoholics. CONCLUSION: Aggressive alcoholics had weaker ego-strength than non-aggressive alcoholics, experienced more depressive reactions and suicide attempts, and showed poorer psychosocial functioning. Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine level of evidence: 3*.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Alcoólicos/psicologia , Ego , Adulto , Croácia , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 38(3): 480-493, jul.-set. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-948041

RESUMO

Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar as dinâmicas de produção da identidade docente na Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA) nos primeiros anos de docência nas cidades de Aracaju e Brasília. Participaram quatro professores atuantes na EJA da rede pública de ensino. Foram realizadas duas sessões de entrevistas aberta e episódica, seguida por entrevista mediada por objeto ou fotografia. Em seguida, foi solicitado aos participantes que escrevessem duas cartas a serem enviadas à pesquisadora por e-mail: a primeira em posicionamento-eu com o tema Ser Docente da EJA e a segunda, com alternância para posicionamento-outro, escrevendo como Secretário de Educação, com o tema perspectivas futuras da EJA. Os dados foram transcritos e a produção obtida com o uso dos multimétodos foi organizada um único texto. Todas as informações, entrevistas e cartas, foram submetidas à análise dialógica temática e análise pragmática do discurso. Os resultados indicaram que as dinâmicas de produção da identidade docente foram construídas em três temas centrais: Família, Formação Acadêmica e Mercado de Trabalho. Este estudo indicou que a produção da identidade docente e profissional na educação de jovens e adultos nos primeiros anos de docência está em transição e é marcada por ambivalências geradas na dinâmica de permanências e mudanças em conflitos e incertezas, no presente, e expectativas de futuro relacionadas à continuidade da formação, a novas oportunidades de trabalho docente e uma educação mais significativa para o outro e para si....(AU)


This study aimed at analysing the dynamics of teachers´ identity production. Four teachers in their first years of experience in Adults Education, from the cities of Aracaju and Brasilia, Brazil, took part in the multi-method research composed of two individual interview sessions and two letters writing. In the first meeting, an open interview was held and in the second session they took part in an episodic interview followed by an opened-ended interview mediated by object or photo. Afterwards, participants were asked to write two letters. The first one maintaining an I-position writing about being a teacher in adult education; and the second one, shifting to position-other, writing as the Secretary of Education position about the future of adult education. Individual were transcribed, ordered into a single text and then submitted to thematic dialogic analysis and pragmatic discourse analysis. Results indicated that the dynamics of teacher identity production were produced on three central themes: Family, Academic Formation and Labour Market. We concluded that the production of teachers´ identities, in their beginning years of professional teaching experiences in Adults Education, are in transition. It is marked by ambivalences engendered by dynamics of permanence and change prompted by conflicts and uncertainties in the present, and future expectancies related to the continuity of their education, new teaching work opportunities and a significant education for the other and for themselves....(AU)


El estudio tuve como objetivo analizar las dinámicas de producción de la identidad docente en la Educación de Jóvenes y Adultos (EJA) en los primeros años de docencia en las ciudades de Aracaju y Brasilia, Brasil. En la investigación participaron cuatro profesores de la EJA de la red pública de enseñanza. Realizamos dos sesiones de entrevista, una historia de vida y una episódica, seguida por una narrativa mediada por un objeto o fotografía. Después de la participación en la entrevistas, fue solicitado a los participantes que escribieran por e-mail dos cartas: la primera en la posición-yo escribiendo sobre ser docente de la Educación de Jóvenes y Adultos y la segunda en la posición-otro, como el Secretario de Educación sobre el futuro de la Educación de Jóvenes y Adultos. Los datos fueron transcritos y la producción obtenida con el uso de los multimétodos fue considerado como un único texto. Todas las informaciones, entrevistas y cartas fueron sometidas a análisis dialógica temática y análisis pragmática del discurso. Los resultados indicaron que las dinámicas de producción de la identidad docente fueron construidas en tres temas centrales: familia, formación académica y mercado de trabajo. Concluimos que la producción de la identidad docente y profesional en la Educación de Jóvenes y Adultos en los primeros años de docencia está marcada por conflictos, miedos, incertezas y expectativas para el futuro, relacionados con la continuidad de la formación, las nuevas oportunidades de trabajo docente, y una educación mas significativa para el otro y para sí....(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Psicologia , Ego , Docentes
14.
Acta fisiátrica ; 25(3)set. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-999706

RESUMO

A visão de totalidade do homem - homem como ser social - sugere que as ações reabilitadoras, aplicadas a pacientes acometidos por síndromes que os incapacitam fisicamente - como amputações de membros do corpo - mostram-se eficazes resultando numa melhora, e mais rápida readaptação do sujeito, a novas formas de 'estar no mundo', mesmo vivenciando um estigma social de "pessoa diferente". No estudo em questão trabalhou-se com os pressupostos epistemológicos da Psicologia Social Crítica, que foram demonstrados por meio de técnicas da Musicoterapia, pois se esperava que a prática de sessões de musicoterapia poderia facilitar a expressão da música interna dos sujeitos, conteúdo este narrado por meio de palavras, que foram transformadas em palavras cantadas e, posteriormente, em canções compostas. A participação dos envolvidos no trabalho clínico foi conjunta, isto é, entre pesquisadores e cada um dos 5 pacientes participantes, atendidos individualmente, já que se tratou de uma pesquisa-ação-participativa. As análises de discurso das narrativas de histórias de vida, foram feitas com base nas categorias que fundamentam a Psicologia Social Crítica. Os registros foram feitos a partir de observações do comportamento sonoro-musical dos pacientes, aplicando-se o "Modelo de Registro de Reações Sonoro-Rítmico-Musicais, Corpóreo-Vocais e Comportamentais", tanto para o registro objetivo, quanto para as interpretações musicais subjetivas, tendo como referência teórica principal a 'identidade como metamorfose'.


The holistic view of man ­ man as a social being ­ suggests that rehabilitative actions, applied to patients with physical disablement ­ such as limbs amputation ­ evidence efficacy, resulting in improvement and faster readaptation of the person to new ways of "being part of the world", even when experiencing the social stigma of being a "different person". This study explored the epistemological presuppositions of the Critical Social Psychology, which were demonstrated through Music Therapy techniques. It was expected that the practice of Music therapy sessions could facilitate the expression of the subject's internal music, whose content was recorded by means of words, subsequently transformed into singing words and then into music composition. It embraced the joint participation of the persons involved in the clinical work, that is between the researcher (author of this project) and in each of the five patients, viewed individually, since it involved a participatory action research. The speech analysis of the narratives of the life stories was based on the categories that substantiated Critical Social Psychology. The recordings entered were based on patients' sonorous-musical behavior observations, applying the "Recording Model of Sonorous-Rhythmic-Musical, Body-Vocal and Behavioral Reactions", not only for the objective registration, but also for the subjective musical interpretations, with "the identity as metamorphosis" being the main theoretical reference.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Ego , Amputados , Musicoterapia
15.
J Sports Sci ; 36(22): 2614-2620, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722599

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyse qualification patterns in middle distance running and identify whether athletes adopt theoretically optimal tactics, or whether the will to win overrides these. The performances of 295 men and 258 women finalists in the Olympic and IAAF World Championship 800 m and 1500 m events from 1999 to 2017 were analysed across all three rounds of competition. Finishing position, time and ranking amongst all competitors were found for each athlete. Position in the final was correlated with finishing position in the heats and semi-finals (all P < 0.001), but not with finishing times in those rounds. Of the 57 champions, 40 won both their heat and semi-final, even though a lower automatic qualification position would have been sufficient, and only 18 achieved a season's best time in the final. The will to win amongst the eventual champions (and other medallists) suggests predominantly ego oriented behaviour that is encouraged by a performance climate, and which did not appear to differ between men and women. Coaches and athletes are recommended to note that championship-specific physiological and psychological factors are important to develop in training and prior competition to improve both short- and long-term championship strategies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/psicologia , Ego , Feminino , Metas , Humanos , Masculino
16.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196269, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709003

RESUMO

This study examines the consequences of mindset switching on behavioral choices in want/should conflicts. Building on the insights of the ego depletion literature, we propose that mindset switching depletes individuals' self-control resources and therefore prompts the choice of want behavior, which provides immediate pleasure, over should behavior, which provides long-term utility. Four laboratory experiments with university students that stimulated individuals to switch mindsets were conducted to test our hypotheses. Experiment 1 demonstrated that switching between individualist and collectivist mindsets increased the subjects' tendency to prefer popular magazines over scientific journals. Experiment 2 replicated the results by testing the relationship between an abstract/concrete mindset-switching task and want/should online behavioral choices. The mediating effect of ego depletion was also supported. Experiment 3 retested the main effect of language-switching on reading choices, and the mediating effect of ego-depletion. Experiment 3 also tested the moderating effect of the Need for Cognition, and eliminated the alternative explanation of cognitive fatigue. In Experiment 4, actual food choices were used as the direct measure of want/should behaviors to test the robustness of our findings. The results consistently supported our hypotheses that mindset switching has significant effects on behavioral choices in terms of overindulgence, such as increasing want behavior and thus foregoing should behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Ego , Adulto , Cognição , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas , Autocontrole , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychiatr Pol ; 52(1): 115-127, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Analysis of changes in ego strength in the course of group psychotherapy in patients treated with neurotic and selected personality disorders (F40-F61, ICD-10). METHODS: 82 patients (61 women and 21 men) participated in the study. They underwent intensive short-term group psychotherapy treatment in a day hospital for neurotic and behavioural disorders. The assessment of the patients' personality functioning was carried out at the onset and the end of the psychotherapy. The assessment was reported as a value on the ego strength scale by means of the MMPI-2 questionnaire. RESULTS: The comparative analysis with the use of the t-Student test for related measurements, which was carried out for the measurement of ego strength values at the onset and the end of the therapy, demonstrated a statistically significant positive change both for the entire examined group and the groups which considered the gender and diagnosis distribution. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term intensive comprehensive group psychotherapy with elements of individual psychotherapy results in obtaining the desired changes in the personality functioning manifested through the increase in ego strength.


Assuntos
Ego , Transtornos Neuróticos/terapia , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Neuróticos/psicologia , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Ágora (Rio J. Online) ; 21(1): 1-11, jan.-abr. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-904824

RESUMO

In this article we discuss the metapsychological aspect of the psychoanalytic research on the clinical figures of ugliness. If the problem of ugliness is often associated with metaphysics or social norms, we wish to emphasise that the feeling of being ugly affects any psychic functioning. The discrimination encountered by the ugly in any social unrest, is unconsciously linked to anxiety representations, which disturb ego familiarity, by revealing the strangewithin us. The aesthetic ambivalence that every subject feels towards himself, accompanied by the tension between the ego ideal and the ideal ego, shows the metapsychological character of such a problem.


Neste artigo, abordamos o aspecto metapsicológico de uma pesquisa psicanalítica sobre as figuras clínicas da feiura. Se a problemática da feiura é com frequência associada à metafísica ou às normas sociais, desejamos enfatizar que o sentimento de ser feio afeta todo funcionamento psíquico. A discriminação que o feio suscita em todo mal-estar social está inconscientemente ligada a representações angustiantes, que perturbam a familiaridade egóica, ao revelar o estranho adormecido em nós. A ambivalência estética que todo sujeito sente em relação a si, acompanhada de uma tensão entre Eu Ideal e Ideal do Eu, mostra o caráter metapsicológico de tal problemática.


Assuntos
Ego , Estética , Psicologia Social
19.
Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 73(1): 62-66, 2018.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386449

RESUMO

The author describes ego-state therapy. This psychotherapy is used for treating multiple personality disorders. The author mentions the theoretical background of this method, and practical points. Initially, ego-state therapy was developed as a type of hypnotherapy, but it evolved as a safe therapeutic method in combination with trauma processing therapies. The author presents a case study, and discusses the clinical significance of this treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno Dissociativo de Identidade/psicologia , Transtorno Dissociativo de Identidade/terapia , Ego , Hipnose/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Transtornos Dissociativos/psicologia , Transtornos Dissociativos/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychoanal Rev ; 105(1): 1-29, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364080

RESUMO

This paper examines current psychoanalytic engagements with the use of hormone blockers in transsexual children and the underlying premises concerning our understanding of the child's process of coming into his or her gendered self. Rather than taking sides in the debate, I explore how the "hormones question" becomes entangled in a series of misreadings and displacements through which the child's request could potentially be missed. In examining psychoanalytic conceptualizations of the trans child's agency, autonomy, and future and the relation between the natal body and gender, I ask, how is psychoanalytic discourse implicated in the very dilemmas it attempts to elucidate? Specifically, the essay examines critically the psychoanalytic use of continuity, authenticity, and alignment as implicit ideals, interrogates the focus on mourning as therapeutic horizon, and proposes that we conceive of gender as a good-enough placeholder with the potential to carry us from the ideal of continuity to an ethos of contiguity.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Transexualismo/psicologia , Criança , Ego , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/antagonistas & inibidores , Pesar , Humanos , Masculino
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