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1.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1143373

RESUMO

Abstract Some studies indicate differences in self-regulatory behaviors of infants, depending on their gestational age. This paper aimed to compare interactive behaviors of full-term and preterm infants in the Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm. Thirty prematurely born infants and thirty full-term infants were observed in the FFSF's experimental procedure, which consists in exposing the infant to two episodes of interaction with the mother plus another episode in which the interaction gets interrupted. The Coding System and Analysis of Infant Behaviors Expressed in Still-Face adapted was used to analyze the infants' interactive behaviors. Significant differences were observed in self-comfort behaviors. All the infants showed the still-face and the recovery effect, and full-term infants showed a carry-over effect. Results contribute to planning interventions that will help mothers promote more positive dyadic interactions.


Resumo Estudos têm apresentado diferenças nos comportamentos de autorregulação de bebês quando considerada a idade gestacional. Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar comportamentos interativos de bebês nascidos a termo e prematuros segundo paradigma experimental do Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF). Trinta bebês nascidos prematuros e trinta a termo foram observados no procedimento experimental do FFSF que consiste na exposição do bebê a dois episódios de interação com a mãe e a um episódio em que se interrompe a interação. Utilizou-se uma adaptação do Sistema de Codificação e de Análise dos Comportamentos Infantis Expressos no Still-Face para analisar os comportamentos interativos dos bebês. Diferenças significativas foram observadas nos comportamentos de autorregulação. Todos os bebês apresentaram o efeito still-face e de recuperação e os bebês a termo apresentaram o efeito carry-over. Os resultados contribuem para o planejamento de intervenções que auxiliem as mães a promoverem interações diádicas mais positivas.


Resumen Estudios han mostrado diferencias en las conductas de autorregulación de bebés, de acuerdo con su edad gestacional. Este estudio buscó comparar las conductas interactivas de bebés nacidos a término y prematuros en el paradigma experimental Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF). Treinta bebés nacidos prematuros y treinta a término fueron observados en el procedimiento experimental del FFSF que consiste en la exposición del bebé a dos episodios de interacción con la madre y a un episodio en el que se interrumpe la interacción. Se utilizó de una adaptación del Sistema de Codificación y Análisis de las Conductas Infantiles expresadas en Still-face para analizar las conductas interactivas de los bebés. Se observaron diferencias significativas en las conductas de autorregulación. Los bebés mostraron los efectos still-face y de recuperación, y los bebés a término presentaron un efecto carry-over. Los resultados contribuyen para planificar intervenciones que auxilien a las madres a promover interacciones diádicas más positivas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Comportamento Infantil , Nascimento Prematuro , Ego , Face , Regulação Emocional , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães
2.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(3): 207-211, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195109

RESUMO

Se describen el diseño y la puesta en marcha de un proyecto docente en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Navarra dirigido a promover una fuerte identidad médica centrada en el paciente que armonice el desarrollo personal y el profesional de los futuros médicos. La acción educativa se lleva a cabo en 3 fases consecutivas. La primera consiste en unos talleres previos a las rotaciones clínicas en los que se reflexiona, de manera participativa, sobre un aspecto de identidad profesional seleccionado. En un segundo momento, el alumno identificará manifestaciones concretas de ese contenido en la práctica clínica: esa experiencia se recoge por escrito en un portafolio, no solo de manera descriptiva, sino también con una reflexión personal sobre lo que se ha vivido. Se cierra el proceso educativo con la evaluación razonada del portafolio y el contraste de su contenido con el tutor clínico


We describe the process of designing and implementation of a new teaching project in the University of Navarra. The aim of the project is to promote a patient-centered professional and personal identity for the future doctors. The educational process has 3 consecutive phases. First, workshops that take place prior to clerkships, where students actively reflect on a selected professional identity quality. Then, the student will identify real clinical scenarios during their clerkships where this professional behavior takes place. They should reflect on this, and they should learn through their own reactions and emotions and write a self-reflection. The educational process finishes with the formative and personal feedback from the clinical tutor


Assuntos
Humanos , Ego , Estudantes de Medicina , Educação Médica/métodos , Docentes/educação , Competência Profissional , Profissionalismo , Humanismo , Liderança , Empatia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443798

RESUMO

The main aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire (TEOSQ). The study covered 651 athletes aged 19.2 years, SD (Standard deviation) = 2.21. The task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire (TEOSQ) and sport motivation scale (SMS-28) were used. Cronbach's Alpha for the ego subscale was 0.84, and for the task subscale 0.81 (McDonald's omega was 0.84, 0.82 respectively). The reliability of the test-retest with two weeks interval was ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient) = 0.86 for ego and ICC = 0.86 for task. Initially, the two-factor model was not fully fitted (CFI (Comparative fit index) = 0.84), however the model with correlated errors for selected test items was well fitted to data (CFI = 0.95). Statistically significant, positive correlations between the task orientation and the intrinsic motivation components were obtained. Additionally, individual athletes had higher scores on the ego factor and lower scores on the task factor than the team athletes. These effects were moderated by the level of participation and occurred among high-performance athletes. Due to satisfactory reliability and validity indicators the Polish version of the task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire (TEOSQ) can be used both for scientific research and in the individual diagnostics of athletes.


Assuntos
Ego , Esportes , Adolescente , Humanos , Polônia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esportes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: 1-15, jan.-maio 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1140846

RESUMO

O processo de constituição psíquica é perpassado por discursos identificantes que modelam a imagem de si. Esse psiquismo é formado dentro de uma família pertencente a determinado grupo social. A partir da análise do conceito freudiano de mal-estar e do contrato narcísico de Aulagnier, investigamos as lógicas estabelecidas entre o sujeito e a conjuntura social. O reinvestimento narcísico pós-Édipo se pauta no Ideal-de-Eu construído a partir das interdições e dos ideais parentais e socioculturais. Discursos identificatórios hegemônicos, que ressaltam a normatividade nas identidades sexuais, de gênero, étnicas e etárias, constroem identificações marcadas pela exclusão. Pensar nos modos de identificação na contemporaneidade implica assumir que os elementos formadores dessa identidade provêm da história de vida e dos processos histórico-sociais. Neste artigo, analisamos o sofrimento sociopsíquico a partir da narrativa de uma participante de um projeto de pesquisa realizado em centro de atendimento psicológico de uma universidade pública. Foram realizadas entrevistas individuais, cuja escuta clínica nos propiciou compreender as implicações sociais e políticas do sofrimento psíquico do sujeito em desamparo social. Para tanto, nos apoiamos em conceitos da psicanálise e da análise do discurso crítica para a análise das entrevistas. Observamos que o processo de exclusão social escancara o engodo do pacto social no qual o sujeito é desinvestido e lançado no desamparo. Nesse contexto, a experiência narrada e a escuta analítica crítica podem se estabelecer como estratégias de resistência ante a exclusão social...(AU)


The psyche constitution is permeated by identifying discourses that shape the image of itself. This psyche is constituted within a family belonging to a specific social group. By analyzing the Freudian concept of malaise and Aulagnier's 'narcissistic contract', we investigate the logic between the subject and the social context. The narcissistic reinvestment after Oedipus happens according to the Ideal-of-Ego constructed from the parental and social interdictions, but also following ideational cultural and parental introjection. Hegemonic identificatory discourses that emphasize normativity in sexual, gender, ethnic and age identities construct identities marked by exclusion. Thinking about the modes of identification in contemporaneity implies assuming that the elements that form this identity come from the history of life and social-historical processes. We analyzed the socio-psychic suffering from listening to the narrative of a participant in a research project carried out in a psychological care center of a public university. Individual interviews were conducted whose clinical listening enabled us to understand the social and political implications that constitute the psychic suffering of the subject in social neglect. We rely on concepts of Psychoanalysis and Critical Discourse Analysis that provided us with subsidies for the analysis of interviews. We observe that the process of social exclusion has eluded the deception of the social pact in which the subject is disinvested and cast into helplessness. In this context, narrative experience and critical analytical listening can be established as strategies of resistance to social exclusion...(AU)


La constitución psíquica es atravesada por discursos identificadores que modelan la imagen de sí. Este psiquismo se constituye dentro de una familia perteneciente a cierto grupo social. A partir del análisis del concepto freudiano del malestar y del "contrato narcisista" de Aulagnier, analizamos las lógicas establecidas entre el sujeto y la coyuntura social. La reinversión narcisista después del Edipo se basa en el Ideal-de-Yo construido a partir de prohibiciones y ideales parentales y socioculturales. Los discursos identificatorios hegemónicos que resaltan la normatividad en las identidades sexuales, de género, étnicas y de edad construyen identificaciones marcadas por la exclusión. Pensar en los modos de identificación en la contemporaneidad implica asumir que los elementos formadores de esa identidad provienen de la historia de vida y de los procesos histórico-sociales. En este artículo, analizamos el sufrimiento sociopsíquico desde la escucha de la narrativa de una participante de un proyecto de investigación realizado en centro de atención psicológica de una universidad pública. Se realizaron entrevistas cuya escucha clínica nos propició comprender las implicaciones sociales y políticas que constituyen el sufrimiento psíquico del sujeto en desamparo social. Apoyamos en conceptos del Psicoanálisis y del Análisis del Discurso Critico para analizar las entrevistas. Observamos que el proceso de exclusión social desvela el engaño del pacto social en el cual el sujeto es desinvestido y lanzado en el desamparo. En ese contexto, la experiencia narrada y la escucha analítica crítica pueden establecerse como estrategias de resistencia ante la exclusión social...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Psicanálise , Vida , Grupo Social , Narração , Desumanização , Marginalização Social , História , Atenção , Estresse Psicológico , Família , Discurso , Ego , Construção Social da Identidade Étnica , Constrangimento , Identidade de Gênero , Decepção
5.
Monash Bioeth Rev ; 38(1): 1-14, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266592

RESUMO

Respect for autonomy is a central moral principle in bioethics. It is sometimes argued that authenticity, i.e., being "real," "genuine," "true to oneself," or similar, is crucial to a person's autonomy. Patients sometimes make what appears to be inauthentic decisions, such as when (decision-competent) anorexia nervosa patients refuse treatment to avoid gaining weight, despite that the risk of harm is very high. If such decisions are inauthentic, and therefore non-autonomous, it may be the case they should be overridden for paternalist reasons. However, it is not clear what justifies the judgment that someone or something is inauthentic. This article discusses one recent theory of what justifies judgments of inauthenticity. It is argued that the theory is seriously limited, as it only provides guidance in three out of nine identified cases. There are at least six authenticity-related problems to be solved, and autonomy theorists thus have reason to engage with the topic of authenticity in practical biomedicine.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Ética Médica , Julgamento , Paternalismo/ética , Participação do Paciente , Autonomia Pessoal , Pessoalidade , Anorexia Nervosa , Bioética , Ego , Humanos
6.
Rev. psicanal ; 27(1): http://revista.sppa.org.br/index.php/RPdaSPPA/article/view/538, Abril 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117967

RESUMO

O predomínio dos modelos ideais no momento de estabelecer as metas do trabalho psicanalítico leva a uma série de paradoxos, ou polaridades, apontada em 1965 por R. Wallerstein (existência/não existência de metas na análise, metas relativas ao processo/metas relativas aos resultados, visões otimistas/pessimistas sobre as metas). Estas polaridades são cotejadas com posições similares, existentes na mesma época no Rio da Prata (J. Bleger discutido por D. Liberman e C. A. Paz). A evolução posterior das ideias mostra a emergência de novas oscilações quando se tenta definir as metas a partir do conceito de processo psicanalítico. Ditas dificuldades sugerem a conveniência de prestar mais atenção à variedade de tratamentos que nós, analistas, realizamos em nossa prática real e aos resultados que efetivamente alcançamos neles. Estas ideias são examinadas a partir de um caso clínico cujo tratamento se afasta da análise clássica. Descrevem-se os diferentes tipos de metas que apareceram de forma progressiva para o analista durante as sessões e o papel que desempenharam. De modo mais geral, discute-se a natureza das metas dos tratamentos analíticos e a sua relação com as características do processo psicanalítico (AU)


This chapter VIII reviews the concept of neurosis in the 21st Century. Major concept of Freudian metapsychology based upon the discoveries of infantile sexuality and of infantile sexual theories, neurosis disappeared from the DSM in 2014. Infantile neurosis, transference neurosis, actual neurosis or narcissistic neurosis are concepts void of diagnostic value from the vantage point of the psychiatric nosography. Conflict between the Ego and the Id, as the economic balance between primary and secondary defense mechanisms, are no longer the major lenses to observe the psychic functioning. The author examines the influence of social and developmental modifications of the western 21st Century ­ such as the disappearance of the latency period, and the inflation of information concerning culture ­ on the situation of the concept of neurosis today. Taken out of its core situation, where Freud put it, neurosis is described as a situation of opposition in the concept of the 3rd type, placing neurosis opposite to not only perversion, but also to psychosis, or else, to psychopathy (AU)


El artículo hace un balance del concepto de neurosis en el siglo XXI. Concepto importante en la metapsicología freudiana desde el descubrimiento de la sexualidad infantil y las teorías sexuales infantiles, la neurosis desapareció en 2014 del repertorio del DSM. La neurosis infantil, la neurosis de transferencia, la neurosis actual o incluso la neurosis narcisista son conceptos vaciados de su valor diagnóstico desde el punto de vista de la nosografía psiquiátrica. El conflicto entre el Ego y el Ello, como el equilibrio económico entre los mecanismos de defensa primario y secundario, ya no son los ejes principales de observación del funcionamiento psíquico. La autora examina la influencia de los cambios sociales y de desarrollo en el siglo XXI occidental ­ como el fin del período de latencia y la inflación de información en relación con la cultura ­ sobre el estado actual del concepto de neurosis. Desplazada de la situación central en la que Freud la había colocado, la neurosis es descrita en una situación de polaridad en conceptos del tercer tipo que oponen la neurosis no solo a la perversión, sino también a la psicosis e incluso a la psicopatía (AU)


Assuntos
Ego , Id , Transtornos Neuróticos , Transtornos Psicóticos , Diagnóstico
7.
Ágora (Rio J. Online) ; 23(1): 57-65, Jan.-Apr. 2020. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1059219

RESUMO

RESUMO: Considerando que Thomas Ogden é um dos psicanalistas representantes da psicanálise contemporânea transmatricial (FIGUEIREDO; COELHO JÚNIOR, 2018), o artigo apresenta a passagem e transformação do conceito de identificação projetiva (KLEIN, 1946) para o de terceiro analítico (OGDEN, 1994) por meio da análise e discussão de publicações do autor, em que faz articulações tanto com conceitos de Winnicott, quanto de Bion. Para Ogden, os conceitos são metáforas que nomeiam diferentes aspectos do funcionamento mental, e as transformações conceituais estariam, então, nos pequenos deslizamentos de sentidos, nas sutilezas do texto e no uso diverso das expressões.


Abstract: Considering Thomas Ogden is one of the psychoanalysts representing the contemporary transmatrix psychoanalysis (FIGUEIREDO; COELHO JÚNIOR, 2018), the article presents the passage and transformation from the projective identification concept (KLEIN, 1946) into the analytic third (OGDEN, 1994) by means of the analysis and discussions of publications by the author, in which he makes articulations both with Winnicott's and Bion's concepts. To Ogden, concepts are metaphors which name different aspects of the mental functioning, and the conceptual transformations are, therefore, in the small changes in meaning, in the subtlety of the text and the diverse use of expressions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Projeção , Psicanálise , Terapia Psicanalítica , Ego
8.
Psychopathology ; 53(3-4): 133-140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114579

RESUMO

Criteria A of the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) defines personality pathology in terms of impairments in "self" (identity, self-direction) and "interpersonal" (empathy, intimacy) functioning. Articulated as a set of dynamic regulatory and relational processes that are stratified in the Level of Personality Functioning Scale, these impairments involve how individuals think and feel about themselves and others and how they relate to others. Defining personality pathology in terms of regulatory and relational processes involving self and other, and distinguishing severity of personality pathology from individual differences in its expression (Criteria B), offers the AMPD several advantages. First, it distinguishes the nature and severity of personality pathology from other forms of psychopathology. Second, it allows the AMPD to integrate personality structure and personality processes. Third, it is highly suitable for synthesis with the Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory of personality. Finally, beyond the interpersonal perspective, it facilitates even broader theoretical and treatment integration.


Assuntos
Ego , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Humanos
9.
Exp Brain Res ; 238(2): 259-272, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960104

RESUMO

Recent human imaging studies have revealed the involvement of the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) in processes that require high-level information integration, such as self-consciousness, social relations, whole body representation, and metaphorical extrapolations. These functions are far beyond its known role in the formation of body maps (even in their most complex forms), requiring the integration of different information modalities in addition to somatosensory information. However, no evidence of such complex processing seems to have been detected at the neuronal level in animal experiments, which would constitute a major discrepancy between human and non-human animals. This article scrutinizes this gap, introducing experimental evidence of human and non-human primates' SII functions set in context with their evolutionary significance and mechanisms, functionally situating the human SII as a primate brain. Based on the presented data, a new concept of a somatocentric holistic self is proposed, represented as a more comprehensive body-in-the-world map in the primate SII, taking into account evolutionary aspects that characterize the human SII and its implication in the emergence of self-consciousness. Finally, the idea of projection is introduced from the viewpoint of cognitive science, providing a logical explanation to bridge this gap between observed behavior and neurophysiological data.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Ego , Primatas/fisiologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos
10.
Dev Psychol ; 56(4): 815-832, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999183

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental course and implications of the personality metatraits ego resiliency and ego control across the first 3 decades of life. The sample consisted of 139 participants who were assessed 9 times between ages 2 and 33. Participants completed measures of ego resiliency, ego control, Big Five personality traits, identity development, and positive and negative well-being. The findings indicated strong stability of ego resiliency, in terms of both rank-order and mean-level change. Ego control also demonstrated stability over the full time span, but there was greater change in childhood relative to adolescence and adulthood. Ego resiliency and control were associated with adult well-being, but these associations were generally accounted for by the Big Five traits. Finally, there were small relations between ego resiliency and control in childhood and later adult identity development processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Desenvolvimento Humano , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Resiliência Psicológica , Autocontrole/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ego , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Annu Rev Psychol ; 71: 447-469, 2020 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337274

RESUMO

Research has demonstrated that adolescence is an important time for self- and other-oriented development that underlies many skills vital for becoming a contributing member of society with healthy intergroup relations. It is often assumed that these two processes, thinking about self and thinking about others, are pitted against each other when adolescents engage in social decision making such as giving or sharing. Recent evidence from social neuroscience, however, does not support this notion of conflicting motives, suggesting instead that thinking about self and others relies on a common network of social-affective brain regions, with the medial prefrontal cortex playing a central role in the integration of perspectives related to self and others. Here, we argue that self- and other-oriented thinking are intertwined processes that rely on an overlapping neural network. Adolescents' motivation to contribute to society can be fostered most when self- and other-oriented motives align.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Ego , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Humanos
12.
Br J Psychol ; 111(2): 246-274, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873586

RESUMO

We investigated a potential outcome of ego depletion manipulations and an important factor behind cooperative failure: a lack of openness to others' dissenting opinions. Across five studies in a variety of task settings, we examined the effect of depletion manipulations on openness to dissent and investigated two negative emotions as potential mediators of this process: fatigue and anger. The results demonstrated a negative effect of depletion manipulations on openness to dissent through increased anger rather than fatigue (Studies 1-5). In Studies 3 and 4, we also eliminated perceived trust towards a task counterpart as a significant mediator of the relationship between depletion manipulations and openness to dissent. These findings help clarify the nature of ego depletion manipulations and shed light on why individuals may fail to consider others' dissenting opinions and, thus, fall short of achieving cooperation.


Assuntos
Ira , Dissidências e Disputas , Ego , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 147: 9-17, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654698

RESUMO

Prior work using word stimuli has uncovered evidence that encoding focus (i.e., self-focus or other-focus) alters non-diagnostic recollection and the putative ERP correlate of recollection (i.e., the Late Positive Component or LPC; Leynes and Mok, 2017, Brain & Cognition). The present study examined the generality of these effects by testing memory for actions. Participants viewed videos of either a male actor or female actor completing simple actions (e.g., Ride the Elevator; Climb the Stairs). Participants judged how much fun it would be to personally perform the action under the self-focus encoding condition, whereas they rated how much fun the actor had while performing the action in the other-focus encoding condition. At test, participants made source judgments regarding who (i.e., male or female) performed the action. Self- and other-focus encoding had similar effects on all behavioral measures including parameters from Dual Process Signal Detection and Unequal Variance Signal Detection models. Experiment 2 recorded brain activity (event-related potentials) and found that self- and other-focus encoding produced similar recognition and LPC amplitudes. These results suggest that encoding focus did not affect the amount of non-diagnostic recollection because both action types promoted strong recollection. Such results are additional evidence that action memory creates more complex traces as compared with typical lab-based stimuli (i.e., pictures or words) and identifies an important boundary condition for encoding focus effects on recollection.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ego , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 147: 1-8, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697960

RESUMO

Temporary self-construal (independent vs. interdependent) priming can modulate the neural response to the reward for an individual. Our previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have indicated that people experience the rewards for a friend less strongly than they experience the same amount rewards for themselves. However, an issue remaining unclear is whether the ERP responses to rewards for a friend vary according to the way in which the self is construed. In the present study, we manipulated participants' self-construal (independent vs. interdependent) and found that independent self-construal priming resulted in a greater feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to outcome feedback for oneself than for a friend during a monetary gambling task. In contrast, interdependent self-construal priming resulted in a comparable FRN in response to outcome feedback for oneself and for a friend. The P3 amplitude was insensitive to the self-construal manipulation. Our findings suggest that interdependent priming may result in comparable motivation elicited by rewards for participants themselves and for their friends. This study provides novel evidence that the neural response to rewards for friend varies according to the way in which the self is construed.


Assuntos
Ego , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Amigos , Recompensa , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 29(1): e1809, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate latent classes of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and self-disturbances (SD) and to explore mutual overlapping between derived subgroups. Further, our goal was to investigate class membership relationship with an exposure to childhood trauma and different psychopathological factors such as cognitive biases, depression, insomnia, psychiatric diagnosis and lifetime suicidality. METHODS: Participants consist of 3167 non-clinical adults. We performed two latent class analyses (LCA), for PLEs and SD separately, to identify subgroups of individuals with different profiles on PLEs and SD. Associations between psychopathological factors and latent class membership were examined using multinomial logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: LCA produced 5 classes within SD and 3 classes within PLEs. Class of the highest endorsement of SD showed 53% overlap with class of the highest endorsement of PLEs. The highest risk of belonging to High Class for both SD and PLEs was associated in particular with depression, cognitive biases and insomnia. Trauma emerged as a significant predictor only for PLEs classes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that high PLEs and SD co-occur and are concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals, at least in the general population. Their combination may capture the highest risk of psychosis in the general population.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Sintomas Comportamentais/epidemiologia , Ego , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Fam Psychol ; 34(3): 322-332, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647257

RESUMO

Prevailing views of adolescent self-regulation (ASR) as a relatively stable disposition or skill that an individual possesses in various degrees stand in contrast to a complementary, situational perspective from family systems theory casting ASR as intertwined with ongoing family processes and malleable depending on interpersonal interactions. Using observational data from a large, ethnically diverse sample of substance-using adolescents (N = 458), the current study examines the social context of ASR across 3 increasingly conflictual family interaction tasks. Coders rated ASR and 3 concurrent family interaction patterns: enmeshment, conflict avoidance, and negative affect. ASR declined across the 3 tasks, and independent of this systematic change, family-level negative affect in the first task exerted a strong lagged statistical effect on subsequent declines in ASR. The findings are consistent with family systems theory in both the context-dependent nature of ASR behavior and the modulating role of family interaction. In addition to its well-established dispositional properties, ASR may be of interest as a context-specific and potentially modifiable dependent variable. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ego , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Personalidade
17.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 95-117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265370

RESUMO

This article explores how hypnotic strategies can be used within a polyvagal science framework to help create more secure attachment within the therapeutic relationship, as well as within the client in terms of ego-state relationships. Principles of safety and connection are emphasized, along with specific strategies to access the attachment circuits of the ventral vagal system, including the necessity of being present with the client without agenda. Uses of hypnosis related to safety and connection and methods to work with the center core self to facilitate empowerment, self-cohesion, and conflict-free experience are also reviewed. From an ego-state therapy perspective, a discussion of hypnosomatic approaches to connect with preverbal, nonverbal, and somatic aspects of self to accomplish developmental repair and facilitate secure attachment is also offered, along with case examples. A three-step model, which attempts to integrate polyvagal, somatic, and hypnotic approaches, is offered by the author to help structure corrective experiences for clients with trauma.


Assuntos
Ego , Hipnose , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Apego ao Objeto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Aliança Terapêutica
18.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 166-167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265375

Assuntos
Ego , Hipnose , Humanos , Psicoterapia
19.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(2): 224-236, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670532

RESUMO

Three experiments investigated the extent to which (a) individuals with autism show a self-reference effect (i.e., better memory for self-relevant information), and (b) the size of the self-reference effect is associated with autism traits. Participants studied trait adjectives in relation to their own name (self-referent) or a celebrity's name (other-referent) under explicit and incidental/implicit encoding conditions. Explicit encoding involved judging whether the adjectives applied to self or other (denoted by proper names). Implicit encoding involved judging whether the adjectives were presented to the right or left of one's own or a celebrity's name. Recognition memory for the adjectives was tested using a yes/no procedure. Experiment 1 (individual differences; N = 257 neurotypical adults) employed the Autism-spectrum Quotient as a measure of autistic traits. Experiments 2 (n = 60) and 3 (n = 52) involved case-control designs with closely matched groups of autistic and neurotypical adults and children/adolescents, respectively. Autistic traits were measured using the Autism-spectrum Quotient and Social Responsiveness Scale, respectively. In all experiments, a significant self-reference effect was observed in both explicit and implicit encoding conditions. Most importantly, however, there was (a) no significant relation between size of the self-reference effect and number of autistic traits (Experiments 1, 2, and 3), and (b) no significant difference in the size of the self-reference effect between autistic and neurotypical participants (Experiments 2 and 3). In these respects, Bayesian analyses consistently suggested that the data supported the null hypothesis. These results challenge the notion that subjective or objective self-awareness are impaired in autism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Ego , Memória/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Londres , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto, Online) ; 30: e3019, 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1135431

RESUMO

Abstract A prosocial lie is a false statement intended to help and not to harm someone. The present study investigated possible effects of age and culture in 97 Brazilian children's responses (7 to 11 years of age) in a prosocial lying task, designed for a previous study with Canadian and Chinese children. The task consisted in presenting four dilemmas followed by questions about what children should do: tell the truth or lie to protect the self, a friend or a group? No effect of age was found for the lying scores, but the lying-for-friend scores were significantly higher than the lying-for-self and lying-for-collective scores. This pattern of results suggests that, in contrast to Chinese and Canadian children, Brazilian children find it more worthwhile to tell a lie that protects a friend than a lie that protects self-interests or those of a group.


Resumo A mentira pró-social é uma declaração falsa contada com o objetivo de ajudar e não prejudicar alguém. Este estudo teve por objetivo investigar possíveis efeitos de idade e cultura sobre as respostas de 97 crianças brasileiras (7 a 11 anos) em uma tarefa de mentira pró-social, criada para um estudo prévio com crianças canadenses e chinesas. A tarefa consistiu na apresentação de quatro dilemas seguidos de perguntas sobre como as crianças agiriam: contariam a verdade ou mentiriam para proteger a si mesmas, um amigo ou o grupo? Não foi encontrado um efeito de idade sobre os escores de mentira, mas os escores de mentira para beneficiar um amigo foram significativamente maiores que os escores mentir-por-si e mentir-pelo-coletivo. Esse padrão de resultados sugere que, em contraste às crianças chinesas e canadenses, para as brasileiras, vale mais a pena contar uma mentira para proteger um amigo do que para proteger interesses próprios ou coletivos.


Resumen La mentira prosocial es una declaración falsa con el fin de ayudar y no perjudicar a alguien. Este estudio pretende investigar la posible influencia de la edad y la cultura en las respuestas de 97 niños brasileños (de 7 a 11 años) en una tarea de mentira prosocial diseñada en un estudio previo con niños canadienses y chinos. La tarea consistió en presentar cuatro dilemas seguidos de preguntas sobre cómo actuarían los niños: diría la verdad o diría una mentira para proteger a sí mismo, a un amigo o al grupo. No se encontró ninguna influencia de la edad en los puntajes de mentira, sin embargo, los puntajes de mentira para beneficiar a un amigo fueron los más altos significativamente que los puntajes de mentir por sí mismo y mentir por el colectivo. Este patrón de resultados evidencia que, a diferencia de los niños chinos y canadienses, los niños brasileños consideran que vale más la pena mentir para proteger a un amigo que para proteger a sus propios intereses o del colectivo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Luto , Cultura , Amigos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Ego , Decepção
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