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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 299: 122686, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902635

RESUMO

Denitrification with non-organic electron donors for treating low C/N ratio wastewater has attracted growing interests. Hydrogen, reduced sulfur compounds and ferrous ions are mainly used in autotrophic denitrification, holding promise for achieving practical applications. Recently, the development of autotrophic denitrification-based processes, such as bioelectrochemically-supported hydrogenotrophic denitrification and sulfur-/iron-based denitrification assisted multi-contaminant removal, provide opportunities for applying these processes in wastewater treatment. Exploration of the autotrophic denitrification process in terms of contaminant removal mechanism, interaction among functional microorganisms, and potential full-scale applications is thus of great importance. Here, an overview of the commonly used non-organic electron donors, e.g., hydrogen, reduced sulfur compounds and ferrous ions, in denitrification for treating low C/N ratio wastewater is provided. Also, the feasibility of applying the combined processes based on autotrophic denitrification with the compounds is discussed. Furthermore, challenges and future possibilities as well as concerns about the practical applications are envisaged in this review.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Águas Residuárias , Processos Autotróficos , Reatores Biológicos , Elétrons , Nitratos , Nitrogênio
2.
J Chem Phys ; 152(3): 035101, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968979

RESUMO

One-electron oxidation of adenine (A) leads initially to the formation of adenine radical cation (A•+). Subsequent deprotonation of A•+ can provoke deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, which further causes senescence, cancer formation, and even cell death. However, compared with considerable reports on A•+ reactions in free deoxyadenosine (dA) and duplex DNA, studies in non-B-form DNA that play critical biological roles are rare at present. It is thus of vital importance to explore non-B-form DNA, among which the triplex is an emerging topic. Herein, we investigate the deprotonation behavior of A•+ in the TAT triplex with continuous A bases by time-resolved laser flash photolysis. The rate constants for the one-oxidation of triplex 8.4 × 108 M-1 s-1 and A•+ deprotonation 1.3 × 107 s-1 are obtained. The kinetic isotope effect of A•+ deprotonation in the TAT triplex is 1.8, which is characteristic of a direct release of the proton into the solvent similar to free base dA. It is thus elucidated that the A•+ proton bound with the third strand is most likely to be released into the solvent because of the weaker Hoogsteen H-bonding interaction and the presence of the highly mobile hydration waters within the third strand. Additionally, it is confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy that the deprotonation of A•+ results in the dissociation of the third strand and disruption of the secondary structure of the triplex. These results provide valuable kinetic data and in-depth mechanistic insights for understanding the adenine oxidative DNA damage in the triplex.


Assuntos
Adenina/química , DNA/química , Elétrons , Timina/química , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122704, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911318

RESUMO

In this work, an electrochemically assisted vertical flow constructed wetland (E-VFCW) achieved efficient PO43--P (92.9-96.6%), NO3--N (50.8-91.8%) and TN (38.8-73.1%) removal from synthetic sewage effluent within 1-12 h at 12 °C. Abiotic reduction, Fe(II)-, S- and H2-dependent denitrification, as well as coupling of fermentation, acetogenesis and heterotrophic denitrification might facilitate NO3--N removal in the E-VFCW. Particularly, electron resupply for NO3--N reduction by the in-situ deposited FeS, FeS2 and S0 in the E-VFCW would occur during electron supply-demand disequilibrium situations (e.g., lower HRT or temperature). Stoichiometric results suggested that 21.7-278.7 mmol e- d-1 from the in-situ deposited S contributed to NO3--N reduction under HRT of 1-6 h at 12 °C, which improved the resilience capabilities of the E-VFCW to temperature and nitrogen loads fluctuations. Overall, this work provides new insights into the modes of S cycle mediating NO3--N conversions in the E-VFCW under low temperature.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Áreas Alagadas , Desnitrificação , Elétrons , Enxofre , Temperatura Ambiente , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
4.
Water Res ; 171: 115436, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931376

RESUMO

The wide use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) inevitably leads to their increasing emission into aquatic environments. However, before their final deposition into sediments, the ecological effects of Ag NPs in suspended sediment (SPS) systems have not received much attention. Herein, we investigated the influences of Ag NPs on denitrification in SPS systems, and explored the potential toxicity mechanism through microbial metabolism (electron behaviors) and isotope tracing (added 15NO3-). After exposure to 10 mg/L Ag NPs, electron generation, transport and consumption during denitrification were clearly inhibited, which led to a decrease in the SPS denitrification rate. Specifically, the generation of NADH (electron donor) was significantly decreased to 59.92-86.47% with the Ag NPs treatments by affecting the degradation of glucose, one of the major reasons for the decreased denitrification. It also indicated that Ag NPs could affect nitrogen metabolism by influencing carbon metabolism. In addition, ETSA was clearly inhibited by the affected electron transfer and reception during denitrification; that was the most direct way in the microbial electron transport chain to affect the SPS denitrification rate. Furthermore, the particle size and concentration of SPS affected the toxicity of Ag NPs. The denitrification process in SPS systems with a smaller particle size and lower particle concentration was easily affected by Ag NPs, suggesting that SPS systems dominated by clay (particle size < 3.9 µm) or that less turbulence (having low SPS concentration) might be at greater risk factor when exposed to NPs. Thus, it is important to understand the risks of pollutants, such as Ag NPs, to biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem function in SPS systems.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ecossistema , Elétrons , Prata
5.
Science ; 367(6476): 368, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974236
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122422, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767427

RESUMO

In order to illustrate the impact that application of positive or negative potential to conductive materials can have on direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) and reactor performance under high organic loading rates, three continuous laboratory-scale reactors with carbon-cloth electrodes poised at +0.7 V, -0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and no-potential were fed high concentrations of ethanol wastewater. While exoelectrogens and methanogens that are capable of DIET were significantly enriched in poised reactors, they performed worse than the non-current control. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulated more rapidly in the positively then negatively poised reactor, but neither could withstand high-loading rates. These results demonstrate that applying potential to conductive materials had a negative effect on anaerobic digestion under high-loading conditions.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Anaerobiose , Transporte de Elétrons , Elétrons
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122345, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706892

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the syntrophic methanogenesis from the perspective of energy transfer and competition. Effects of redox materials and redox potential on direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) were examined through thermodynamic analysis based on the energy distribution principle. Types of redox materials could affect the efficiency of DIET via changing the total energy supply of the syntrophic methanogenesis. Decreasing system redox potential could facilitate DIET through increasing the total available energy. The competition between hydrogenotrophic methanogens and DIET methanogens might be the reason for the low proportion of the DIET pathway in the syntrophic methanogenesis. A facilitation mechanism of DIET was proposed based on the energy distribution. Providing sufficient electrons, inhibiting hydrogenotrophic methanogens and adding more competitive redox couples to avoid hydrogen generation might be beneficial for the facilitation of DIET.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Metano , Transporte de Elétrons , Oxirredução , Termodinâmica
8.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(1): 738-748, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762275

RESUMO

Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are important signaling molecules and the most common negatively charged lipids in eukaryotic membranes. The signaling can be often regulated by calcium, but its interactions with PS headgroups are not fully understood. Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can potentially give detailed description of lipid-ion interactions, but the results strongly depend on the used force field. Here, we apply the electronic continuum correction (ECC) to the Amber Lipid17 parameters of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (POPS) lipid to improve its interactions with K+, Na+, and Ca2+ ions. The partial charges of the headgroup, glycerol backbone, and carbonyls of POPS, bearing a unit negative charge, were scaled with a factor of 0.75, derived for monovalent ions, and the Lennard-Jones σ parameters of the same segments were scaled with a factor of 0.89. The resulting ECC-POPS model gives more realistic interactions with Na+ and Ca2+ cations than the original Amber Lipid17 parameters when validated using headgroup order parameters and the "electrometer concept". In ECC-lipids simulations, populations of complexes of Ca2+ cations with more than two PS lipids are negligible, and interactions of Ca2+ cations with only carboxylate groups are twice more likely than with only phosphate groups, while interactions with carbonyls almost entirely involve other groups as well. Our results pave the way for more realistic MD simulations of biomolecular systems with anionic membranes, allowing signaling processes involving PS and Ca2+ to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Cátions/metabolismo , Elétrons , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 298: 122524, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835198

RESUMO

Sawdust-based biochar prepared (SDBC) at three pyrolytic temperatures were compared as additives to mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD). SDBC prepared at 500 °C performed better in enhancing CH4 production than other SDBCs. Analyzing the crucial electro-chemical characteristics of the SDBCs revealed that the excellent electron transfer capacity of SDBC was significant to stimulate methanogenesis promotion. A long-term semi-continuous operation further confirmed that adding SDBC to AD system increased the maximum organic loading rate (OLR) from 6.8 g VS/L/d to 16.2 g VS/L/d, which attributed to the extremely low volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation. Microbial community succession analysis found that SDBC addition altered both bacterial and archaea structure greatly. More importantly, the syntrophic and electro-active partners of Petrimonas and Methanosarcina synergistically enriched under high OLR condition were responsible for the high-efficient VFA degradation, which suggested that SDBC likely acted as redox-active mediator to facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer between the syntrophic partners for high-efficient syntrophic methanogenesis process.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Metano , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Carvão Vegetal , Oxirredução
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 298: 122534, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835200

RESUMO

Granular activated carbon (GAC) has been shown to mediate direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in anaerobic digestion. Adding GAC to up-flow anaerobic sludge bed reactor increased the total biomass slightly from 20.0 to 26.6 gVSS/reactor, and maximum organic removal capacity remarkably from 285 to 1660 mgCOD/L/d. Since GAC occupied 7% of reactor volume (denser than suspended sludge, settled to the reactor bottom), we used a spatial sampling strategy (sludge bed top/mid/bottom layers, and tightly attached GAC-biofilm) and DNA- and RNA-based community analyses. RNA-based analysis demonstrated significant community differences between the non-GAC and GAC-amended reactors (p < 0.05) based on ANOSIM statistical analysis. In comparison, DNA-based analysis showed little community difference between these reactors (p > 0.05). RNA-based analysis revealed active enrichments in GAC-biofilm, including bacteria Geobacter, Syntrophus, Desulfovibrio and Blvii28, and archaea Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum. These are potential electro-active syntrophic microorganisms related with DIET, which expand the previously defined list of DIET microorganisms.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Anaerobiose , Elétrons , RNA , Esgotos
11.
Food Chem ; 307: 125547, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639582

RESUMO

Functional properties and antioxidant activity of soybean meal extracts obtained by conventional chemical method were compared to those obtained by using electro-activated solutions. The conventional extract obtained at pH8 had the highest WAC (400 ±â€¯7 g/100 g), while the lowest was that of samples extracted under pH3. Extract obtained using electro-activated solution Anolyte_300mA-30 min had WAC value (25 ±â€¯1 g/100 g). OAC was the highest for samples extracted under alkaline conditions whatever the extraction mode used with values of 5.50 ±â€¯0.54 to 6.85 ±â€¯0.62 mL/g. FC of the conventional extracts was higher compared to those extracted by electro-activation with maximal value of 52% for the conventional sample obtained at pH9, whereas the maximal FC of 28% was observed for the electro-activated sample obtained by using Anolyte_450mA-50 min. Electro-activated showed higher EP. Conventional extracts showed higher antioxidant activity (92.31 ±â€¯1.5%) than those obtained by electro-activation (47.46 ±â€¯0.94%).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Soja/química , Elétrons , Refeições , Extratos Vegetais/química , Soluções
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 295: 122305, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675520

RESUMO

A quinone-respiring strain capable of degrading multitudinous petroleum hydrocarbons was isolated by selective medium and identified as Bacillus sp. (named as C8). Maximum 76.7% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were degraded by the biosurfactant-mediated C8 with the aid of nitrate and electron intermediate (anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonate, AQDS). The quantitative real-time PCR results of several intracellular key functional genes suggested that AQDS could participate in the transformation of intermediates and accelerate the electron transfer in the degradation of TPH and nitrate, thereby eliminating the accumulation of nitrite and increasing the degradation efficiency of TPH. A strengthening mechanism, which promoted electron transport in the anaerobic denitrification degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by quinone-respiring strain with the aid of electron intermediate, was proposed. The influencing factors were evaluated by using response surface methodology, and the TPH removal was positively related to temperature but negatively to pH.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Anaerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Elétrons , Hidrocarbonetos
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122306, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677402

RESUMO

Fe3O4 supported on water hyacinth biochar (Fe3O4/WHB) was successfully used in anaerobic degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and coal gasification wastewater (CGW). Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency and methane production were significantly improved to 98.9% and 2.0 L with Fe3O4/WHB assisted. Fe3O4/WHB facilitated the conversion of CO2 to methane and reduce H2 production. A higher coenzyme F420 concentration of 1.32 µmol/(g-mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) was found with the presence of Fe3O4/WHB, which might result in a faster conversion of acetate to methane. More interspecific signal molecules, lower diffusible signal factor, and higher mean particle size indicated that Fe3O4/WHB accelerated the sludge granulation process. Microbial community analysis revealed that enriched bacteria Geobacter along with archaea Methanothrix and Methanosarcina may be involved in direct interspecies electron transfer by Fe3O4/WHB stimulation, enhancing the performance of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol fermentation. It is shown that use of Fe3O4/WHB is feasible for enhanced CGW treatment.


Assuntos
Eichhornia , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Carvão Vegetal , Clorofenóis , Carvão Mineral , Elétrons , Metano , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 299: 122574, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865157

RESUMO

Two sulfur-oxidizing membrane bioreactors (SMBRs) performing autotrophic denitrification at different HRTs (6-26 h), one supplemented with biogenic elemental sulfur (S0bio) and the other with chemically-synthesized elemental sulfur (S0chem), were compared in terms of nitrate reduction rates, impact on membrane filtration and microbial community composition. Complete denitrification with higher rates (up to 286 mg N-NO3-/L d) was observed in the SMBR supplemented with S0bio (SMBRbio), while nitrate was never completely reduced in the SMBR fed with S0chem (SMBRchem). Trans membrane pressure was higher for SMBRbio due to smaller particle size and colloidal properties of S0bio. Microbial communities in the two SMBRs were similar and dominated by Proteobacteria, with Pleomorphomonas and Thermomonas being the most abundant genera in both bioreactors. This study reveals that S0bio can be effectively used for nitrate removal in autotrophic denitrifying MBRs and results in higher nitrate reduction rates compared to S0chem.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Elétrons , Processos Autotróficos , Reatores Biológicos , Nitratos , Enxofre
15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(2): 919-931, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845936

RESUMO

P and Z have recently been identified as promiscuous artificial nucleobases, which can behave as G and C, respectively, in duplex DNA. These nucleobases have been shown to participate in the replication reaction and can form stable B-DNA. A short sequence of DNA containing P and Z has also been shown to help in the diagnosis of diseases. However, the behavior of P and Z exposed to radiation has not been explored. As electrons and holes are created during the interaction of radiation with DNA bases, it is desirable to understand the electron or hole trapping abilities of P and Z in duplex DNA. To unravel these abilities, electron affinities (EAs) and ionization potentials (IPs) of P and Z in bare and microhydrated complexes are computed and compared with those of G and C by using the B3LYP-D3 dispersion-corrected density functional theory method and the IEFPCM method to account for the bulk solvation in water. The computed EA and IP values of P and Z are found to be largely positive and hence their anions (P˙- and Z˙-) and cations (P˙+ and Z˙+) would be stable in DNA. It is further found that the electron trapping ability of Z is significantly higher than that of P, G, and C. However, the hole trapping ability of P is slightly higher than that of Z, but less than that of G. To account for the proton transfer abilities of Z, Z˙+, and Z˙-, the stabilities of different proton transferred products and their tautomers are also explored. It is found that among the different products, the one formed by the transfer of the N3 proton would be the most stable. However, the N3 proton transfer from Z to P in the P:Z and P:Z˙- complexes would be unfeasible due to the high barrier and endothermic nature of the reaction. Remarkably, the same reaction in the P:Z˙+ complex is found to be exothermic with a low barrier energy. Hence, the conversion of Z to Z˙+ would facilitate N3 proton transfer from Z to P in the P:Z complex. As the proton transferred products were suggested to induce genetic mutations, we propose that the formations of Z(N3 - H)˙ and P(N1 + H)+ in DNA would be mutagenic. These results are expected to help in the understanding of the radiation biology of P and Z in single-stranded and double-stranded DNA.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Elétrons , Mutagênese , Prótons , Pareamento de Bases , DNA/genética , Mutagênese/genética , Teoria Quântica
16.
Science ; 366(6470)2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806787

RESUMO

Hesselmann et al question one of our conclusions: the suppression of Fermi velocity at the Gross-Neveu critical point for the specific case of vanishing long-range interactions and at zero energy. The possibility they raise could occur in any finite-size extrapolation of numerical data. Although we cannot definitively rule out this possibility, we provide mathematical bounds on its likelihood.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Papel (figurativo)
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 4128-4135, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854877

RESUMO

The integrated autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification (IAHD) process, which can simultaneously degrade sulfide, nitrate, and organic carbon with nitrate as a solo electron acceptor, has gained increasing attention as a key unit in industrial wastewater treatment. Micro-aerobic technology, which introduces trace oxygen as an additional electron acceptor, has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for enhancing the IAHD performance. This study focus on the electronic balance calculation of the IAHD process and reveals for the first time that the IAHD process can efficient proceed with an insufficient supply of electron acceptors (nitrate) under micro-aerobic conditions. In the IAHD batch tests, the highest sulfide, nitrate, and acetate removal efficiencies and rates were obtained with an electronic deletion rate peak at 55.1%. Further sulfide oxidizing batch tests demonstrated that the electronic deletion rates were 18.7% and 38.2% under oxygen contents of 5 mL and 10 mL, respectively, in the biological sulfide oxidizing process. Illumina sequencing was used to analyze the microbial community structure in the sulfide oxidation process and indicated Thiobacillus, Thauera, Mangroviflexus, and Erysipelothrix dominated in all community compositions, in which the relative abundance of Thiobacillus increased with an increase in the electronic deletion rate. This study reveals a potential linkage between the electronic gap and the enhanced IAHD performance, which proves new insights into the simultaneous sulfur, nitrogen, and organic carbon removal process.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Elétrons , Processos Autotróficos , Reatores Biológicos , Processos Heterotróficos , Nitratos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133876, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756846

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion is an effective biological treatment process that produces methane by degrading organic compounds in waste/wastewater. It is a complicated microbial process by metabolic interactions among different types of microorganisms. In this process, efficient interspecies electron transfer between secondary fermenting bacteria and methanogens is the critical process for fast and effective methanogenesis. In syntrophic metabolism, hydrogen or formate has been considered as the conventional electron carrier transferring electrons from secondary fermenting bacteria to hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Recently, direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) without the involvement of dissolved redox mediators is arousing great concerns and has been regarded as a more efficient and thermodynamically favorable interspecies electron transfer pathway for methanogenesis. Interspecies electron exchange through DIET is accomplished via the membrane-bound cytochromes or conductive pili. Several kinds of exogenously-added conductive or semiconductive iron oxides have been discovered to greatly enhance anaerobic methanogenesis through promoting DIET. Different (semi)conductive iron oxides give a boost to DIET through different mechanisms based on the physicochemical properties of the iron oxides and the reciprocal interactions between iron oxides and functional microorganisms. In this review, the current understanding of interspecies electron transfer in syntrophic-methanogenic consortions is summarized, the effects and deep-rooted mechanisms of (semi)conductive iron oxides on methanogenesis and DIET are discussed, and possible future perspectives and development directions are suggested for DIET via (semi)conductive iron oxides in anaerobic digestion.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Anaerobiose , Bactérias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Transporte de Elétrons , Elétrons , Fermentação , Compostos Férricos , Metano/metabolismo , Semicondutores
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133838, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756859

RESUMO

Biological sequestration of CO2 for generating value added products is an emerging strategy. Succinic acid (SA) is an important C4 building block chemical, and its biological production via CO2 sequestration, holds many practical applications. This study presents an in-depth insight on SA production using isolated strain belonging to genus Citrobacter, more closely related to Citrobacter amalonaticus by considering critical process parameters such as different carbon sources at various initial concentrations, buffering agent (NaHCO3) concentrations and different pH conditions. The effect of H2 gas as an electron donor and availability of CO2 during SA production was also evaluated. The results from this work demonstrated that the isolated strain depicted the ability to utilize diverse carbon sources and highest SA production was achieved with sucrose as a substrate, indicating that reduced carbon substrates help in maximizing the redox potential. Incorporation of CO2 and H2 not only enhanced the production of SA but also affected the total acids profile favoring the production of SA over lactic, formic and acetic acids. Additional supply of CO2 and H2 led to maximum SA production of 12.07 gL-1, productivity of 0.36 gL-1 h-1 and SA yield of 48.5%. In control operation when no gases were supplied and in other test conditions where either of the gases were supplied, lactic acid was the major end product followed by acetic acid. The positive effect of CO2 for SA production provides scope for sustainable integration of SA and the CO2-generating biofuel industries or industrial side streams.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Citrobacter/fisiologia , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Sequestro de Carbono , Elétrons , Fermentação
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