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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134709, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726348

RESUMO

Eco-labeling of products such as ivory contributes to conservation of wildlife species and is most effective when potential consumers of such products are made aware of the threats to wildlife and protections associated with the labels. This paper investigates factors affecting citizens' perceptions of China's eco-labeling system for elephant ivory, which was established in 2004, using unique datasets collected in 2015 and 2017. The results indicate that citizens in China have little understanding of the ivory-labeling system. <10% of the participants were aware of the three accreditation subsystems for ivory products regulating manufacturers, retailers, and the products and only about 20% were familiar with one subsystem. The results of Bayesian logit models show that citizens' demographic and other characteristics are significantly correlated with their knowledge of the labeling system for elephant ivory, and the effects varied for the 2015 and 2017 samples. The one consistent influence was income level, which had similar significant and positive impacts in all of the models. The temporal coefficients reflecting changes in awareness between 2015 and 2017 were not significant, indicating that knowledge of the ivory-labeling system did not increase overall during that period. Our results indicate that significantly greater outreach is needed for China's ivory-labeling system so citizens can consistently play a role in ridding the market of illegal ivory products and regulating noncommercial ivory trading. Special attention should be given to groups of citizens who have relatively little education, income, and awareness of wildlife conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Elefantes , Rotulagem de Produtos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , China , Comércio , Crime , Ecologia
2.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 193, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The existence of extended post-reproductive lifespan is an evolutionary puzzle, and its taxonomic prevalence is debated. One way of measuring post-reproductive life is with post-reproductive representation, the proportion of adult years lived by females after cessation of reproduction. Analyses of post-reproductive representation in mammals have claimed that only humans and some toothed whale species exhibit extended post-reproductive life, but there are suggestions of a post-reproductive stage for false killer whales and Asian elephants. Here, we investigate the presence of post-reproductive lifespan in Asian elephants using an extended demographic dataset collected from semi-captive timber elephants in Myanmar. Furthermore, we investigate the sensitivity of post-reproductive representation values to availability of long-term data over 50 years. RESULTS: We find support for the presence of an extended post-reproductive stage in Asian elephants, and that post-reproductive representation and its underlying demographic rates depend on the length of study period in a long-lived animal. CONCLUSIONS: The extended post-reproductive lifespan is unlikely due to physiological reproductive cessation, and may instead be driven by mating preferences or condition-dependent fertility. Our results also show that it is crucial to revisit such population measures in long-lived species as more data is collected, and if the typical lifespan of the species exceeds the initial study period.


Assuntos
Elefantes/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mianmar , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 243-273, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471800

RESUMO

Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants serve as important keystone, umbrella and flagship species. Despite that, population numbers are declining, due mainly to poaching and habitat destruction. Understanding reproductive mechanisms is vital to effective management, particularly insurance populations in captivity, and to that end, long-term biological databases are key to understanding how intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect reproductive function at individual and population levels. Through decades of hormonal and ultrasonographic monitoring, many unique aspects of zoo elephant reproduction have been identified, including differences in luteal steroidogenic activity, follicular maturation, pituitary gonadotropin secretion, fetal development and reproductive tract anatomy. Reproductive problems also hamper captive propagation efforts, particularly those related to abnormal or lack of ovarian cyclicity. Recent large-scale, multi-institutional studies and use of epidemiological approaches have identified factors important for good welfare and reproduction, which include enrichment, feeding diversity, good elephant-keeper relations, social compatibility, exercise, and not being obese. There are notable differences in reproductive mechanisms between Asian and African elephants, as well as the factors that influence reproduction and welfare, suggesting species-targeted management approaches are needed to maximize fitness. In the first edition, we discussed reproductive function in male and female elephants. Since then, a number of significant advances have been made primarily in female elephants, which will be the focus of this updated review.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Elefantes/classificação , Elefantes/fisiologia , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(8): 1255-1265, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337187

RESUMO

To investigate the diversity of gastrointestinal microflora and lignocellulose-degrading enzymes in wild Asian elephants, three of these animals living in the same group were selected for study from the Wild Elephant Valley in the Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve of Yunnan Province, China. Fresh fecal samples from the three wild Asian elephants were analyzed by metagenomic sequencing to study the diversity of their gastrointestinal microbes and cellulolytic enzymes. There were a high abundance of Firmicutes and a higher abundance of hemicellulose-degrading hydrolases than cellulose-degrading hydrolases in the wild Asian elephants. Furthermore, there were a high abundance and a rich diversity of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) obtained from the gene set annotation of the three samples, with the majority of them showing low identity with the CAZy database entry. About half of the CAZymes had no species source at the phylum or genus level. These indicated that the wild Asian elephants might possess greater ability to digest hemicellulose than cellulose to provide energy, and moreover, the gastrointestinal tracts of these pachyderms might be a potential source of novel efficient lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. Therefore, the exploitation and utilization of these enzyme resources could help us to alleviate the current energy crisis and ensure food security.


Assuntos
Elefantes/microbiologia , Enzimas/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Celulose/metabolismo , China , Firmicutes/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Filogenia
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 498-502, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260223

RESUMO

A 3.5-yr-old asymptomatic female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) with a high load of circulating EEHV1B DNA on qPCR on a routine blood sample, showed progressive depletion of monocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets. Twice daily IV ganciclovir, plasma transfusions, and fluid therapy coincided with a decreasing viral load, which may support potential efficacy of this antiviral drug. An increase in lymphocytes followed initial treatment and preceded the onset of clinical signs. Administration of short-acting glucocorticosteroids for two consecutive days preceded a reduction of lymphocytes, recovery and maturation of monocytes, and gradually decreasing clinical signs, illustrating the potential value of glucocorticosteroids in treatment of clinical EEHV. Three subsequent subclinical episodes with high monocyte and platelet counts did not require intervention. Decision-making was led not just by quantification of viral load and clinical signs, but more specifically by interpretation of the hematological changes using easily accessible, in-house blood smear analysis.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Elefantes/sangue , Famciclovir/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/classificação , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Diferenciação Celular , DNA Viral , Elefantes/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Carga Viral , Viremia
7.
Zoo Biol ; 38(5): 448-457, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271671

RESUMO

Population-level analyses suggest that habitat complexity, but not necessarily space availability, has important welfare outcomes for elephants in human care. At the Dallas Zoo, the opening of a new exhibit complex allowed us to measure the behavior of two female African elephants across three treatments to evaluate the independent effects of complexity and space. Preoccupancy observations were conducted in the elephants' older exhibit, which consisted of a smaller, more simple yard (630 m2 ). Subsequent postoccupancy observations measured behavior in two different spaces in the new exhibit: a larger, complex yard (15,000 m2 ), and a smaller, but complex yard (1,520 m2 ). The elephants' overall activity levels were greater in complex habitats, regardless of their size. Similar effects of habitat complexity oversize were observed with greater rates of foraging and lower rates of being stationary. Furthermore, elephants were out of view of visitors significantly more in the small, simple yard compared to either of the more complex habitats. However, exhibit size affected the incidence of stereotypic behavior (with lower rates of stereotypy in the larger exhibit compared to the smaller yards) and investigatory behavior (elephants investigated their environments more with increasing size and complexity). Behavioral diversity also increased with exhibit size and complexity. These results indicate that space availability alone is not sufficient to enhance the behavioral welfare of zoo elephants. Therefore, facilities with limited space can still encourage species-appropriate behaviors and improved welfare for the elephants in their care by converting a small, simple area into a more complex habitat.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais de Zoológico , Elefantes/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Meio Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Humanos
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 375-382, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260203

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal problems are one of the top five causes of disease in elephants. However, recent blood chemistry analysis is the only routine protocol for bone mineral status evaluation, with no assessment method currently available for the direct measurement of elephant bone mineral density (BMD). This work applied the the dual-energy X-ray technique (DXA) technique for bone density assessment. The elephant's tail was chosen for the analysis to avoid the radiation harm. Twelve live Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) comprising eight males and four females with ages in the range of 4-77 yr were investigated. The BMD was calculated based on radiographic images acquired using the DXA technique carried out at 40 kVp 2 mAs and 50 kVp 2 mAs. Blood serum analysis of total calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) content was conducted in parallel with the physical examination to correlate age and BMD. Analyses produced an overall mean BMD value in the range of 0.54-1.39 g/cm2, with that of the males higher than that of the females. The BMD was found to be negatively correlated with age, Ca, and Phos, but not with ALP. In summary, the BMD analysis of an elephant's tail might be used with blood serum Ca and Phos to predict the overall bone mineral status of the animal.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/veterinária , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Elefantes/anatomia & histologia , Cauda/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Elefantes/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Cauda/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Zoo Biol ; 38(5): 424-433, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361060

RESUMO

Captive elephant populations are not self-sustaining due to health concerns possibly related to obesity. Categorizing obesity relies on qualitative analyses like body condition scores (BCS). However, elephant indices have not been validated against measured body composition. The objective was to compare BCS systems to body composition determined by deuterium dilution in 28 zoo-kept Asian elephants. Elephants were weighed and given deuterated water orally (0.05 ml/kg). Blood was collected at ~0, 24, 120, 240, 360, and 480 hr after dosing. Photographs were taken to score the elephant based on four BCS systems (BCSWemmer [0 to 11 scoring], BCSMorfeld [1 to 5 scoring], BCSFernando [0 to 10 scoring], BCSWijeyamohan [1 to 10 scoring]). Based on regression analysis, relative fat ranged from -305 kg to 515 kg, where negative values indicate less and positive values indicate more fat than expected for the elephant's mass in this population. BCSFernando was associated with relative fat (p = .020, R2 = 0.194). Relative fat, adjusted for sex and age in the statistical model, was associated with BCSWemmer (p = .027, R2 = 0.389), BCSFernando (p = .002, R2 = 0.502), and BCSWijeyamohan (p = .011, R2 = 0.426). Inclusion of zoo and familial relatedness resulted in all BCS systems associated with relative fat (p ≤ .015). Only BCSFernando predicted relative fat, unadjusted, suggesting it is the most capable system for practical use. Compared to absolute fat, relative fat may be more biologically relevant as greater fat relative to body mass is more likely to lead to health issues.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Elefantes/fisiologia , Obesidade/veterinária , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Deutério , Feminino , Masculino
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(11)2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159373

RESUMO

Wireless sensor networks, as an emerging paradigm of networking and computing, have applications in diverse fields such as medicine, military, environmental control, climate forecasting, surveillance, etc. For successfully tackling the node localization problem, as one of the most significant challenges in this domain, many algorithms and metaheuristics have been proposed. By analyzing available modern literature sources, it can be seen that the swarm intelligence metaheuristics have obtained significant results in this domain. Research that is presented in this paper is aimed towards achieving further improvements in solving the wireless sensor networks localization problem by employing swarm intelligence. To accomplish this goal, we have improved basic versions of the tree growth algorithm and the elephant herding optimization swarm intelligence metaheuristics and applied them to solve the wireless sensor networks localization problem. In order to determine whether the improvements are accomplished, we have conducted empirical experiments on different sizes of sensor networks ranging from 25 to 150 target nodes, for which distance measurements are corrupted by Gaussian noise. Comparative analysis with other state-of-the-art swarm intelligence algorithms that have been already tested on the same problem instance, the butterfly optimization algorithm, the particle swarm optimization algorithm, and the firefly algorithm, is conducted. Simulation results indicate that our proposed algorithms can obtain more consistent and accurate locations of the unknown target nodes in wireless sensor networks topology than other approaches that have been proposed in the literature.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tecnologia sem Fio , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Elefantes
11.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(4): 572-575, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184294

RESUMO

We evaluated the oncotic pressure (plasma colloid osmotic pressure, πc) in a group of healthy, captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus; n = 21) with a colloid osmometer with a membrane cutoff of >20,000 daltons. The median πc for these elephants was 26.3 mm Hg with an interquartile interval of 25.5-26.8 mm Hg. The mean πc value was 26.0 mm Hg ± SD 1.1. We found moderate correlation between albumin measured by electrophoresis and πc (r = 0.622; p = 0.003). After a 16-h water deprivation test in a subset of elephants (n = 16), a difference in πc was not detected, despite a significant increase in serum total proteins, urea, and osmolality. These results indicate that πc is not a sensitive indicator of hydration status in elephants after a short period of water deprivation. Use of oncotic pressure as a diagnostic tool in diseased Asian elephants warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Eletroforese/veterinária , Elefantes/sangue , Pressão Osmótica , Privação de Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
12.
Ecol Lett ; 22(9): 1417-1427, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240840

RESUMO

Increasing interest in the complexity, variation and drivers of movement-related behaviours promise new insight into fundamental components of ecology. Resolving the multidimensionality of spatially explicit behaviour remains a challenge for investigating tactics and their relation to niche construction, but high-resolution movement data are providing unprecedented understanding of the diversity of spatially explicit behaviours. We introduce a framework for investigating individual variation in movement-defined resource selection that integrates the behavioural and ecological niche concepts. We apply it to long-term tracking data of 115 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), illustrating how a behavioural hypervolume can be defined based on differences between individuals and their ecological settings, and applied to explore population heterogeneity. While normative movement behaviour is frequently used to characterise population behaviour, we demonstrate the value of leveraging heterogeneity in the behaviour to gain greater insight into population structure and the mechanisms driving space-use tactics.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Ecossistema , Elefantes , Atividade Motora , Animais , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Quênia
13.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 207: 146-152, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208844

RESUMO

A sequence of studies is reviewed that reported the domestic horse (Equus caballus) mare as an appropriate and accessible research platform for recording clinical and laboratory data post-immunisation with anti- GnRH and -zona pellucida (ZP) immunocontraceptive vaccines. Experience with a native porcine ZP (pZP) vaccine in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) cows highlighted needs for improving vaccine formulations and more clearly defining associated ovarian effects and safety profiles. Initially, the efficacy, reversibility and safety of the GnRH vaccine Improvac® in mares was demonstrated using reproductive tract ultrasonography and concurrently measuring serum antibody titres and progesterone concentrations. Results informed the study design and minimally invasive monitoring of post-treatment ovarian steroid responses of this vaccine in free-ranging African elephant cows. A subsequent sequence of studies reported reversible contraceptive and immunological efficacy in pony mares immunised with pZP formulated with Freund's adjuvants. By comparison, mares treated with a recombinant ZP3 and ZP4 (reZP) vaccine showed disappointing responses. Unexpectedly, most pZP-treated mares showed ovarian inactivity. In attempting to understand this response, results showed the involvement of cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells negatively correlated to serum ovarian steroid and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels. Of concern was the prevalence of injection-site lesions ascribable to Freund's adjuvants. Following this, mares treated with both pZP and a novel reZP vaccine formulated with non-Freund's adjuvants showed comparable immunological responses and ovarian inactivity, notably without adverse treatment reactions. In addition, measuring AMH showed promise for monitoring ovarian function in anti-ZP-treated animals.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção Imunológica/veterinária , Elefantes , Cavalos , Vacinas Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Anticoncepção Imunológica/métodos , Elefantes/imunologia , Feminino , Cavalos/imunologia , Modelos Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Vacinas Anticoncepcionais/imunologia , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Medicina Veterinária/tendências
14.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(1): 291-292, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120695
15.
Acta Trop ; 195: 78-82, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047864

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a globally common zoonotic infectious disease in humans and animals. This disease is caused by pathogenic spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. The pathogen is able to survive in mammalian kidneys after infection and is excreted in urine intermittently. Pathogenic leptospires infect humans either by direct contact with infected animal urine or through contaminated soil or water. In Sri Lanka, some studies have demonstrated the involvement of animals, such as livestock species and peridomestic rats, in the transmission of leptospirosis to humans. However, none of the previous studies focused on domesticated elephants, which are in close contact with humans during cultural and religious events and bathe in rivers together with humans. If domesticated elephants act as carriers of pathogenic leptospires, it could be a major public health issue in the country. In this study, 13 healthy domesticated elephants were subjected to leptospiral DNA detection from urine samples collected on three consecutive days. Four elephants (31%) were confirmed to shed pathogenic leptospires in their urine. DNA sequencing followed by phylogenetic distance measurements revealed that all positive elephants were infected with L. interrogans. This study reveals the possibility that elephants act as a source of infection of leptospires to humans and recommends the screening of all domesticated elephants that are in close contact with humans for the shedding of pathogenic leptospires.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Elefantes/parasitologia , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Urina/parasitologia , Zoonoses/genética , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sri Lanka
16.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216504, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083683

RESUMO

Understanding spatial distribution, habitat use, and temporal activity patterns is important for species conservation planning. This information especially is crucial for mega herbivores like elephants as their ranging patterns encompass a myriad of habitats types. Churia habitat is geological fragile yet important for wildlife in Nepal and India. We used camera trapping and sign surveys covering 536 km2 of Churia and surrounding areas within Chitwan National Park. Across 152 trapping locations, we accumulated 2,097 trap nights in a 60-day survey during the winter season of 2010-11. We used a non-parametric kernel density function to analyze winter activity patterns of elephants detected in camera-traps. Additionally, we walked 643 km over 76 grid cells in two surveys (winter and summer) to estimate elephant distribution and intensity of habitat use using an occupancy framework. Multi-season models allowed us to make seasonal (winter versus summer) inferences regarding changes in habitat use based on covariates influencing use and detection. We photographed 25 mammalian species including elephants with calves with a trapping rate of 2.72 elephant photos events per 100 trap nights. Elephant winter activity pattern was found to be mainly nocturnal, with crepuscular peaks. Covariates such as normalized differential vegetation index and terrain ruggedness positively influenced elephant spatial distribution and habitat use patterns within the Churia habitat. We also found lower elephant habitat use ([Formula: see text]) of Churia in winter 0.51 (0.02) than in summer 0.57 (0.02). Elephants heavily used the eastern portion of Churia in both seasons (67-69%). Overall, Churia habitat, which is often ignored, clearly is used by elephants, with increases in summer use in the west and high use year-round in the east, and thus should no longer be neglected or forgotten in species conservation planning.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Elefantes/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Demografia , Ecossistema , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Índia , Nepal , Estações do Ano , Gravação em Vídeo
17.
Forensic Sci Int ; 300: 89-98, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085431

RESUMO

Stable isotope ecology and forensic isotope ecology are not only linked by name. More often than not, knowledge and insights gained through the former serve as a springboard for application focused work of the latter. This review aims to offer a glimpse into the fascinating world of both though with more emphasis on forensic isotope ecology. To this end a selection of past and recent published work is presented and discussed to highlight both potential and limitations of isotopic analytical approaches to the detection of illegal trade in plants and animals.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia , Isótopos , Migração Animal , Animais , Biodiversidade , Comércio , Crime , Tráfico de Drogas , Elefantes , Pesqueiros , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Geografia , Humanos , Lagartos , Plantas/química , Datação Radiométrica , Serpentes , Água/química
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2242, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138804

RESUMO

Poaching is contributing to rapid declines in elephant populations across Africa. Following high-profile changes in the political environment, the overall number of illegally killed elephants in Africa seems to be falling, but to evaluate potential conservation interventions we must understand the processes driving poaching rates at local and global scales. Here we show that annual poaching rates in 53 sites strongly correlate with proxies of ivory demand in the main Chinese markets, whereas between-country and between-site variation is strongly associated with indicators of corruption and poverty. Our analysis reveals a recent decline in annual poaching mortality rate from an estimated peak of over 10% in 2011 to <4% in 2017. Based on these findings, we suggest that continued investment in law enforcement could further reduce poaching, but is unlikely to succeed without action that simultaneously reduces ivory demand and tackles corruption and poverty.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Elefantes , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , África , Animais , China , Comércio , Humanos
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 300: e1-e3, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101353

RESUMO

We report the case of a 65-year-old man who was attacked and killed by a female elephant that had previously escaped from a nearby circus. According to a witness the man was lifted up by the tusks, flung into the air and stomped upon. At autopsy the body showed signs of severe blunt force trauma and impalement, including multiple lacerations of the skin, a crushed thorax, a spinal fracture and a fractured humerus. The spinal cord and the major abdominal vessels were severed. There have been very few elephant attacks in Europe; this is the first reported case in Germany.


Assuntos
Agressão , Elefantes , Traumatismo Múltiplo/patologia , Animais , Exsanguinação/etiologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(1): 23-32, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120659

RESUMO

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a disease causing morbidity and mortality in captive elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana) as well as free-ranging individuals. Elephants in North America diagnosed with tuberculosis are often treated with antituberculosis drugs, unlike livestock species, which has necessitated the development of treatment guidelines adapted from recommendations for humans. There are few published reports describing empirical treatment, which may be complicated by poor patient compliance, interruptions in drug administration, and adverse effects. A survey of elephants in North America was conducted to compile information on treatment protocols, including drugs, dosages, routes of administration, serum drug concentrations, and adverse effects of antituberculosis treatment. Responses were received regarding 182 elephants, 12 of which were treated prophylactically or therapeutically with antituberculosis drugs. Treatment protocols varied among elephants, and included various combinations of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ethionamide. Serum drug concentrations also varied considerably among and within individuals. Facility staff reported 5 elephants (out of 7 treated elephants with responses) that exhibited clinical signs that may have been associated with antituberculosis drugs or treatment procedures. Anorexia, decreased water intake, constipation, depression, ataxia, limb paresis, and tremors were among the signs observed. Most adverse effects were reported to be moderate or severe, resulting in interruption of the treatment. The results from this survey provide veterinarians and elephant managers with valuable historical data to make informed clinical management decisions regarding antituberculosis therapy in elephants.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Elefantes/metabolismo , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/metabolismo , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , América do Norte
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