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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502602

RESUMO

This work presents a novel dc-dc bidirectional buck-boost converter between a battery pack and the inverter to regulate the dc-bus in an electric vehicle (EV) powertrain. The converter is based on the versatile buck-boost converter, which has shown an excellent performance in different fuel cell systems operating in low-voltage and hard-switching applications. Therefore, extending this converter to higher voltage applications such as the EV is a challenging task reported in this work. A high-efficiency step-up/step-down versatile converter can improve the EV powertrain efficiency for an extended range of electric motor (EM) speeds, comprising urban and highway driving cycles while allowing the operation under motoring and regeneration (regenerative brake) conditions. DC-bus voltage regulation is implemented using a digital two-loop control strategy. The inner feedback loop is based on the discrete-time sliding-mode current control (DSMCC) strategy, and for the outer feedback loop, a proportional-integral (PI) control is employed. Both digital control loops and the necessary transition mode strategy are implemented using a digital signal controller TMS320F28377S. The theoretical analysis has been validated on a 400 V 1.6 kW prototype and tested through simulation and an EV powertrain system testing.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletricidade , Simulação por Computador , Retroalimentação
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502661

RESUMO

Future distribution grids will be subjected to fluctuations in voltages and power flows due to the presence of renewable sources with intermittent power generation. The advanced smart metering infrastructure (AMI) enables the distribution system operators (DSOs) to measure and analyze electrical quantities such as voltages, currents and power at each customer connection point. Various smart grid applications can make use of the AMI data either in offline or close to real-time mode to assess the grid voltage conditions and estimate losses in the lines/cables. The outputs of these applications can enable DSOs to take corrective action and make a proper plan for grid upgrades. In this paper, the process of development and deployment of applications for improving the observability of distributions grids is described, which consists of the novel deployment framework that encompasses the proposition of data collection, communication to the servers, data storage, and data visualization. This paper discussed the development of two observability applications for grid monitoring and loss calculation, their validation in a laboratory setup, and their field deployment. A representative distribution grid in Denmark is chosen for the study using an OPAL-RT real-time simulator. The results of the experimental studies show that the proposed applications have high accuracy in estimating grid voltage magnitudes and active energy losses. Further, the field deployment of the applications prove that DSOs can gain insightful information about their grids and use them for planning purposes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Computacionais , Eletricidade , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502722

RESUMO

In the last decade, the main attacks against smart grids have occurred in communication networks (ITs) causing the disconnection of physical equipment from power networks (OTs) and leading to electricity supply interruptions. To deal with the deficiencies presented in past studies, this paper addresses smart grids vulnerability assessment considering the smart grid as a cyber-physical heterogeneous interconnected system. The model of the cyber-physical system is composed of a physical power network model and the information and communication technology network model (ICT) both are interconnected and are interrelated by means of the communication and control equipment installed in the smart grid. This model highlights the hidden interdependencies between power and ICT networks and contains the interaction between both systems. To mimic the real nature of smart grids, the interconnected heterogeneous model is based on multilayer complex network theory and scale-free graph, where there is a one-to-many relationship between cyber and physical assets. Multilayer complex network theory centrality indexes are used to determine the interconnected heterogeneous system set of nodes criticality. The proposed methodology, which includes measurement, communication, and control equipment, has been tested on a standardized power network that is interconnected to the ICT network. Results demonstrate the model's effectiveness in detecting vulnerabilities in the interdependent cyber-physical system compared to traditional vulnerability assessments applied to power networks (OT).


Assuntos
Sistemas Computacionais , Modelos Teóricos , Comunicação , Eletricidade , Tecnologia da Informação
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(34)2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408019

RESUMO

Understanding how populations' daily behaviors change during the COVID-19 pandemic is critical to evaluating and adapting public health interventions. Here, we use residential electricity-consumption data to unravel behavioral changes within peoples' homes in this period. Based on smart energy-meter data from 10,246 households in Singapore, we find strong positive correlations between the progression of the pandemic in the city-state and the residential electricity consumption. In particular, we find that the daily new COVID-19 cases constitute the most dominant influencing factor on the electricity demand in the early stages of the pandemic, before a lockdown. However, this influence wanes once the lockdown is implemented, signifying that residents have settled into their new lifestyles under lockdown. These observations point to a proactive response from Singaporean residents-who increasingly stayed in or performed more activities at home during the evenings, despite there being no government mandates-a finding that surprisingly extends across all demographics. Overall, our study enables policymakers to close the loop by utilizing residential electricity usage as a measure of community response during unprecedented and disruptive events, such as a pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletricidade , Quarentena , COVID-19/transmissão , Características da Família , Humanos , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Singapura/epidemiologia
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125717, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426232

RESUMO

A microbial fuel cell-photocatalysis system with a novel photocatalytic air-cathode (MFC-PhotoCat) was proposed for synergistic degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) with simultaneous electricity generation. Stable electricity generation of 350 mV was achieved during 130 days of operation. Besides, 50 mg L-1 TCP was completely degraded within 72 h, and the rate constant of 0.050 h-1 was 1.8-fold higher than MFC with air-cathode without N-TiO2 photocatalyst. Degradation pathway was proposed based on the intermediates detected and density functional theory (DFT) calculation, with two open-chain intermediates (2-chloro-4-keto-2-hexenedioic acid and hexanoic acid) detected. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster and PCoA revealed significant shifts of microbial community structures, with enriched exoelectrogen (55.2% of Geobacter) and TCP-degrading microbe (7.1% of Thauera) on the cathode biofilm as well as 61.8% of Pseudomonas in the culture solution. This study provides a promising strategy for synergic degradation of recalcitrant contaminants by intimate-coupling of MFC and photocatalysis.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Poluentes Ambientais , Geobacter , Eletricidade , Eletrodos
6.
Water Res ; 203: 117498, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371229

RESUMO

A novel design for a flow-electrode capacitive deionization (FCDI) system consisting of tubular electrodes in a shell and tube heat exchanger configuration is proposed. Each electrode consists of a metallic mesh current collector along the inner circumference of a tubular ion-exchange membrane. This tubular FCDI design is suitable for scale-up as it consists of easily manufactured components which can be assembled in an array. An apparatus with 4 tubular electrodes with a large effective area (202.3 cm2) was constructed and shown to provide a high net salt (NaCl) removal rate (0.15 mg s-1 at 1.2 V applied voltage and ∼2000 mg L-1 influent total dissolved solids concentration). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model incorporating ion migration and transport mechanisms was developed to simulate the ion concentration and electrical potential profiles in the water channel. The results of CFD modelling highlighted the need to maximize regions of both high potential gradient and high hydraulic flow in order to achieve optimal salt removal. In brief, this study presents a new design approach for FCDI scale-up and provides a computational tool for optimization of this design and future innovative FCDI designs.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Troca Iônica , Cloreto de Sódio
7.
Water Res ; 203: 117497, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371234

RESUMO

Electrocoagulation (EC) is a promising electrochemical water treatment technology. However, a major challenge to sustaining effective long-term EC operation is controlling the precipitation of materials on the electrodes, commonly referred to as fouling. Periodically reversing electrode polarity has been suggested as an in-situ fouling mitigation strategy and is often implemented in EC field applications. However, the utility of this approach has not been investigated in detail. In this study, the effect of polarity reversal (PR) on the performance of EC using iron electrodes was examined under different water chemistry conditions and at a range of reversal frequencies. It was observed that the faradaic efficiency in PR-EC was always lower than that in the EC systems operated with a direct current (i.e., DC-EC). It was also observed that the faradaic efficiency progressively decreased as the current reversal frequency increased, with the faradaic efficiency dropping as low as 10% when the PR interval was 0.5 min. Results from fouling layer, chronopotentiometric, and cyclic voltammetric investigations indicated that the decrease in the faradaic efficiency was caused by (i) increased electrode fouling by iron precipitates and (ii) electrochemical side reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface. The extent of these effects was dependent on the solution chemistry; oxyanions and sulfide were found to be particularly detrimental to the performance of PR-EC, causing severe electrode fouling while decreasing the faradaic efficiency. Fouling could be mitigated by increasing the solution convection rate, resulting in a shear on the electrode surface that removed iron and other electrochemically reactive species from the electrodes.


Assuntos
Ferro , Purificação da Água , Eletricidade , Eletrocoagulação , Eletrodos
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450706

RESUMO

Firefly Algorithm (FA) is a recent swarm intelligence first introduced by X.S. Yang in 2008. It has been widely used to solve several optimization problems. Since then, many research works were elaborated presenting modified versions intending to improve performances of the standard one. Consequently, this article aims to present an accelerated variant compared to the original Algorithm. Through the resolving of some benchmark functions to reach optimal solution, obtained results demonstrate the superiority of the suggested alternative, so-called Fast Firefly Algorithm (FFA), when faced with those of the standard FA in term of convergence fastness to the global solution according to an almost similar precision. Additionally, a successful application for the control of a brushless direct current electric motor (BLDC) motor by optimization of the Proportional Integral (PI) regulator parameters is given. These parameters are optimized by the FFA, FA, GA, PSO and ABC algorithms using the IAE, ISE, ITAE and ISTE performance criteria.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Benchmarking , Eletricidade
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450711

RESUMO

Sequence time-domain reflectometry (STDR) and spread spectrum time-domain reflectometry (SSTDR) detect, locate, and diagnose faults in live (energized) electrical systems. In this paper, we survey the present SSTDR literature for discussions on theory, algorithms used in its analysis, and its more prominent implementations and applications. Our review includes both scientific litera-ture and selected patents. We also discuss future applications of SSTDR.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Eletricidade
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451007

RESUMO

Non-destructive tests are strongly required in engineering applications for monitoring civil structures. The use of compared and integrated innovative approaches based on geophysical methodologies represents an effective tool for the characterization and monitoring of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Therefore, the main aim of the work was to improve the knowledge on the potentiality and limitations of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) with electrodes disposed both on the surface and in the boreholes. The work approach was adopted on an analog model of a reinforced concrete frame built ad hoc at the Hydrogeosite Laboratory (CNR-IMAA), where simulated experiments on full-size physical models are defined. Results show the ability of an accurate use of GPR to reconstruct the rebar dispositions and detect in detail possible constructive defects, both highlighting the lack of reinforcements into the nodes and providing useful information about the safety assessment of the realized structure. The results of the ERT method defined the necessity to develop ad-hoc electrical resistivity methods to support the characterization and monitoring of buried foundation structures for civil engineering applications. Finally, the paper introduces a new approach based on the use of cross-hole ERTs (CHERTs) for the engineering structure monitoring, able to reduce the uncertainties usually affecting the indirect results.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Radar , Eletricidade , Tomografia
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451092

RESUMO

The Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) data represent a source of information in real time not only about electricity consumption but also as an indicator of other social, demographic, and economic dynamics within a city. This paper presents a Data Analytics/Big Data framework applied to AMI data as a tool to leverage the potential of this data within the applications in a Smart City. The framework includes three fundamental aspects. First, the architectural view places AMI within the Smart Grids Architecture Model-SGAM. Second, the methodological view describes the transformation of raw data into knowledge represented by the DIKW hierarchy and the NIST Big Data interoperability model. Finally, a binding element between the two views is represented by human expertise and skills to obtain a deeper understanding of the results and transform knowledge into wisdom. Our new view faces the challenges arriving in energy markets by adding a binding element that gives support for optimal and efficient decision-making. To show how our framework works, we developed a case study. The case implements each component of the framework for a load forecasting application in a Colombian Retail Electricity Provider (REP). The MAPE for some of the REP's markets was less than 5%. In addition, the case shows the effect of the binding element as it raises new development alternatives and becomes a feedback mechanism for more assertive decision making.


Assuntos
Big Data , Ciência de Dados , Sistemas Computacionais , Eletricidade , Previsões , Humanos
12.
Anal Chem ; 93(33): 11488-11496, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383461

RESUMO

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology has become the cornerstone of DNA analysis. However, special samples (e.g., forensic samples, soil, food, and mineral medicine) may contain powerful PCR inhibitors. High levels of inhibitors can hardly be sufficiently removed by conventional DNA extraction approaches and may result in the complete failure of PCR. In this work, the removal of PCR inhibitors by electromembrane extraction (EME) was investigated for the first time. To demonstrate the universality of the approach, EME formats with and without supported membranes (termed parallel-EME and µ-EME, respectively) were employed, and both anionic [humic acid (HA)] and cationic (Ca2+) PCR inhibitors were used as models. During EME, charged inhibitors in the sample migrate into the liquid membrane in the presence of an electric field and might further leech into the waste solution, while PCR analytes remain in the sample. After EME, the clearance values for HA at 0.2 and 2.5 mg mL-1 were 94 and 85%, respectively, and that for Ca2+ (275 mM) was 63%. Forensic PCR-short tandem repeat (PCR-STR) genotyping showed that EME significantly reduced the interference by HA in PCR-STR analysis and displayed a higher HA purge capability compared to existing methods. Furthermore, by combining EME with liquid-liquid extraction or solid-phase extraction, satisfactory STR profiles were obtained from HA-rich blood samples. In addition, false-negative reports of bacterial detection in mineral medicine and shrimps were avoided after the removal of Ca2+ by µ-EME. Our research demonstrates the great potential of EME for the purification of DNA samples containing high-level PCR inhibitors and opens up a new application direction for EME.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Membranas Artificiais , Ânions , Cátions , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
13.
Nano Lett ; 21(16): 6835-6842, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355908

RESUMO

Sorting of extracellular vesicles has important applications in early stage diagnostics. Current exosome isolation techniques, however, suffer from being costly, having long processing times, and producing low purities. Recent work has shown that active sorting via acoustic and electric fields are useful techniques for microscale separation activities, where combining these has the potential to take advantage of multiple force mechanisms simultaneously. In this work, we demonstrate an approach using both electrical and acoustic forces to manipulate bioparticles and submicrometer particles for deterministic sorting, where we find that the concurrent application of dielectrophoretic (DEP) and acoustophoretic forces decreases the critical diameter at which particles can be separated. We subsequently utilize this approach to sort subpopulations of extracellular vesicles, specifically exosomes (<200 nm) and microvesicles (>300 nm). Using our combined acoustic/electric approach, we demonstrate exosome purification with more than 95% purity and 81% recovery, well above comparable approaches.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Acústica , Eletricidade , Eletroforese
14.
Nano Lett ; 21(16): 6851-6858, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383494

RESUMO

Triboelectrification is a phenomenon that generates electric potential upon contact. Here, we report a viral particle capable of generating triboelectric potential. M13 bacteriophage is exploited to fabricate precisely defined chemical and physical structures. By genetically engineering the charged structures, we observe that more negatively charged phages can generate higher triboelectric potentials and can diffuse the electric charges faster than less negatively charged phages can. The computational results show that the glutamate-engineered phages lower the LUMO energy level so that they can easily accept electrons from other materials upon contact. A phage-based triboelectric nanogenerator is fabricated and it could produce ∼76 V and ∼5.1 µA, enough to power 30 light-emitting diodes upon a mechanical force application. Our biotechnological approach will be useful to understand the electrical behavior of biomaterials, harvest mechanical energy, and provide a novel modality to detect desired viruses in the future.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Vírus , Eletricidade , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Nanotecnologia
15.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113335, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375227

RESUMO

During the last few decades, China's transformation from a low-income country to an emerging economy causes carbon emission to rise extensively. Being the largest carbon emitter, China's continuous economic growth may inevitably cause more carbon emissions in the future. To achieve carbon neutrality targets, the country is striving to promote cleaner technologies. However, to finance these environmentally friendly projects, a well-developed financial system is a pre-requisite. This study examines the role of financial development along with output, financial risk index, renewable energy electricity and human capital on carbon emissions. This study uses updated time series data from 1988 to 2018 for China employing novel econometric approaches, i.e., Narayan and Pop unit root test with structural breaks, Maki cointegration and frequency domain causality test for long, short and medium run causality. The empirical outcome shows that improvement in financial development, renewable energy electricity, and human capital index cause to limit carbon emissions. In contrast, gross domestic product, financial risk index and structural break of 2001 increase carbon emissions. Moreover, structural break year of 2008 and financial development index reduces carbon emissions. The negative association between financial development and carbon emissions supports the positive school of thoughts of financial development that promotes a sustainable environment. This study recommends the promotion of quality human capital and green financial development along with increasing the shares of renewable energy in electricity for achieving China 2030 climate targets of reducing pollution.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Eletricidade , Humanos , Energia Renovável
16.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113419, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378543

RESUMO

Since climate change mitigation is the central debate of modern literature, the realization of carbon neutrality in response to diversified macroeconomic variables is the most crucial concern of international economies. However, the critical role of trade and renewable electricity output in export diversification-environmental nexus is missing. Therefore, this study investigates the combined influence of trade openness, exports diversification, and renewable electricity output on carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) in China from 1989 through 2019. Applying novel time series econometric techniques robust to structural breaks, following new outcomes are obtained. Firstly, long-run equilibrium cointegration existed among the under-analysis variables. Secondly, export diversification and renewable electricity output are predicted to decelerate CO2, supporting carbon neutrality in the long run. Thirdly, trade openness and gross domestic product accelerated the CO2, delaying carbon neutrality accomplishment. Most importantly, significant structural break dummy interacting with trade openness implicated that during the post-2001 era, China's trade openness extensively deteriorated the environmental quality in the face of trade liberalization obtained after joining the World Trade Organization (WTO). Based on empirical results, export diversification and renewable electricity production policies should be mutually non-exclusive and closely coordinated. Further, to counter the carbon emission acceleration impact of trade openness, increasing the share of green tradable products is suggested. Finally, bilateral trade restructuring is recommended to realize the long-term dream of economic sustainability and carbon neutrality.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Eletricidade , Produto Interno Bruto , Energia Renovável
17.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443341

RESUMO

In recent decades, the number of patients requiring biocompatible and resistant implants that differ from conventional alternatives dramatically increased. Among the most promising are the nanocomposites of biopolymers and nanomaterials, which pretend to combine the biocompatibility of biopolymers with the resistance of nanomaterials. However, few studies have focused on the in vivo study of the biocompatibility of these materials. The electrospinning process is a technique that produces continuous fibers through the action of an electric field imposed on a polymer solution. However, to date, there are no reports of chitosan (CS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrospinning with carbon nano-onions (CNO) for in vivo implantations, which could generate a resistant and biocompatible material. In this work, we describe the synthesis by the electrospinning method of four different nanofibrous membranes of chitosan (CS)/(PVA)/oxidized carbon nano-onions (ox-CNO) and the subdermal implantations after 90 days in Wistar rats. The results of the morphology studies demonstrated that the electrospun nanofibers were continuous with narrow diameters (between 102.1 nm ± 12.9 nm and 147.8 nm ± 29.4 nm). The CS amount added was critical for the diameters used and the successful electrospinning procedure, while the ox-CNO amount did not affect the process. The crystallinity index was increased with the ox-CNO introduction (from 0.85% to 12.5%), demonstrating the reinforcing effect of the nanomaterial. Thermal degradation analysis also exhibited reinforcement effects according to the DSC and TGA analysis, with the higher ox-CNO content. The biocompatibility of the nanofibers was comparable with the porcine collagen, as evidenced by the subdermal implantations in biological models. In summary, all the nanofibers were reabsorbed without a severe immune response, indicating the usefulness of the electrospun nanocomposites in biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Quitosana/química , Eletricidade , Teste de Materiais , Membranas Artificiais , Nanocompostos/química , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Animais , Nanocompostos/toxicidade , Oxirredução , Ratos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444036

RESUMO

The quality of the environment as well as public health is convincingly coupled with the functioning of a power subsector. The power subsector plays a pivotal role in the sense that it emerges as the key cross-sectional element for the society's functioning (production, services, healthcare, education and others). A modern society consists of infrastructure systems that are primarily dependent on continuous electricity supplies. Each and every element of the electric power infrastructure is unique, and thus, its malfunction can disrupt the functioning of an important part of the electric power infrastructure. In conjunction with ensuring the functioning of electric power infrastructure, our attention must be drawn to the resilience issue. As far as the resilience of electric power infrastructure is concerned, it can resist weather-related events ensuring there are no disruptions in continuous electricity supplies. First, in the introductory part, the article presents the legal framework in the Slovak Republic. Second, it describes the current state of the electric power infrastructure of Slovakia. Third, it handles the state of the level of security risk assessment. Later on, in the literature review, besides turning to the issue of resilience assessment, the authors focused on the area of resilience of power engineering. Furthermore, the article scrutinizes resilience assessment in Slovakia, and it briefly examines approaches towards natural threats. In addition, the article demonstrates several approaches towards flood resilience. Having used different methods, the primary concern is to devise a framework for resilience assessment. Therefore, the included case study examines aspects of the proposed framework for resilience assessment. In conclusion, our aim was, in most respects, to outline an innovative methodological framework for increasing the resilience of electricity infrastructure.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Inundações , Estudos Transversais , Eslováquia
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(16): 11204-11215, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342972

RESUMO

Electricity grid planners design the system to supply electricity to end-users reliably and affordably. Climate change threatens both objectives through potentially compounding supply- and demand-side climate-induced impacts. Uncertainty surrounds each of these future potential impacts. Given long planning horizons, system planners must weigh investment costs against operational costs under this uncertainty. Here, we developed a comprehensive and coherent integrated modeling framework combining physically based models with cost-minimizing optimization models in the power system. We applied this modeling framework to analyze potential tradeoffs in planning and operating costs in the power grid due to climate change in the Southeast U.S. in 2050. We find that planning decisions that do not account for climate-induced impacts would result in a substantial increase in social costs associated with loss of load. These social costs are a result of under-investment in new capacity and capacity deratings of thermal generators when we included climate change impacts in the operation stage. These results highlight the importance of including climate change effects in the planning process.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Eletricidade , Incerteza
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444158

RESUMO

Behaviour change interventions aiming to reduce household energy consumption are regarded as an effective means to address disparities between demand and supply and reduce emissions. Less recognised is their success in shifting consumers' energy consumption from peak demand periods to off-peak times of the day. This study reports two experiments that test the effect of feedback and reminder notifications on energy consumption in university halls-of-residence. A quasi-experiment and a randomised controlled experiment were conducted with residential students to evaluate behaviour change interventions aimed at reducing daily peak and critical peak demand, respectively. The results of Experiment One (n = 143) demonstrated significant reductions in the energy use of the treatment group relative to the control. On average, the treatment group's energy use was 12.4 per cent lower than their pre-intervention baseline. In Experiment Two (n = 88), normative elements of the intervention were supplemented with a reminder notification prior to the onset of the simulated critical peak demand period. The results showed that, relative to the control condition, the 8-h notification reduced demand by 20% on average with a 12% decrease for the 24-h notification (with 2-h follow-up). These results indicate that peak energy issues can be alleviated using low-cost and easily implemented behaviour change strategies.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Eletricidade , Responsabilidade Social , Habitação , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Universidades
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