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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 122010, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473037

RESUMO

Production of biofuels and other value-added products from wastewater along with quality treatment is an uttermost necessity to achieve environmental sustainability and promote bio-circular economy. Algae-Microbial fuel cell (A-MFC) with algae in cathode chamber offers several advantages e.g. photosynthetic oxygenation for electricity recovery, CO2-fixation, wastewater treatment, etc. However, performance of A-MFC depends on several operational parameters and also on electrode materials types; therefore, enormous collective efforts have been made by researchers for finding optimal conditions in order to enhance A-MFC performance. The present review is a comprehensive snapshot of the recent advances in A-MFCs, dealing two major parts: 1) the power generation, which exclusively outlines the effect of different parameters and development of cutting edge cathode materials and 2) wastewater treatment at cathode of A-MFC. This review provides fundamental knowledge, critical constraints, current status and some insights for making A-MFC technology a reality at commercial scale operation.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Nutrientes , Águas Residuárias
2.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e037, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508726

RESUMO

Iontophoresis is a noninvasive technique, based on the application of a constant low-intensity electric current to facilitate the release of a variety of drugs, whether ionized or not, through biological membranes. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of iontophoresis using different electric current intensities on the uptake of fluoride in dental enamel with artificial caries lesions. In this in vitro operator-blind experiment, bovine enamel blocks (n = 10/group) with caries-like lesions and predetermined surface hardness were randomized into 6 groups: placebo gel without fluoride applied with a current of 0.8 mA (negative control), 2% NaF gel without application of any current, and 2% NaF gel applied with currents of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mA. Cathodic iontophoresis was applied for 4 min. The concentration of loosely bound fluoride (calcium fluoride) and firmly bound fluoride (fluorapatite) was determined. The results were analyzed by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Iontophoresis at 0.8 mA, combined with the application of fluoridated gel (2% NaF), increased fluoride uptake in enamel with caries-like lesions, as either calcium fluoride or fluorapatite.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Iontoforese/métodos , Animais , Apatitas/análise , Fluoreto de Cálcio/análise , Bovinos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletricidade , Dureza/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121943, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421593

RESUMO

Environmental biorefineries aim to produce biofuels and platform biomolecules from organic waste. To this end, microbial electrochemical technologies theoretically allow controlled microbial electrosynthesis (MES) of organic molecules to be coupled to oxidation of waste. Here, we provide a first proof of concept and a robust operation strategy for MES in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) fed with biowaste hydrolysates. This strategy allowed stable operation at 5 A/m2 for more than three months in a labscale reactor. We report a two to four-fold reduction in power consumption compared to microbial electrosynthesis with water oxidation at the anode. The bioelectrochemical characterizations of the cells were used to compute energy and matter balances for biorefinery scenarios in which anaerobic digestion (AD) provides the electricity and CO2 required for the MEC. Calculations shows that up to 22% of electrons (or COD) from waste may be converted to organic products in the AD-MEC process.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Eletrólise , Biocombustíveis , Eletricidade , Eletrodos
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121992, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430674

RESUMO

In the present study, a dual-compartment microbial fuel cell (MFC) was constructed and continuously operated under different influent concentrations of ammonium-nitrogen (5-40 mg/L). The impacts of ammonium on organics removal, energy output and nutrient recovery were investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that this MFC reactor achieved a CDO removal efficiency of greater than 85%. Moreover, excess ammonium concentration in the feed solution compromises the generation of electricity. Simultaneously, the recovery rate of phosphate achieved in the MFC was insignificantly influenced at the wider influent ammonium concentration. In contrast, a high concentration of ammonium may not be beneficial for its recovery.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Eletricidade , Nutrientes , Águas Residuárias
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121870, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382092

RESUMO

Microalgae-based biorefinery concepts can contribute to providing sufficient resources for a growing world population. However, the performance needs to be improved, which requires innovative technologies and processes. Continuous extraction from Chlorella vulgaris cultures via pulsed electric field (PEF) processing might be a viable process to increase the performance of microalgae-based biorefinery concepts. In this study, increasing protein extraction rates were observed with increasing electric field strength, up to 96.6 ±â€¯4.8% of the free protein in the microalgae. However, increased extraction rates negatively influenced microalgae growth after PEF treatment. A free protein extraction rate up to 29.1 ±â€¯1.1% without a significant influence on microalgal growth after 168 h was achieved (p = 0.788). Within the scope of this work, a protocol for continuous protein extraction during microalgae cultivation by PEF processing was developed. The incorporation of innovative downstream into upstream processing could be a viable future concept.


Assuntos
Microalgas/metabolismo , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Eletricidade
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121888, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374413

RESUMO

A coupled microbial fuel cell (MFC) system, consisting of a nitrifying sulfide removal MFC and a denitrifying sulfide removal MFC, was assembled to simultaneously treat ammonium and sulfide in wastewater. It provided a promising approach to recover electricity from wastewater containing sulfide and ammonium. Considering both substrate removal and electricity generation performance, the desirable feeding S/N molar ratio was deemed as 3 and the optimal temperature was found to be 30 °C. Under this condition, the coupled MFC achieved a sum coulomb production of 554.8 C/d, a total nitrogen removal efficiency of 58.7 ±â€¯1.3% and a sulfur production percent of 27.4 ±â€¯0.4-33.3 ±â€¯0.9%. The introduction of nitrifiers and electroactive oxic microbes from the oxic-cathode chamber into the anoxic-cathode chamber favored nitrogen removal.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Nitrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Sulfetos/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/química , Compostos de Amônio/química , Desnitrificação , Eletricidade , Eletrodos
7.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109310, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376615

RESUMO

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) was compared to conventional biological techniques for decolorization of anthraquinone dye, reactive blue 19 (RB19) with simultaneous electricity generation. With 50 mg/L of RB19 in the anode chamber as a fuel, the MFC achieved 89% decolorization efficiency of RB19 within 48 h, compared with 51 and 55% decolorization efficiency achieved by aerobic and anaerobic techniques, respectively. The cyclic voltammetry results showed that RB19 could promote the electron transfer and redox reaction on the surface of anode. The RB19 decolorization process can be described by first-order kinetics, and the decolorization rate decreased with the increase of RB19 concentration. The high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing analysis indicated significant microbial community shift in the MFC. At phylum level, the majority of sequences belong to Proteobacteria, accounting from 23 to 84% of the total reads in each bacterium community. At genus level, the MFC contained two types of microorganisms in general such as electrochemically active and decolorization bacteria. Overall, MFC is an effective method for anthraquinone dye treatment with simultaneous energy recovery. The 16S rRNA revealed that there were two major functioning microbial communities in the MFC such as electricity-producing and RB19-degrading bacteria which synergistically worked on RB19 degradation.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Antraquinonas , Corantes , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
8.
Waste Manag ; 95: 182-191, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351603

RESUMO

This work aims to assess the environmental and economic sustainability of poultry litter gasification for heat and electricity generation. The results are compared with gasification of two other biomass feedstocks (Miscanthus and waste wood) and energy from fossil fuels. The findings suggest that poultry litter gasification can lead to significant reductions in 14 out of 16 impacts considered in the study in comparison with fossil-fuel alternatives. Compared to combined heat and power (CHP) from natural gas, most impacts from gasification of the litter are lower by more than 90%, including global warming potential. However, human toxicity and depletion of minerals are 25% and three times higher, respectively. Energy from poultry litter also has lower impacts than from waste woodchips and Miscanthus across all the categories, except for acidification. Owing to high capital costs, the unsubsidised cost of generating heat and electricity from poultry litter is similar to that of natural gas CHP but significantly cheaper than from other fossil-fuel alternatives. However, with the current subsidies in the UK, the payback time for poultry litter gasification is 13.5 years. It is estimated that 4.55 Mt of poultry litter is currently available in the UK, 2.73 Mt of which is suitable for conversion to energy. If this waste is utilised in gasification plants, it could potentially provide 0.6% of electricity and heat in the UK and save 1.7 Mt of GHG per year, equivalent to around 0.4% of UK's GHG emissions. However, the successful uptake of this technology will depend on a future reduction in capital costs.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Eletricidade , Combustíveis Fósseis , Reino Unido
9.
Waste Manag ; 95: 493-503, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351635

RESUMO

Poultry litter has the potential to cause water quality problems if it is not applied properly to the land as a crop nutrient. Based on the data available from a survey of Louisiana poultry producers, we find that it is not cost effective to transport poultry litter farther than 38.6 km from the production facilities for crop nutrient purposes. This limited breakeven distance restricts the movement of poultry litter and points to a need to identify an alternative disposal method. We review common methods of producing electricity from poultry litter. We identify the minimum cost solution for assigning poultry litter when one large or three small electric reactors are chosen to be built for electricity production in the poultry production region. We calculate the cost-return analysis of building electric reactors and expand it to find the economic impact of starting such electric reactors to the local and regional economies.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Esterco
10.
Waste Manag ; 95: 513-525, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351637

RESUMO

One of the major limitations in polymer recycling is their sorting as they are collected in mixes. The majority of polymers are highly incompatible without compatibilizers. For sorting of polymers, high-speed online Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is nowadays relatively widespread. It is however limited by the use of carbon black as a pigment and UV-stabilizer, which strongly absorbs near-infrared signals. Mid-Infrared (MIR) hyperspectral cameras were recently put on the market. However, their wavelength ranges are smaller and their resolutions are poorer, in comparison with laboratory equipment based on Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR). The identification of specific signals of end-of-life polymers for recycling purposes is becoming an important stake since they are very diverse, highly formulated, and more and more used in copolymers and blends, leading to complex waste stocks mainly as WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment). Dark colored plastics are the major part of WEEE, which also contains mainly styrenics (ABS, HIPS and their blends). In addition, styrenics are especially concerned by the need of identification. In this framework, spectral characterizations of ten types of polymers were scrutinized through about eighty pristine and real waste samples. Polymer characteristic signals were aggregated in charts to help rapid and automatized distinction through specific signals, even in limited resolution and frequency ranges.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Plásticos , Eletricidade , Indústrias , Polímeros , Reciclagem
11.
Waste Manag ; 95: 90-101, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351658

RESUMO

In this study, life cycle analysis (LCA) has been applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production and utilisation substituting for grid electricity, natural gas grid and transport fuels, with a focus on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The results demonstrate significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions for the biogas as a fuel scenario due to the displacement of fossil petrol and diesel fuels (scenario 3), with savings of between 524 and 477 kg of CO2 equivalent (per MWh of energy provided by the fuels). The utilisation of biogas for electricity generation saves around 300 kg of CO2 equivalent per MWh of electricity injected into the grid (scenario 1), while Scenario 2, the upgrading of biogas to biomethane and its injection into the gas grid for heating saves 191 kg of CO2 equivalent (per MWh of energy generated by the biomethane). The results emphasise the benefits of using life cycle analysis to provide an evidence based for bioenergy policy. The limitations of the research are identified and recommendations made for future research priorities to further the use of LCA in the evaluation of bioenergy systems.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Gás Natural , Eletricidade , Meio Ambiente , Efeito Estufa
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 290: 121751, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301571

RESUMO

The removal of antibiotics from wastewater has attracted much attention. In this research, an intimately coupled autarkical electrosorption (ES)-microbial fuel cell (MFC) system was developed for real-time removal of the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) from wastewater. The removal efficiency was founded to be up to 98.8% at an OTC concentration of 2 mg/L with 3 g/L sodium acetate (NaAC) as co-substrate and 3 MFCs as power supply. The removal efficiencies increased in the ES unit and decreased in the MFC unit with increasing treating time. The adsorption of OTC on activated carbon fibers (ACFs) in the ES unit proceeds via chemical adsorption resulting from electrostatic attraction and cation exchange. The OTC degradation pathways in the MFC unit were proposed by identifying the intermediates with HPLC-MS/MS. The ACFs in the ES unit were proven to be recyclable and the coupled ES-MFC system is applicable for the removal of antibiotics from wastewater.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Oxitetraciclina , Eletricidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Águas Residuárias
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 290: 121759, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323515

RESUMO

Degradation of cathode performance over time is one of the major drawbacks in applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for wastewater treatment. Over a two month period the resistance of air cathodes (RCt) with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) diffusion layer increased of 111% from 70 ±â€¯10 mΩ m2 to 148 ±â€¯32 mΩ m2. Soaking the cathodes in hydrochloric acid (100 mM HCl) restored cathode performance to RCt = 74 ±â€¯17 mΩ m2. Steam, ethanol, or sodium hydroxide treatment produced only a small change in performance, and slightly increased RCt. With a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) diffusion layer on the cathodes, RCt increased from 54 ±â€¯14 mΩ m2 to 342 ±â€¯142 mΩ m2 after two months of operation. The acid concentration was critical for effectiveness in cleaning, as HCl (100 mM) decreased RCt to 28 ±â€¯8 mΩ m2. A lower concentration of HCl (<1 mM) showed no improvement, and vinegar (5% acetic acid) produced 48 ±â€¯4 mΩ m2.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Politetrafluoretileno , Águas Residuárias
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121740, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323716

RESUMO

Bioelectrochemically-assisted vermifilter (VBFBE) with sewage sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of sewage sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with vermicomposting and electrochemical only. Results revealed that the sludge stabilization with a higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and lower NH4+-H during 40 days of composting. At the composting, pH, C/N, electrical conductivity (EC) and germination index (GI) results demonstrated that the maturity degree of VBFBE4 was higher than that of other VBFBE. The VBFBE4 yielded a voltage of 1.024 V and maximum power density of 105.28 mW/m2 on 3th day. The bacteria in VBFBE4 were richer and higher in terms of diversity than those in other VBFBE, that was demonstrated that combination vermicomposting and electrochemistry could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate sludge composting process and enhance composting maturity.


Assuntos
Esgotos/microbiologia , Bactérias , Compostagem , Eletricidade , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Filtração
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(28): e16350, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305425

RESUMO

Most of the recent studies have used fixed tube current while few investigators use automatic current selection (ACS) with iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques to reduce effective dose (ED) to < 1 mSv in low-dose chest computed tomography (LDCCT). We investigated whether image quality of lungs as produced by a fixed tube current (FTC) of 35 mAs can be maintained with ED < 1 mSv produced by ACS with IR techniques in LDCCT. A total of 32 participants were included. The LDCCT was performed by a FTC 35 mAs (with a kilovoltage peak of 120 kVp) in 16 participants (Group A), and by a DoseRight ACS in 16 participants (Group B). Their images were improved by IR technique. The ED was estimated by multiplying the individual dose length product (DLP) by the dose conversion factor. The image quality was assessed by the CT number, noise levels, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the regions of interest in the apex, upper lobe, and lower lobe of lung regions in the CT images. A t-test was used to evaluate the LDCCT image quality between the groups. The ED was significantly 49.2% lower in Group B than in Group A (0.71 ±â€Š0.05 mSv vs 1.40 ±â€Š0.02 mSv, P < .001). However, noise level, SNR, and CNR were not significantly different between Groups A and B, indicating the image quality was similar between two groups, or our setting parameters for DoseRight ACS with IR technique can achieve the image quality as good as obtained on the FTC 35 mAs with IR techniques. Our results suggest that the DoseRight ACS with IR technique reduces ED to lower than 1 mSv (averagely 0.71 mSv) yet maintains an image quality as good as produced by FTC 35 mAs with IR technique in normal BMI persons. The ACS setup thus is more preferable than the FTC to achieve the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle.


Assuntos
Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doses de Radiação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Automação/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Eletricidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121805, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351376

RESUMO

With a view to boost practical implementation of lignin conversion technologies, this paper assesses the availability of industrial lignin and evaluates pricing strategies applicable to multi-product biorefineries. The biorefineries, producing either denatured ethanol or sugar hydrolysate as a main product, can yield 43% and 61% of lignin residue (LR) comprising 33% and 23% of lignin by mass, respectively, without sacrificing the output of the main product and before electricity import has become indispensable. Analysis of the pricing strategies reveals that LR must be treated as a low-value by-product, and its minimum selling price (MSP) is driven mainly by the prevailing electricity price. Under the biorefinery net zero energy balance, and taking into account the LR market price adequacy, as well as the main probabilistic conditions, the upper range for the MSP is calculated at $43-70 and $18-37 per ton for biorefineries producing ethanol and hydrolysate, respectively.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Custos e Análise de Custo , Eletricidade , Etanol/química , Indústrias , Lignina/economia
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121862, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357047

RESUMO

This study evaluated the feasibility of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for simultaneous electricity generation and degradation of phenolic compounds. The voltage generation was inhibited by 36.18-63.90%, but the degradation rate increased by 146.15-392.31% when the initial concentration of syringic acid (SA), vanillic acid (VA), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) increased from 0.3 to 3.0 g/L. The collaboration among the functional microbes significantly enhanced the degradation rate of parent compounds and their intermediates in MFCs systems, while the accumulated intermediates severely inhibited their complete mineralization in fermentative systems. High-throughput sequencing showed that the growth of fermentative bacteria prevailed, but electrogenic bacteria were inhibited in the anode microbial community (AMC) under high concentrations of phenolic compounds (3.0 g/L). These findings provide a better understanding of the dynamic shift and synergy effects of the AMC to evaluate its potential for the treatment of phenolic-containing wastewater.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica/microbiologia , Microbiota , Fenóis/metabolismo , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Fermentação
18.
J Environ Manage ; 247: 776-779, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299553

RESUMO

In their critical comments, Davies et al. (2019) claim that our paper (Pravalie and Bandoc, 2018) features a series of shortcomings, such as the lack of quantitative or qualitative weighting of the nuclear energy trilemma, the insufficient analysis of specialized scientific literature or the presence of certain inconsistencies and inaccuracies throughout the paper. Starting from the idea that debate in the nuclear energy sector, in this particular instance, or in science, in general, is constructive, as long as based on credible arguments, we acknowledge these comments and wish to provide pertinent responses for each critical observation. Given this context, this scientific communication is meant to provide explanations and justify the fact that the findings of the original review-type paper (Pravalie and Bandoc, 2018) are real and supported by various relevant scientific data and papers, and that our vision on the global nuclear energy trilemma is sufficiently substantiated.


Assuntos
Energia Nuclear , Eletricidade
19.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109252, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325795

RESUMO

In this study, we show that changes in electricity prices in China have significant environmental consequences through its effect on industrial pollution emissions concentrations. To investigate this relationship, we pair a novel dataset of hourly smokestack-level pollutant emissions of industrial plants in Anhui, China with changes in hourly electricity prices. Using a difference-in-differences (DID) regression model, we find that pollution emissions from these plants have an inverse relationship with electricity prices. This relationship is most prominent for firms in the highly competitive and energy-intensive sectors of metals and cement production. On average, we find that a 1% decrease in electricity price leads to around 1%-5.8% increase in sulfur dioxide and particulate matters emissions concentrations. Similarly, we also found impacts on the number of hours in which emissions were observed. These results suggest that electricity prices could be an effective policy tool for managing air pollution - a challenge currently faced by many low- and middle-income countries. More generally, policymakers need to be cognizant that electricity sector-related policies could generate unintended consequences for the environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , China , Eletricidade , Material Particulado
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 504, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338610

RESUMO

Leaching of chromium ions causes a serious threat to groundwater around chromite ore processing residue (COPR) dump sites in many countries. As a result, detailed subsurface characterization of the affected region is crucial for assessing the associated risks as well as initiating remedial measures. Though the conventional approaches (e.g., drilling and water sampling) provide important information but are expensive and unable to decipher detailed subsurface scenario. Thus, in the present study, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) (a cost-effective and faster approach) method has been employed to assess the effect of unplanned COPR waste dump beside agricultural land at Umaran, Kanpur, India, in conjunction with the available geochemical information. Inverted 2-D ERT sections depicted resistivity variation in the subsurface, and its correlation with previous geochemical results reveals the resistivity boundary between contaminated and clean zones as ~ 15 Ω·m. The study also depicts that the contamination plume is slowly migrating towards NE direction below the agriculture land but rate of migration is faster along southern direction. Therefore, the agriculture land and corresponding groundwater at ~ 50 m away from the dump site in NE direction are not affected by COPR leachate. Vertically, the COPR leachate has affected mostly up to ~ 20 m depth in the region inside the dump boundary; however, at some places, it is migrating further downward. Thus, the study demonstrates the efficacy of ERT method in characterizing COPR dump site and provides crucial information in managing safe agriculture practices over the region as well as for initiating scientific remedial measures.


Assuntos
Cromo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Eletricidade , Água Subterrânea/química , Índia , Tomografia
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