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1.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126926, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957303

RESUMO

In less than a decade, bioelectrochemical systems/microbial fuel cell integrated constructed wetlands (electroactive wetlands) have gained a considerable amount of attention due to enhanced wastewater treatment and electricity generation. The enhancement in treatment has majorly emanated from the electron transfer or flow, particularly in anaerobic regions. However, the chemistry associated with electron transfer is complex to understand in electroactive wetlands. The electroactive wetlands accommodate diverse microbial community in which each microbe set their own potential to further participate in electron transfer. The conductive materials/electrodes in electroactive wetlands also contain some potential, due to which, several conflicts occur between microbes and electrode, and results in inadequate electron transfer or involvement of some other reaction mechanisms. Still, there is a considerable research gap in understanding of electron transfer between electrode-anode and cathode in electroactive wetlands. Additionally, the interaction of microbes with the electrodes and understanding of mass transfer is also essential to further understand the electron recovery. This review mainly deals with the electron transfer mechanism and its role in pollutant removal and electricity generation in electroactive wetlands.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Eletricidade , Transporte de Elétrons , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Eletrodos , Microbiota , Águas Residuárias/análise , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
2.
J Environ Manage ; 263: 110390, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883476

RESUMO

Quantifying the economic benefits and environmental costs brought about by trade can help reveal the environmental inequalities behind regional trade. There have been many studies on the accounting of greenhouse gas emissions and pollutants embodied in regional trade, but there are insufficient studies analyzing the imbalance between the economic benefits and environmental costs embodied in trade. Electricity-related carbon emissions are the main contributor to global warming, explaining more than 40% of carbon emissions both globally and in China. This study uses the network approach and multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to quantify the electricity-related carbon emissions and value added embodied in China's interprovincial trade from 2007 to 2012 and also applies the regional environmental inequality (REI) index to measure the imbalance of electricity-related carbon emissions and economic benefits embodied in such trade. The results show that 20-80% of the electricity-related carbon emissions and 15-70% of the value added of a province's final demand are outsourced to other provinces. The major directions of the net value added and electricity-related carbon emissions embodied in China's interprovincial trade were from north to south and from the center to the east. Unequal bilateral interprovincial trade mainly occurred between inland provinces and developed provinces, and western provinces (such as Guizhou, Gansu, and Ningxia) suffered economic and environmental losses from interprovincial trade. This study can promote understanding of the distribution impacts of domestic trade on environmental costs and economic benefits and provide a reference for China's cross-provincial carbon emission mitigation policies.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Carbono , China , Eletricidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 44(4): 328-330, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762207

RESUMO

Facing the new situation of national green development, energy conservation and environmental protection, this study systematically expounds the energy consumption management of medical electrical equipment in USA, Europe and China, and puts forward suggestions on green development of medical electrical equipment in China.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões , Eletricidade , Fontes Geradoras de Energia
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 96: 171-177, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819691

RESUMO

Microbial fuel cells (MFC) utilize microbes as catalysts to convert chemical energy to electricity. Inocula used for MFC operation must therefore contain active microbial population. The dye reduction-based electron-transfer activity monitoring (DREAM) assay was employed to evaluate different inocula used in MFCs for their microbial bioelectrical activity. The assay utilizes the redox property of Methylene Blue to undergo color change from blue to colorless state upon microbial reduction. The extent of Methylene Blue reduction was denoted as the DREAM assay coefficient. DREAM assay was initially performed on a microbial culture along with the growth curve and estimation of colony forming units (CFUs). DREAM coefficient correlated to the CFU/mL obtained over time as growth progressed. The assay was then extended to water samples (domestic sewage, lake and a man-made pond) serving as inocula in MFCs. Domestic wastewater gave the highest DREAM coefficient (0.300 ± 0.05), followed by pond (0.224 ± 0.07) and lake (0.157 ± 0.04) water samples. Power density obtained conformed to the DREAM coefficient values, with the three samples generating power densities of 46.45 ± 5.1, 36.12 ± 3.2 and 25.08 ± 4.3 mW/m2 respectively. We have also studied the role of addition of various carbon sources and their concentrations towards improving the sensitivity of the assay. The DREAM assay is a rapid, easy-to-perform and cost-effective method to assess inocula for their suitability as anolytes in terms of electron transfer potential in MFCs.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Corantes , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Elétrons , Oxirredução , Águas Residuárias
6.
J Environ Manage ; 274: 111236, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827870

RESUMO

Beijing benefits from the promotion of electric vehicles (EVs) in the improvement of road tailpipe emissions; these emissions are caused by internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) and reduce the surrounding environmental quality. When analyzing the electricity grid, upstream emissions of EVs in Beijing can be tracked back to Shanxi and Inner Mongolia. This study investigates the inharmonious mechanism of emission reduction to promote EVs in Beijing and Northern China based on 6 scenarios and 42 real EVs. Because there is a neighbor effect, Beijing only accounts for 34%, 34%, 41%, and 35% of the total CO2, NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions, respectively. Although the local CO2, NOx, and PM2.5 emissions can be easily reduced (as long as the conversion of "coal to gas" plan is realized), it is difficult to achieve emission reductions of NOx and SO2 without increasing the clean electricity generation mix in Shanxi and Inner Mongolia at the total emission level. However, there is still a large reduction potential of EVs themselves due to an increasingly clean electricity mix in Beijing, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia. Beijing local CO2, NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions can be reduced by 86.92%, 98.79%, 99.98% and 99.94%, respectively, and a total reduction of 78.43% of CO2, 93.83% of NOx, 97.85% of SO2 and 99.26% of PM2.5 emissions is possible. Compared with the corresponding ICEV, an EV of 18 kWh/100 km starts to reduce Beijing local CO2, NOx and PM2.5 emissions in scenario 1, 3 and 1, respectively, while the SO2 emissions cannot be reduced. However, the total CO2, NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions can be reduced in scenario 2, 5, 5, and 1, respectively. A sensitivity analysis shows that the promotion of EVs can reduce Beijing local CO2, NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions by 125.568-238.960 g/km, 0.059-0.113 g/km, -0.00003 - - 0.00007 g/km and 0.034-0.065 g/km, respectively. In addition, the total CO2, NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 reduction in emissions can be 132.883-253.757 g/km, 0.189-0.361 g/km, 0.299-0.569 g/km and 0.053-0.101 g/km, respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Pequim , Dióxido de Carbono , China , Eletricidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236958, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760117

RESUMO

Renewable electricity can fully decarbonise the European electricity supply, but large land requirements may cause land-use conflicts. Using a dynamic model that captures renewable fluctuations, I explore the relationship between land requirements and total system cost of different supply-side options in the future. Cost-minimal fully renewable electricity requires some 97,000 km2 (2% of total) land for solar and wind power installations, roughly the size of Portugal, and includes large shares of onshore wind. Replacing onshore wind with offshore wind, utility-scale PV, or rooftop PV reduces land requirements drastically with only small cost penalties. Moving wind power offshore is most cost-effective and reduces land requirements by 50% for a cost penalty of only 5%. Wind power can alternatively be replaced by photovoltaics, leading to a cost penalty of 10% for the same effect. My research shows that fully renewable electricity supply can be designed with very different physical appearances and impacts on landscapes and the population, but at similar cost.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Energia Renovável , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos e Análise de Custo , Europa (Continente) , Modelos Teóricos , Recursos Naturais , Centrais Elétricas/economia , Energia Renovável/economia , Energia Solar/economia , Processos Estocásticos , Vento
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 316: 123928, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768999

RESUMO

A novel tubular-type photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (PMFC) with algal growth and multiple electrodes in the cathode chamber was operated at various hydraulic retention times (HRTs). When the HRT in the cathode was fixed to 24 h, cell voltage gradually increased as the HRT in the anode was decreased from 24 h to 6 h, and at 6 h, 315 mV of electricity was generated and the dissolved oxygen concentration was 10.31 ± 2.60 mg/L. However, HRT changes in the cathode did not affect cell voltage generation much, although a sharp decrease in cell voltage was observed at 2-h HRT. With wastewater passing through the chambers in series (19.3-h total HRT), the PMFC was able to successfully generate cell voltage and remove nutrients. The maximum COD and phosphorus removal percentages were obtained for an initial COD of 300 mg/L, while the maximum nitrogen removal was obtained for an initial COD of 400 mg/L.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Carbono , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Águas Residuárias
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 316: 123919, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771939

RESUMO

Ferricyanide is often used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to avoid oxygen intrusion that occurs with air cathodes. However, MFC internal resistances using ferricyanide can be larger than those with air cathodes even though ferricyanide results in higher power densities. Using a graphite fiber brush cathode and a ferricyanide catholyte (FC-B) the internal resistance was 62 ± 4 mΩ m2, with 84 ± 8 mΩ m2 obtained using ferricyanide and a flat carbon paper cathode (FC-F) and only 51 ± 1 mΩ m2 using a 70% porosity air cathode (A-70). The FC-B MFCs produced the highest maximum power density of all configurations examined: 2.46 ± 0.26 W/m2, compared to 1.33 ± 0.14 W/m2 for the A-70 MFCs. The electrode potential slope (EPS) analysis method showed that electrode resistances were similar for ferricyanide and air-cathode MFCs, and that higher power was due to the larger experimental working potential (500 ± 12 mV) of ferricyanide compared to the air cathode (233 ± 5 mV).


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Elétrons , Oxidantes , Oxigênio
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140818, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758850

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) represents one of the main pollutants originating from both geologic phenomena such as volcanoes, geysers, fumaroles and hot springs, and geothermal plants that produce heat and electricity. Many increasing data suggest that H2S retains a variety of biological properties, and modulates many pathways related to cardiovascular pathophysiology although its role as beneficial/adverse determinant on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not clearly established. In this review, the current knowledge on the association between H2S exposure and risk of CVD in geothermal areas has been examined. The few epidemiological studies carried out in geothermal areas suggest, in some cases, a protective role of H2S towards CVD, while in others a positive association between exposure to H2S and increased incidence of CVD. Most of the studies have an ecological design that does not allow to produce evidence to support a causal relationship and also often lack for an adequate adjustment for individual CVD risk factors. The review has also considered the potential role of two other aspects not sufficiently explored in this relationship: the production of endogenous H2S that is a gasotransmitter producing beneficial effects on cardiovascular function at low concentration and the intake of H2S-releasing drugs for the treatment of patients affected by hypertension, inflammatory diseases, and CVD. Thus, a threshold effect of H2S and the shift of action as beneficial/adverse determinant given by the synergy of exogenous exposure and endogenous production cannot be excluded. In this complex scenario, an effort is warranted in the future to include a more comprehensive evaluation of risk for CVD in relation to H2S emissions, especially in geothermal areas.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Eletricidade , Fenômenos Geológicos , Humanos , Incidência
11.
12.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111222, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858267

RESUMO

This study objectively investigates the influence of energy conservation and substitution strategies in mitigating CO2 emissions in the electricity generation sector in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The paper specifically explores if climate action implementation may negatively affect energy consumption on economic growth ambition and whether technical change in factor and inter-fuel substitution support in achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs) 7, 8 &13. This paper conducts the study under the life cycle analysis (LCA) procedure. We also apply stochastic frontier Translog production and ridge regression techniques with data for 2000-2015. The results currently show that renewable energy intensity falls below the breakeven level. Meanwhile, nonrenewable energy intensity is much higher. Furthermore, production factors and inter-fuel technological change show that capital-energy and renewable-nonrenewable energy are perfect substitutes under the electricity sector. Moreover, the findings reveal low energy efficiency of 40 percent with poor carbon performance. We, therefore, conclude that MENA region may not achieve cleaner, affordable energy and climate action concurrently with economic growth under the current production technologies by the fiscal year 2030. We further conclude that economic growth is presently inversely related to energy efficiency but positively with energy intensity. This suggests that MENA region economic growth drive is highly linked with nonrenewable consumption and also not supporting energy conservation strategies. Additionally, we conclude that energy efficiency improvement and reduction in energy intensity may not be achieved as the governments keep subsidizing electricity in the region. Besides, the more policymakers pursue economic growth through energy intensity indicators, the more energy is consumed through the energy rebound effects. Based on these findings and conclusions, we recommend insightful strategies under the electricity sector. This study adds new body of knowledge by extending Translog production to estimate energy intensity & efficiency under the LCA procedure. Scholars also contribute to data and variable modeling under the SDGs in discovering CO2 emission mitigation in the electricity sector which could be replicated in other countries or regions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Energia Renovável , África do Norte , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Eletricidade , Oriente Médio
13.
Water Res ; 183: 116034, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736269

RESUMO

Capacitive deionization (CDI) devices use cyclical electrosorption on porous electrode surfaces to achieve water desalination. Process modeling and design of CDI systems requires accurate treatment of the coupling among input electrical forcing, input flow rates, and system responses including salt removal dynamics, water recovery, energy storage, and dissipation. Techno-economic analyses of CDI further require a method to calculate and compare between a produced commodity (e.g. desalted water) versus capital and operational costs of the system. We here demonstrate a new modeling and analysis tool for CDI developed as an installable Matlab program that allows direct numerical simulation of CDI dynamics and calculation of key performance and cost parameters. The program is provided for free and is used to run open-source Simulink models. The Simulink environment sends information to the program and allows for a drag and drop design space where users can connect CDI cells to relevant periphery blocks such as grid energy, battery, solar panel, waste disposal, and maintenance/labor cost streams. The program allows for simulation of arbitrary current forcing and arbitrary flow rate forcing of one or more CDI cells. We employ validated well-mixed reactor formulations together with a non-linear circuit model formulation that can accommodate a variety of electric double layer sub-models (e.g. for charge efficiency). The program includes a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify CDI plant parameters, specify operating conditions, run individual tests or parameter batch-mode simulations, and plot relevant results. The techno-economic models convert among dimensional streams of species (e.g. feed, desalted water, and brine), energy, and cost and enable a variety of economic estimates including levelized water costs.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Cloreto de Sódio , Água
14.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 115373, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827985

RESUMO

Effective utilization of harmful algal biomass from eutrophic lakes is required for sustainable waste management and circular bioeconomy. In this study, Microcystis aeruginosa derived biomass served as an electron donor in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) for waste treatment and electricity generation. Bioelectrochemical performance of MFC fed with microalgae (MFC-Algae) was compared with MFC fed with a commercial substrate (MFC-Acetate). Complete removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency (67.5 ± 1%) in MFC-Algae showed that harmful algal biomass could be converted into bioelectricity. Polarization curves revealed that MFC-Algae delivered the maximum power density (83 mW/m2) and current density (672 mA/m2), which was 43% and 45% higher than that of MFC-Acetate respectively. Improved electrochemical performance and substantial coulombic efficiency (7.6%) also verified the potential use of harmful algal biomass as an alternate MFC substrate. Diverse microbial community profiles showed the substrate-dependent electrogenic activities in each MFC. Biodegradation pathway of MC-LR by anodic microbes was also explored in detail. Briefly, a sustainable approach for on-site waste management of harmful algal biomass was presented, which was deprived of transportation and special pretreatments. It is anticipated that current findings will help to pave the way for practical applications of MFC technology.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Biomassa , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Águas Residuárias
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235668, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776932

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel, effective meta-heuristic, population-based Hybrid Firefly Particle Swarm Optimization (HFPSO) algorithm is applied to solve different non-linear and convex optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The HFPSO algorithm is a hybridization of the Firefly Optimization (FFO) and the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique, to enhance the exploration, exploitation strategies, and to speed up the convergence rate. In this work, five objective functions of OPF problems are studied to prove the strength of the proposed method: total generation cost minimization, voltage profile improvement, voltage stability enhancement, the transmission lines active power loss reductions, and the transmission lines reactive power loss reductions. The particular fitness function is chosen as a single objective based on control parameters. The proposed HFPSO technique is coded using MATLAB software and its effectiveness is tested on the standard IEEE 30-bus test system. The obtained results of the proposed algorithm are compared to simulated results of the original Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method and the present state-of-the-art optimization techniques. The comparison of optimum solutions reveals that the recommended method can generate optimum, feasible, global solutions with fast convergence and can also deal with the challenges and complexities of various OPF problems.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Eletricidade , Dinâmica não Linear , Simulação por Computador , Centrais Elétricas , Software
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797117

RESUMO

With desirable physical performances of impressive actuation strain, high energy density, high degree of electromechanical coupling and high mechanical compliance, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are widely employed to actuate the soft robots. However, there are many challenges to establish the dynamic models for DEAs, such as their inherent nonlinearity, complex electromechanical coupling, and time-dependent viscoelastic behavior. Moreover, most previous studies concentrated on the planar DEAs, but the studies on DEAs with some other functional shapes are insufficient. In this paper, by investigating a conical DEA with the material of polydimethylsiloxane and considering the influence of inertia, we propose a dynamic model based on the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. This dynamic model can describe the complex motion characteristics of the conical DEA. Based on the experimental data, the differential evolution algorithm is employed to identify the undetermined parameters of the developed dynamic model. The result of the model validation demonstrates the effectiveness of the model.


Assuntos
Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Elastômeros/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Eletricidade , Fenômenos Mecânicos
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3869-3875, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764920

RESUMO

Introduction: During routine surgery, rapid hemostasis, especially the rapid hemostasis of internal organs, is very important. The emergence of in-situ electrospinning technology has fundamentally solved this problem. It exhibits a high speed of hemostasis, and no bleeding occurs after surgery. Thus, it is of great significance. The use of sutures in some human organs, such as the intestines and bladder, is inadequate because fluid leakage occurs due to the presence of pinholes. Methods: Three types of large intestine wounds with an opening of about 1 cm were investigated. They were untreated, treated by needle and threaded, and treated by hand-held electrospinning, respectively. Results: The results show that hand-held electrospinning technique effectively prevented the exudation of fluids in the intestinal tract. The average diameter of the nanofibrous membrane was about 0.5 µm with hole of several micrometers. It can be elongated 90% without breakage. The hand-held electrospinning device could be used with nitrile gloves, preventing the risk of infection caused by exposed hands. Discussion: This work can provide a reference for future animal experiments and clinical experiments. However, safety should be investigated before application.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Hemostasia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos
18.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(9): 1972-1982, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666950

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of temporary external voltage on the performance of two-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFC) that use nitrate wastewater as a substrate. Results indicate that the external voltage affected the performance of the MFC during their operation, and this effect remained even after the voltage was removed. The degradation efficiency of the chemical oxygen demand increased in the MFC under external voltages of 0.5, 0.8, and 1.1 V, and the optimal applied voltage was 1.1 V. Compared with the control group without external voltages, the MFC under a voltage of 1.1 V achieved higher current densities and efficiency of nitrate removal during their operation. The MFC with an applied voltage of 1.1 V also achieved the highest maximum power density of 2,035.08 mW/m3. The applied voltages of 0.5 and 0.8 V exerted a positive effect on the performance of the MFC. High-throughput sequencing was used to explore the anode and cathode biofilms. Results showed that the influence was highly associated with microbial community in bio-anode. The predominant functional family changed from Methanotrichaceae during start-up to Flavobacteriaceae in a steady phase.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Biofilmes , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Águas Residuárias
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110893, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615495

RESUMO

Leaching of the hazardous electric arc furnace (EAF) dust containing mainly zinc ferrite and zinc oxide, accompanied by minor concentrations of arsenic compounds, was investigated using sulfuric acid. In order to reach the maximum recovery of zinc, the leaching solution was adjusted to recover both iron and zinc at their maximum possible values. To obtain a high recovery value of zinc and iron, analyzed by AAS, the optimum leaching condition was found to be the temperature of 90 °C, the sulfuric acid concentration of 3 M, the particle size of 75 µm, the S/L ratio of 1:10 g/mL and the leaching time of 2 h. The percentages of the zinc and iron recovery under the optimum condition were ca. 98.6% and 99.1% respectively, which were verified by a confirmation test and were very close to the predicted values of 100% based on the optimized model, obtained through the software. From the thermodynamics' point of view, it has been found that Zn2+ is the predominant species (90%) under the leaching condition applied. Moreover, the predominant species of iron are FeSO4+, FeHSO42+, Fe(SO4)2- and Fe3+ in the magnitudes of 65.8%, 25.6%, 4.4% and 4.0%, respectively. According to the kinetic results, the controlling step in the leaching was the chemical reaction at the most of the operating temperatures and times. In order to purify the zinc solution for electrowinning, iron and arsenic were removed through the jarosite formation process as confirmed by the XRD results. The speciation of arsenic in the precipitated jarosite was explored by XPS. Finally, the low concentrations of arsenic (less than 0.1 ppm) and iron (less than 50 ppm) were determined by the ICP analysis.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Metalurgia/métodos , Reciclagem , Sulfatos/química , Zinco/análise , Poeira/análise , Eletricidade , Ferro/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Ácidos Sulfúricos , Temperatura , Óxido de Zinco
20.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(7): 1336-1344, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616686

RESUMO

The microbial fuel cell (MFC) provides new opportunities for energy generation and wastewater treatment through conversion of organic matter into electricity by electrogenic bacteria. This study investigates the effect of different types and concentrations of substrates on the performance of a double chamber microbial fuel cell (DCMFC). Three mediator-less laboratory-scale DCMFCs were used in this study, which were equipped with graphite electrode and cation exchange membrane. The MFCs were fed with three different types of substrates (glucose, acetate and sucrose) at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 1,000 mg/L. The selected substrate (acetate) was studied for three different concentrations of 500, 2,000 and 3,000 mg/L of COD. Results demonstrated that acetate was the best substrate among the three different substrates with maximum power density and COD removal of 91 mW/m2 and 77%, respectively. Concentration of 2,000 mg/L was the best concentration in terms of performance with maximum power density and COD removal of 114 mW/m2 and 79%, respectively. The polarization curve shows that ohmic losses were dominant in DCMFCs established for all three substrates and concentrations.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Águas Residuárias
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