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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 458-465, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596257

RESUMO

In this work, landfill leachate treatment by electrocoagulation process with a novel rotating anode reactor was studied. The influence of rotating anode speed on the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS) of raw landfill leachate was investigated. The influence of operating parameters like leachate pH, leachate temperature, current, and inter-distance between the cathode rings and anode impellers on the electrocoagulation performance were also investigated. The results revealed the optimum rotating speed is 150 rpm and increasing the rotating speed above this value led to reducing process performance. The leachate electrocoagulation treatment process favors the neutral medium and the treatment performance increases with increasing current intensity. Furthermore, the electrocoagulation treatment performance improves with increasing leachate temperature. However, the performance reduces with increasing inter-electrode distance.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Eletrocoagulação , Eletrodos
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 587-596, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596269

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP) by the electro-persulfate (EC-PS) process using aluminum (Al) electrodes. The effects of variables including pH, contact time, PS concentration, initial CIP concentration and current density on the removal efficiency of CIP were studied. In order to determine the mechanisms of the EC-PS process, the radical scavenger tests, as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were performed on the sludge. The results showed that the PS process alone had no effect on the CIP removal, and the EC process alone could remove 25% of CIP after 160 min. However, the EC-PS process under the optimum conditions: pH of 7, time of 40 min, current density of 2.75 mA/cm2, CIP concentration of 20 mg/L, and PS concentration of 0.84 mM removed 90% of CIP. The effect of the EC-PS process on the actual hospital wastewater was 81% in optimal conditions. The kinetic study also showed that the second-order kinetic model was the most consistent. The oxidation process during the initial contact was dominant in the EC-PS process and, over time, the EC process was dominant for CIP removal.


Assuntos
Ciprofloxacino/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Alumínio/química , Eletrodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(2): 365-376, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537773

RESUMO

At different calcination conditions, titanium-based manganese oxides (MnOx) electrodes were fabricated by spraying method without adhesive. The MnOx/Ti electrodes were applied in electrochemical oxidation of wastewater treatment for the first time. The surface morphologies of electrodes were tested by scanning electron microscopy. The formation of different manganese oxidation states on electrodes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes have been performed by means of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The characterizations revealed that the MnOx/Ti-350(20) electrode, prepared at calcination temperature of 350 °C for 20 min, exhibited fewer cracks on the electrode surface, larger electrochemically effective surface area and lower charge transfer resistance than electrodes prepared at other calcination conditions. Moreover, Acid Red B was used as target pollutant to test the electrode activity via monitoring the concentration changes by UV spectrophotometer. The results showed that the MnOx/Ti-350(20) electrode presented the best performance on decolorization of Acid Red B with the lowest cell potential during the process of electrochemical oxidation, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) conversion was 50.7%. Furthermore, the changes of Acid Red B during the electrochemical oxidation process were proposed by the UV-vis spectra.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Naftalenossulfonatos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Oxirredução , Titânio
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122067, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499330

RESUMO

Transition metal phosphide catalysts such as nickel phosphide (Ni2P) have shown excellent activities for the hydrogen evolution reaction, but they have primarily been studied in strongly acidic or alkaline electrolytes. In microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), however, the electrolyte is usually a neutral pH to support the bacteria. Carbon-supported phase-pure Ni2P nanoparticle catalysts (Ni2P/C) were synthesized using solution-phase methods and their performance was compared to Pt/C and Ni/C catalysts in MECs. The Ni2P/C produced a similar quantity of hydrogen over a 24 h cycle (0.29 ±â€¯0.04 L-H2/L-reactor) as that obtained using Pt/C (0.32 ±â€¯0.03 L-H2/L) or Ni/C (0.29 ±â€¯0.02 L-H2/L). The mass normalized current density of the Ni2P/C was 14 times higher than that of the Ni/C, and the Ni2P/C exhibited stable performance over 11 days. Ni2P/C may therefore be a useful alternative to Pt/C or other Ni-based catalysts in MECs due to its chemical stability over time.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Níquel , Eletrodos , Eletrólise , Hidrogênio
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 122010, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473037

RESUMO

Production of biofuels and other value-added products from wastewater along with quality treatment is an uttermost necessity to achieve environmental sustainability and promote bio-circular economy. Algae-Microbial fuel cell (A-MFC) with algae in cathode chamber offers several advantages e.g. photosynthetic oxygenation for electricity recovery, CO2-fixation, wastewater treatment, etc. However, performance of A-MFC depends on several operational parameters and also on electrode materials types; therefore, enormous collective efforts have been made by researchers for finding optimal conditions in order to enhance A-MFC performance. The present review is a comprehensive snapshot of the recent advances in A-MFCs, dealing two major parts: 1) the power generation, which exclusively outlines the effect of different parameters and development of cutting edge cathode materials and 2) wastewater treatment at cathode of A-MFC. This review provides fundamental knowledge, critical constraints, current status and some insights for making A-MFC technology a reality at commercial scale operation.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Nutrientes , Águas Residuárias
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121888, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374413

RESUMO

A coupled microbial fuel cell (MFC) system, consisting of a nitrifying sulfide removal MFC and a denitrifying sulfide removal MFC, was assembled to simultaneously treat ammonium and sulfide in wastewater. It provided a promising approach to recover electricity from wastewater containing sulfide and ammonium. Considering both substrate removal and electricity generation performance, the desirable feeding S/N molar ratio was deemed as 3 and the optimal temperature was found to be 30 °C. Under this condition, the coupled MFC achieved a sum coulomb production of 554.8 C/d, a total nitrogen removal efficiency of 58.7 ±â€¯1.3% and a sulfur production percent of 27.4 ±â€¯0.4-33.3 ±â€¯0.9%. The introduction of nitrifiers and electroactive oxic microbes from the oxic-cathode chamber into the anoxic-cathode chamber favored nitrogen removal.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Nitrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Sulfetos/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/química , Compostos de Amônio/química , Desnitrificação , Eletricidade , Eletrodos
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121877, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376672

RESUMO

Bioelectrochemical conversion of CO2 to CH4 is a promising way to increase the calorific value of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion. There are two groups of methanogens enriched in these systems, hydrogenotrophs and acetoclastic methanogens that can also directly accept electrons from an electrode or another microorganism. In this study, a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) poised at -500 mV (vs. SHE) was operated for biogas upgrading. Methane content in the biogas increased from 71% to >90%, and 8.2% of the CO2 was converted to methane. Methanothrix, an acetoclastic methanogen that can participate in direct electron transfer (DET), and Azonexus, an acetate-oxidizing electrogen, were enriched on the cathode. Transcriptomics revealed that Methanothrix on the cathode were using the CO2 reduction pathway, while Methanothrix in the bulk sludge were using the acetate decarboxylation pathway for production of methane. These results show that stimulation of DET in MEC enhances biogas-upgrading processes.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Methanosarcinaceae , Eletrodos , Eletrólise , Transporte de Elétrons , Elétrons , Metano/metabolismo , Esgotos
8.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(12): 2231-2241, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411577

RESUMO

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology holds enormous potential for inexpensive real-time and onsite testing of water sources. With the intent of defining optimal operational conditions, we investigated the effect of environmental factors (changes in temperature, pH and ionic strength), on the performance of a single chamber miniature MFC sensor. The pH of the influent had the greatest effect on the MFC performance, with a 0.531 ± 0.064 µA cm-2 current variation per unit change of pH. Within the range tested, temperature and ionic strength had only a minor impact (0.010 ± 0.001 µA °C-1 cm-2 and of 0.027 ± 0.003 µA mS-1 cm cm-2 respectively). Under controlled operational conditions, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of this biosensor to detect one of the most commonly applied pesticides worldwide, atrazine. The sensitivity to atrazine was 1.39 ± 0.26 ppm-1 cm-2, with a detection range of 0.05-0.3 ppm. Guidelines for systematic studies of MFC biosensors for practical applications through a factorial design approach are also provided. Consequently, our work not only enforces the promise of miniature MFC biosensors for organic pollutants detection in waters, but it also provides important directions towards future investigations for infield applications.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Praguicidas , Eletrodos
9.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(12): 2366-2377, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411591

RESUMO

This study mainly focuses on the process of electrocoagulation (EC) for the wastewater treatment from biodiesel production using waste cooking oil. The effects of current density, initial pH and electrolysis time on the EC process using aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes were investigated for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The COD removal efficiencies were found to be 62.7% and 63.4% at optimum conditions for Al (current density: 43 mA/cm2, pH: 5, time: 21 min) and Fe (current density: 47 mA/cm2, pH: 7.7, time: 30 min) electrodes, respectively. At these optimum conditions, the removal efficiencies of oil & grease, total phosphorus (TP), orthophosphate (PO4-P) and total suspended solids (TSS) were determined respectively to be above 89.9%, 98.9%, 99.5%, 86.7% for Al electrodes and 90.8%, 98.5%, 97.6%, 89.6% for Fe electrodes. Total operating costs were also found to be 6.43 €/m3 and 7.01 €/m3 for Al and Fe electrodes, respectively. The results indicate that the EC process using both types of electrodes seems to ensure an efficient treatment of biodiesel wastewater in terms of oil & grease and TP.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias , Alumínio , Culinária , Eletrocoagulação , Eletrodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Resíduos Industriais
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(1): 109-116, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461427

RESUMO

Due to the high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF)-8, a secondary crystallization method was used to prepare a particle electrode of γ-Al2O3@ZIF-8. According to the results from a field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the particle electrode of γ-Al2O3 was successfully loaded with ZIF-8, and the BET surface area (1,433 m2/g) of ZIF-8 was over ten times that of γ-Al2O3. The key operation parameters of cell voltage, pH, initial RhB concentration and electrolyte concentration were all optimized. The observed rate constant (kobs) of the pseudo-first-order kinetic model for the electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) system with the particle electrode of γ-Al2O3@ZIF-8 (15.2 × 10-2 min-1) was over five times higher than that of the system with the traditional particle electrode of γ-Al2O3 (2.6 × 10-2 min-1). The loading of ZIF-8 on the surface of γ-Al2O3 played an important role in improving electrocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB), and the RhB removal efficiency of the three-dimensional (3D) electrocatalytic system with the particle electrode of γ-Al2O3@ZIF-8 was 93.5% in 15 min, compared with 27.5% in 15 min for the particle electrode of γ-Al2O3. The RhB removal efficiency was kept over 85% after five cycles of reuse for the 3D electrocatalytic system with the particle electrode of γ-Al2O3@ZIF-8.


Assuntos
Eletrodos , Rodaminas/química , Zeolitas , Oxirredução , Rodaminas/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(1): 184-190, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461435

RESUMO

An electrochemical flow cell was introduced into the electrochemical Fenton-type process using a Cu(I)/HOCl system. The effects of the current density and the initial cupric ion (Cu2+) concentration on the process performance were discussed. The current efficiency of the process improved from 6.1% for an electrolytic tank system to 33% for the electrochemical flow cell system at a current density of 5.0 mA/cm2 and an initial Cu2+ concentration of 1.0 mM. The current efficiency increased to 58% for Cu2+ concentrations of 2.0 mM and beyond. The cathodic reduction of Cu2+ to the cuprous ion (Cu+) emerged as the rate-determining step in comparison to the anodic production of free chlorine. The introduction of the electrochemical flow cell enhanced the cathodic production of Cu+ by reinforcing the mass transfer of the Cu2+ to the cathode, and the detachment of micro bubbles generated electrochemically at the cathode surface. A decrease in the current density and an increase in the initial Cu2+ concentration also improved the current efficiency by promoting the cathodic production of Cu+. This involved the prevention of the cathodic reduction of protons to hydrogen gas and the elevation of the electrode potential of the cathodic reaction from Cu2+ to Cu+.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Cobre/química , Eletrodos , Oxirredução
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121943, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421593

RESUMO

Environmental biorefineries aim to produce biofuels and platform biomolecules from organic waste. To this end, microbial electrochemical technologies theoretically allow controlled microbial electrosynthesis (MES) of organic molecules to be coupled to oxidation of waste. Here, we provide a first proof of concept and a robust operation strategy for MES in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) fed with biowaste hydrolysates. This strategy allowed stable operation at 5 A/m2 for more than three months in a labscale reactor. We report a two to four-fold reduction in power consumption compared to microbial electrosynthesis with water oxidation at the anode. The bioelectrochemical characterizations of the cells were used to compute energy and matter balances for biorefinery scenarios in which anaerobic digestion (AD) provides the electricity and CO2 required for the MEC. Calculations shows that up to 22% of electrons (or COD) from waste may be converted to organic products in the AD-MEC process.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Eletrólise , Biocombustíveis , Eletricidade , Eletrodos
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121995, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430670

RESUMO

Introducing oxygen-containing functional groups is a common and convenient method to increase the hydrophilicity of bioelectrodes. In this study, the effect of oxygen-containing functional groups on biofilm was systematically studied to understand how the electron transfer between electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) and bioelectrode was boosted. After electrolysis pretreatment in sulfuric and nitric acid mixture, the oxygen content of the carbon fiber brushes increased from 4.6% to 30.9%. Comparing with the control, the maximum power density increased by 27.7%, while the anode resistance decreased by 21.8%, because charge transfer resistance significantly reduced. The analysis results showed that the content of c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts) in the EAB biofilm was four times higher than that in the control, while the biomass just slightly increased and the bacteria community was similar with that of the control. These findings suggested that the fundamental reason for the enhanced extracellular electron transfer between EAB and electrode was the increased c-Cyts.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Biofilmes , Citocromos , Eletrodos , Transporte de Elétrons , Elétrons , Oxigênio
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121956, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430673

RESUMO

In this paper, the free-standing macroporous carbon anode is prepared by one-step carbonization of pinecone without any further modification. The obtained anode is N, P-codoped porous carbon material, which is beneficial for electrochemical active bacterial adhesion and the fast start-up of cells. Both of the output voltage and long-term operation stability of the obtained anode are higher than that of carbon felt. The charge transfer resistance after biofilm formation is only 1.4 Ω, being 85.1% lower than that of carbon felt anode. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis shows that Geobacter soli is the main electricigen and its ratio at the obtained anode is much higher than that at carbon felt (77.4% vs 34.0%). The N, P-codoped carbon as the three-dimensional free-standing anode has excellent electrochemical properties and is low cost and easy preparation. Most importantly, it enhances extracellular electron transfer, thus has potential application in microbial fuel cells.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Geobacter , Carbono , Eletrodos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(71): 10603-10606, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424058

RESUMO

A truly ratiometric homogeneous electrochemical biosensor has been developed for sensitive miRNA detection based on the unique diffusion/intercalation properties of electroactive dyes without the need for electrode modification or materials preparation.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Corantes/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Substâncias Intercalantes/química , MicroRNAs/análise , DNA/química , Eletrodos , Exodesoxirribonucleases/química , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Limite de Detecção , Metalocenos/química , Azul de Metileno/química , Oxirredução
17.
Analyst ; 144(17): 5108-5116, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373337

RESUMO

We report here the influence of antibody immobilization strategy for protein immunosensors on screen printed carbon electrode arrays in terms of antibody binding activity, analytical sensitivity, limit of detection, and stability. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was the model analyte with anti-HRP immobilized on the sensors, and HRP activity was used for detection. Covalently immobilized anti-HRP antibodies on electrodes coated with chitosan, electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and dense gold nanoparticle (AuNP) films had only 20-30% of the total immobilized antibodies active for binding. Active antibodies increased to 60% with passively adsorbed antibodies on bare electrodes, to 85% with oriented antibodies using protein A covalently immobilized on AuNP-coated carbon electrode, and to 98% when attached to protein A passively adsorbed onto bare electrodes. Passively adsorbed antibodies on bare electrodes lost activity in 1-2 days, but antibodies immobilized using other strategies remained relatively stable after 5 days. Covalent immobilization gave limits of detection (LOD) of 40 fg mL-1, while passively adsorbed antibodies or protein A on carbon electrodes had LODs 4-8 fg mL-1, but were unstable. Sensitivity was highest for antibodies covalently attached to AuNP electrodes (2.40 nA per log pg per mL) that also had highest antibody coverage, and decreased slightly when protein A on AuNP was used to orient antibodies. Passively adsorbed antibodies and oriented antibodies on protein A gave slightly lower sensitivities. Immobilization strategy or antibody orientation did not have a significant effect on LOD, but dynamic range increased as the number of active antibodies on sensor surfaces increased.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Carbono/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Quitosana/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Grafite/química , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/química , Imunoensaio/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Oxirredução , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109310, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376615

RESUMO

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) was compared to conventional biological techniques for decolorization of anthraquinone dye, reactive blue 19 (RB19) with simultaneous electricity generation. With 50 mg/L of RB19 in the anode chamber as a fuel, the MFC achieved 89% decolorization efficiency of RB19 within 48 h, compared with 51 and 55% decolorization efficiency achieved by aerobic and anaerobic techniques, respectively. The cyclic voltammetry results showed that RB19 could promote the electron transfer and redox reaction on the surface of anode. The RB19 decolorization process can be described by first-order kinetics, and the decolorization rate decreased with the increase of RB19 concentration. The high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing analysis indicated significant microbial community shift in the MFC. At phylum level, the majority of sequences belong to Proteobacteria, accounting from 23 to 84% of the total reads in each bacterium community. At genus level, the MFC contained two types of microorganisms in general such as electrochemically active and decolorization bacteria. Overall, MFC is an effective method for anthraquinone dye treatment with simultaneous energy recovery. The 16S rRNA revealed that there were two major functioning microbial communities in the MFC such as electricity-producing and RB19-degrading bacteria which synergistically worked on RB19 degradation.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Antraquinonas , Corantes , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121862, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357047

RESUMO

This study evaluated the feasibility of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for simultaneous electricity generation and degradation of phenolic compounds. The voltage generation was inhibited by 36.18-63.90%, but the degradation rate increased by 146.15-392.31% when the initial concentration of syringic acid (SA), vanillic acid (VA), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) increased from 0.3 to 3.0 g/L. The collaboration among the functional microbes significantly enhanced the degradation rate of parent compounds and their intermediates in MFCs systems, while the accumulated intermediates severely inhibited their complete mineralization in fermentative systems. High-throughput sequencing showed that the growth of fermentative bacteria prevailed, but electrogenic bacteria were inhibited in the anode microbial community (AMC) under high concentrations of phenolic compounds (3.0 g/L). These findings provide a better understanding of the dynamic shift and synergy effects of the AMC to evaluate its potential for the treatment of phenolic-containing wastewater.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica/microbiologia , Microbiota , Fenóis/metabolismo , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Fermentação
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(28): 15787-15797, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282520

RESUMO

With the aim of improving the reproducibility of capacitive immunosensors, we performed a comparative study of four different insulating/immobilization chemistries. Each chemistry targeted different areas of an interdigitated electrode including an alkyl thiol monolayer on the electrode surface, an amino silane monolayer on the gaps between electrodes, and conformal coatings via passive adsorption of the probe and a spin-coated layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). We analyzed the dielectric properties of these chemistries by comparing their capacitive behavior through equivalent circuit modeling and correlate the observed behavior with their surface characteristics by using atomic force microscopy and finite element modeling. We found that surface binding events occurring in the interdigitated electrode gaps play a major role in the overall change in capacitance. This was confirmed via finite element modeling showing an increased electric field intensity in the electrode gaps by 14%, compared to directly above the electrodes. Among the investigated surface chemistries, PMMA conformal coating produced a smooth surface (Rq roughness = 0.21 ± 0.02 nm) providing the most reproducible and stable capacitance change (15.6 ± 0.4%) in response to specific antigen-antibody binding.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Capacitância Elétrica , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Modelos Químicos , Ligação Proteica
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