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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467106

RESUMO

The intestinal absorption of phosphate (Pi) takes place transcellularly through the active NaPi-cotransporters type IIb (NaPiIIb) and III (PiT1 and PiT2) and paracellularly by diffusion through tight junction (TJ) proteins. The localisation along the intestines and the regulation of Pi absorption differ between species and are not fully understood. It is known that 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) and phosphorus (P) depletion modulate intestinal Pi absorption in vertebrates in different ways. In addition to the apical uptake into the enterocytes, there are uncertainties regarding the basolateral excretion of Pi. Functional ex vivo experiments in Ussing chambers and molecular studies of small intestinal epithelia were carried out on P-deficient goats in order to elucidate the transepithelial Pi route in the intestine as well as the underlying mechanisms of its regulation and the proteins, which may be involved. The dietary P reduction had no effect on the duodenal and ileal Pi transport rate in growing goats. The ileal PiT1 and PiT2 mRNA expressions increased significantly, while the ileal PiT1 protein expression, the mid jejunal claudin-2 mRNA expression and the serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 levels were significantly reduced. These results advance the state of knowledge concerning the complex mechanisms of the Pi homeostasis in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Absorção Intestinal , Eliminação Intestinal , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Fósforo/deficiência , Animais , Calcitriol/sangue , Duodeno/metabolismo , Cabras , Íleo/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato/genética , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato/metabolismo
2.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(10): 3471-3479, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419089

RESUMO

China, the largest producer and user of antibiotics in the world, discharges excessive amounts of these substances into the environment, without prior treatment. This results in ubiquitous distribution of these substances, as well as increased levels of drug-resistant bacteria, that will eventually cause unimaginable consequences to the environment and to humans. However, most of the research on antibiotics has focused on residue analysis of single medium such as wastewater and landfills. There is paucity of research that systematically investigates the fate of antibiotics after excretion, and specifically of end-treatment processes. In this paper, the fate of antibiotic emissions is systematically calculated. The results show that human and livestock feces account for 57.6% and 42.6% of the discharge of medicinal antibiotics and veterinary antibiotics, respectively. Of these feces types, pig feces accounted for 98.7% of antibiotic residues in livestock feces. The above conclusions can be used to clarify the direction of the tracking and supervision of antibiotic residues and provide new ideas for the treatment of antibiotics, especially their terminal removal.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Gado/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , China , Fezes/química , Humanos , Eliminação Intestinal , Modelos Biológicos
3.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2650-2654, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359601

RESUMO

Three experiments were conducted to determine ileal P digestibility and excreta P retention values for canola meal (CM) using 3 different types of balance assays. The first experiment was an ad libitum-fed chick experiment which evaluated the effect of phytase on ileal P digestibility and excreta P retention values. Chicks were fed a P-deficient cornstarch-dextrose-45% CM basal diet (0.13% nonphytate P) as diet 1 or that diet plus 125 or 250 FTU/kg of phytase, respectively, from 8 to 21 D of age. The digestibility/retention of P was 38% and phytase linearly increased both ileal digestibility and excreta retention of P (P < 0.05). The second experiment was a precision-fed chick assay conducted to determine ileal digestibility of P in CM at 21 D. Mean ileal P digestibility was determined to be 47.5% in chicks fed 6 g and 40.0% in chicks fed 9 g of CM and the values were not significantly different. Experiment 3 was an ad libitum-fed chick assay to determine ileal P digestibility and excreta P retention for CM with and without increasing levels of dietary supplemental Ca. The chicks were fed P-deficient - dextrose - CM diets containing increasing levels of 13.5, 27, 40.5, or 54% CM, respectively, with Ca:nonphytate P ratio maintained at 2:1 in diets 1-4 and 6:1 in diets 5-8. Based on regression analysis of ileal digesta or excreta P output on dietary P concentration, digestibility/retention of P in CM was 30%. Ileal P digestibility (and to a lesser extent excreta P retention) at 21 D was reduced by increased Ca:P ratio. The results of this study indicated that the 3 balance assays yielded reasonably consistent values of 30-40% for P digestibility/retention and ileal P digestibility was greatly affected by Ca:P ratio.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão , Eliminação Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fósforo/fisiologia , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Íleo/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
4.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 214(5): 1158-1164, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of free radioactivity in renal and intestinal excretions during the first 48 hours after transarterial radioembolization (TARE) procedures on the liver. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Urinary, intestinal, and biliary excretions of patients who underwent TARE with three different types of microspheres were collected during a postinterventional period of 48 hours (divided into two 24-hour intervals). Radioactivity measurements were performed. The detected amounts of activity were correlated to clinical and procedural characteristics, times of excretion, and microsphere types. RESULTS. Twenty-four patients were evaluated, 10 treated with 90Y-glass, 10 with 90Y-resin, and four with 166Ho-poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) microspheres. Activity excretion occurred in all cases. The highest total excretion proportions of the injected activities were 0.011% for 90Y-glass, 0.119% for 90Y-resin, and 0.005% for 166Ho-PLLA microspheres. Intestinal excretion was markedly less than renal excretion (p < 0.001). Excretion after TARE with 90Y-resin was statistically significantly higher than with 90Y-glass or 166Ho-PLLA micro-spheres (p = 0.002). For each microsphere type, the excreted activity was independent of the activity of the injected microspheres. CONCLUSION. Renal and intestinal excretion of radioactivity after TARE is low but not negligible. The radiation risk for individuals interacting with patients can be minimized if contact with urine and bile is avoided, particularly during the first 24 hours after the procedure.


Assuntos
Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Hólmio/farmacocinética , Eliminação Intestinal , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Radioisótopos/farmacocinética , Radioisótopos de Ítrio/farmacocinética , Idoso , Feminino , Hólmio/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Microesferas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioisótopos/urina , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioisótopos de Ítrio/urina
5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112875, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546138

RESUMO

Schisanlactone E (SE) is a bioactive ingredient extracted from the stem of Kadsura heteroclita (Roxb) Craib. SE has various pharmacological activity such as anti-tumor and anti-leukemia effects. However, its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion have rarely been examined. In this study, new quali-quantitative analytical methods were developed for metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies of SE in rats. A UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed to determine SE in rat plasma, urine, and feces. Samples were precipitated with methanol and analyzed in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The established method was validated and applied to the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and excretion analysis of SE after oral (6 mg/kg) or intravenous (2 mg/kg) administration. The absolute oral bioavailability of SE was approximately 79.3%. After oral administration, SE was mainly excreted via feces with a rate of 41.7% for 48 h. SE could not be detected in urine. Furthermore, a UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS method was developed for the metabolite screening of SE in rat plasma, urine, and feces. Metabolites were extracted by solid phase extraction and analyzed with full MS/dd-MS2 scan mode. As a result, 15 metabolites including 11 phase I and 4 phase II metabolites were identified by a three-step analytical strategy. The carboxyl group, the five membered ring, and the six membered α,ß-unsaturated lactone ring of SE could be predicted as the main metabolic sites. This study provides comprehensive insights into the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles of SE, and would be valuable for future development and utilization of SE and Kadsura heteroclita.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Kadsura/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Triterpenos/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Fezes/química , Eliminação Intestinal , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Caules de Planta/química , Ratos , Eliminação Renal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , Triterpenos/análise
6.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 7900-7912, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789332

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia (HUA) is a metabolic disorder that occurs due to the overproduction or under-excretion of uric acid (UA) and is directly linked to the development of many life-threatening diseases. There is a growing interest among many researchers regarding how to overcome the encumbrance of HUA because conventional drugs are associated with multiple side effects. Thus, the present project has been designed to utilize flavonoids and chlorogenic acid-enriched stevia residue extract (STVRE) to combat HUA. The results show that supplementation with STVRE (200 and 400 mg per kg bw) inhibits the XOD enzyme in serum, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum tissues. Moreover, UA levels in the STVRE groups were also significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in serum, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum tissues and juices. STVRE also improved the intestinal morphology and oxidative biomarkers in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum tissues. Protein and mRNA expressions of ABCG2 were upregulated, whereas GLUT9 was downregulated in the STVRE-treated groups as compared with the model control group. The supplementation of STVRE significantly attenuated hyperuricemia and oxidative stress, upregulated ABCG2 and downregulated GLUT9 (protein and mRNA) expression in hyperuricemic mice. The results of our study revealed that the by-product of stevia has the potential to combat hyperuricemia, and can be used as a functional ingredient in the development of nutraceutical products.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Stevia/química , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Clorogênico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/análise , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/metabolismo , Eliminação Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/análise
7.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 111(12): 946-952, dic. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190539

RESUMO

Background: the safety and diagnostic accuracy of colonoscopies depends on the quality of colon cleansing. Several factors have been reported that affect the quality of bowel cleansing, hospitalization being one of them. Aims: the aim of the study was to investigate whether a visual educational leaflet improved the level of cleanliness achieved in hospitalized patients undergoing a colonoscopy and to identify predictors of a poor bowel preparation. Methods: a prospective, single-center, endoscopist-blinded, randomized controlled trial was performed. The intervention group was given a visual educational leaflet and both groups received four liters of polyethylene glycol solution. Demographic data, personal history, reason for admission and indication for colonoscopy, work shift during which the procedure was performed and endoscopy findings were collected. The Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) was used to assess the bowel preparation. Results: one hundred and thirty-six patients were included in the study; 51.5% were male, with a mean age of 64.3 +/- 17.6 years. The educational leaflet did not result in a difference in the total BBPS obtained between the standard group and the intervention group (7 [6-9] vs 6 [5.7-9]; p = 0.17). According to the multivariable analysis, the only factors associated with a poor bowel cleansing were heart disease (OR 3.37 [1.34-8.46]; p = 0.010) and colorectal cancer (OR 3.82 [1.26-11.61]; p = 0.018). Conclusion: the use of a visual educational leaflet for the preparation of colonoscopies did not provide a significant improvement in hospitalized patients in our health area. Heart disease was identified as the only predictor of poor preparation for colonoscopy


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colonoscopia/métodos , Soluções Farmacêuticas/farmacologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/educação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Eliminação Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Protocolos Clínicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
8.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412634

RESUMO

Iron and zinc are essential micronutrients required for growth and health. Deficiencies of these nutrients are highly prevalent among populations, but can be alleviated by supplementation and food fortification. Cross-sectional studies in humans showed positive association of serum zinc levels with hemoglobin and markers of iron status. Dietary restriction of zinc or intestinal specific conditional knock out of ZIP4 (SLC39A4), an intestinal zinc transporter, in experimental animals demonstrated iron deficiency anemia and tissue iron accumulation. Similarly, increased iron accumulation has been observed in cultured cells exposed to zinc deficient media. These results together suggest a potential role of zinc in modulating intestinal iron absorption and mobilization from tissues. Studies in intestinal cell culture models demonstrate that zinc induces iron uptake and transcellular transport via induction of divalent metal iron transporter-1 (DMT1) and ferroportin (FPN1) expression, respectively. It is interesting to note that intestinal cells are exposed to very high levels of zinc through pancreatic secretions, which is a major route of zinc excretion from the body. Therefore, zinc appears to be modulating the iron metabolism possibly via regulating the DMT1 and FPN1 levels. Herein we critically reviewed the available evidence to hypothesize novel mechanism of Zinc-DMT1/FPN1 axis in regulating intestinal iron absorption and tissue iron accumulation to facilitate future research aimed at understanding the yet elusive mechanisms of iron and zinc interactions.


Assuntos
Absorção Intestinal , Eliminação Intestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Ferro na Dieta/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Anemia Ferropriva/metabolismo , Anemia Ferropriva/fisiopatologia , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Suco Pancreático/metabolismo , Zinco/deficiência
9.
PLoS Biol ; 17(7): e3000408, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356592

RESUMO

Most bilaterian animals excrete toxic metabolites through specialized organs, such as nephridia and kidneys, which share morphological and functional correspondences. In contrast, excretion in non-nephrozoans is largely unknown, and therefore the reconstruction of ancestral excretory mechanisms is problematic. Here, we investigated the excretory mode of members of the Xenacoelomorpha, the sister group to Nephrozoa, and Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria. By combining gene expression, inhibitor experiments, and exposure to varying environmental ammonia conditions, we show that both Xenacoelomorpha and Cnidaria are able to excrete across digestive-associated tissues. However, although the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis seems to use diffusion as its main excretory mode, the two xenacoelomorphs use both active transport and diffusion mechanisms. Based on these results, we propose that digestive-associated tissues functioned as excretory sites before the evolution of specialized organs in nephrozoans. We conclude that the emergence of a compact, multiple-layered bilaterian body plan necessitated the evolution of active transport mechanisms, which were later recruited into the specialized excretory organs.


Assuntos
Cnidários/genética , Digestão/genética , Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Eliminação Intestinal/genética , Neópteros/genética , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico/genética , Cnidários/classificação , Cnidários/metabolismo , Difusão , Digestão/fisiologia , Sistema Digestório/anatomia & histologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Eliminação Intestinal/fisiologia , Neópteros/classificação , Neópteros/metabolismo , Filogenia
10.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 97(11): 1080-1089, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340129

RESUMO

An in vivo intestinal perfusion model was used to investigate how experimental hyperglycemia affects intestinal elimination and biliary excretion in the rat. Experimental diabetes was induced by administration of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.v.). The intestinal perfusion medium contained 250 µM (±)-ibuprofen. An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography method with UV-visible detection was developed to quantitate ibuprofen in the intestinal perfusate, while a gradient method was applied to quantitate ibuprofen and ibuprofen-ß-d-glucuronide in the bile. The limit of quantitation of ibuprofen was found to be 0.51 µM in the perfusate of the small intestine. In the bile, the limit of quantitation of ibuprofen and ibuprofen-ß-d-glucuronide was 4.42 and 10.3 µM, respectively. Unconjugated ibuprofen and ibuprofen-ß-d-glucuronide were detected in the bile; however, no ß-d-glucuronide of ibuprofen could be detected in the intestinal perfusate. The results indicate that experimental diabetes can cause a decrease in the disappearance of ibuprofen from the small intestine. Excretion of both ibuprofen and ibuprofen-ß-d-glucuronide decreased to the bile in experimental diabetes. The results can be explained by the results of molecular biological studies indicating streptozotocin-initiated alterations in the intestinal and hepatic transport processes.


Assuntos
Eliminação Hepatobiliar , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Ibuprofeno/farmacocinética , Eliminação Intestinal , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(7): 781-789, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280383

RESUMO

Copper is essential, but can be toxic to aquatic organisms when present in high concentrations. In freshwater crustaceans, copper inhibits enzymes related to ionic and osmoregulation and to the ammonia efflux, that leads to Na+ imbalance and inhibition of ammonia excretion. In the animals inhabiting estuarine or seawater, mechanisms of copper toxicity is not clear, but had been described as disruption of ionregulation and metabolism. To clarify the mechanism of copper toxicity in crustaceans inhabiting variable salinity, this work investigated whether copper affects ammonia excretion and enzymes used for ammonia balance and osmoregulation in the blue crab Callintectes sapidus acclimated to salinity 2 and 30 ppt. To achieve this, juveniles of the blue crab were exposed to 63.5 µg/L of copper at both salinities for 96 h. This is an environmentally realistic copper concentration. Results of ammonia efflux, free amino acids and Na+ concentrations in hemolymph, Na+/K+-ATPase, H+-ATPase and, carbonic anhydrase (CA) activities in gills were consistent with the osmoregulatory pattern adopted by the blue crab, which hyperosmoregulates at salinity 2 ppt and osmoconforms at 30 ppt. At 30 ppt copper reduced free amino acid in hemolymph of crabs, suggesting an effect of the metal on osmotic performance. At 2 ppt, copper significantly increased the H+-ATPase activity involved in ammonia excretion. This may be a compensatory response of crabs to maintain low levels of ammonia in their hemolymph; which can be increased by copper exposure. Results presented here are useful for the improvement of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) to predict copper toxicity for saltwater environments.


Assuntos
Amônia/metabolismo , Braquiúros/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Osmorregulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Salinidade , Animais , Braquiúros/enzimologia , Braquiúros/metabolismo , Eliminação Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234581

RESUMO

The bioaccessibility, metabolism, and excretion of lipids composing spent coffee grounds (SCGs) were investigated. An analysis of mycotoxins and an acute toxicity study in rats were performed for safety evaluation. Total fat, fatty acids, and diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) were determined in SCGs and their digests obtained in vitro. A pilot repeated intake study was carried out in Wistar rats using a dose of 1 g SCGs/kg b.w. for 28 days. Fat metabolism was evaluated by analysis of total fat, cholesterol, and histology in liver. The dietary fiber effect of SCGs was measured radiographically. The absence of mycotoxins and toxicity was reported in SCGs. A total of 77% of unsaturated fatty acids and low amounts of kahweol (7.09 µg/g) and cafestol (414.39 µg/g) were bioaccessible after in vitro digestion. A significantly lower (p < 0.1) accumulation of lipids in the liver and a higher excretion of these in feces was found in rats treated with SCGs for 28 days. No lipid droplets or liver damage were observed by histology. SCGs acutely accelerated intestinal motility in rats. SCGs might be considered a sustainable, safe, and healthy food ingredient with potential for preventing hepatic steatosis due to their effect as dietary fiber with a high fat-holding capacity.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biotransformação , Coffea/toxicidade , Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Fezes/química , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação Intestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(4): 324-337, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192701

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different sources and levels of trace elements on growth performance, carcass composition and mineral excretion levels of broilers. In a completely randomised experimental design, 900 one-day-old male Ross-308 broilers were assigned to 5 treatments, with 6 replicates of 30 birds each. The control group (CITE) was fed with a basal diet containing regular inclusion levels of inorganic trace elements. Treatment groups were supplied with reduced levels (30% and 50% of the regular level) of inorganic (ITE) or organic trace elements (OTE), respectively. Groups 50% ITE, 30% OTE and 50% OTE diets had equivalent average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed to gain ratio (F/G ratio) and mortality rate compared with group CITE in any phase. However, compared with group CITE chicks in group 30% ITE have lower ADG and ADFI and higher F/G ratio. The carcass yields were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with group CITE, in groups 30% ITE, 50% ITE, 30% OTE and 50% OTE the shear force values of the breast muscle were only 71.8%, 83.4%, 63.5% and 59.4% (p < 0.05), respectively. Birds received diets containing reduced levels of trace elements had diminished excretions of Mn and Zn throughout the entire period (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the reduced supplementation of trace elements had no or slightly negative impact on growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality, but decreased faecal mineral excretion. Moreover, the trace element supply as OTE played a limited role on performance and excretion and was only partly beneficial for animal performance in case the trace element supply was reduced to 30%.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Eliminação Intestinal , Minerais/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Cobre/química , Cobre/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fezes/química , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/química , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Manganês/administração & dosagem , Manganês/química , Manganês/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/química , Zinco/metabolismo
14.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 15(1): 70-76, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049152

RESUMO

Besides the well-known hepatobiliary pathway of cholesterol excretion into the feces, transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) is a second major pathway through which cholesterol is disposed from the body. In the process of TICE, cholesterol is taken up from lipoprotein particles at the basolateral side of the enterocyte and translocates towards the apical side of the enterocyte. At the apical side, the ATP-binding cassette transporters G5 and G8 form a heterodimer that transports cholesterol into the intestinal lumen. A substantial amount of the secreted cholesterol is likely reabsorbed by the cholesterol influx transporter Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) since recent data indicate that inhibition of NPC1L1 increases the efficacy of TICE for disposal of cholesterol via the feces. The pathways and proteins involved in intracellular cholesterol trafficking in the enterocyte have not yet been identified. Therefore, in addition to discussing known mediators of TICE, this review will also examine potential candidates involved in cholesterol translocation in the enterocyte. Both the cholesterol reuptake and efflux pathways can be influenced by pharmaceutical means; thus, the TICE pathway is a very attractive target to increase cholesterol excretion from the body and prevent or mitigate atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Enterócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Regulação para Baixo , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo
15.
Rev. enferm. UFPE on line ; 13(5): 1345-1353, maio 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1024398

RESUMO

Objetivo: verificar o conhecimento do profissional de Enfermagem sobre o cuidado com pacientes com estomias intestinais de eliminação. Método: trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, descritivo e exploratório desenvolvido em um hospital público de urgência. Registra-se que participaram do estudo 30 enfermeiros e 70 técnicos de Enfermagem da clínica cirúrgica que responderam a um questionário sociodemográfico e a um instrumento sobre o levantamento do conhecimento sobre os cuidados a pacientes com estomias intestinais de eliminação. Analisaram-se os dados estatisticamente por meio do programa SPSS® , versão 18.0, para Windows® . Apresentaram-se os resultados em forma de tabelas e figura. Resultados: verificou-se que o conhecimento da equipe de Enfermagem sobre estomias intestinais se encontra fragilizado, constatando uma frequência de acertos inferior a 50,0% nas questões relacionadas ao manejo das estomias intestinais de eliminação, tanto no período pré-operatório, como no pós-operatório. Conclusão: verifica-se que o nível de conhecimento dos profissionais mostrou-se relativamente incipiente, apontando-se a necessidade de promover a capacitação dos profissionais sobre o tema e a realização de novos estudos para avaliar o nível de conhecimento desta categoria.(AU)


Objective: to verify the knowledge of the nursing professional on the care of patients with intestinal stomas of elimination. Method: this is a quantitative study, descriptive and exploratory, developed in a public hospital of urgency. Register who participated in the study 30 nurses and 70 nursing technicians of the surgical clinic, who responded to a sociodemographic questionnaire and an instrument on the survey of knowledge about care of patients with intestinal stomas of elimination. The data were analyzed statistically using the SPSS® program, version 18.0 for Windows® . The results presented in the form of tables and figure. Results: it was found that the knowledge of the nursing team about intestinal stomas is weakened, noting a frequency of less than 50% correct answers on issues related to management of intestinal stomas disposal, both in the preoperative period, as in the postoperative. Conclusion: it appears that the level of knowledge of professionals showed relatively incipient, pointing to the need to promote training of professionals on the subject and completion of new studies to evaluate the level of knowledge of this category.(AU)


Objetivo: verificar los conocimientos de los profesionales de enfermería en la atención a pacientes con estomas intestinales de eliminación. Método: se trata de un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y exploratorio desarrollado en un hospital público de urgencia. Registrar que participaron en el estudio 30 enfermeras y 70 técnicos de enfermería de la clínica quirúrgica que respondieron a un cuestionario sociodemográfico y a una herramienta para la elevación de los conocimientos acerca del cuidado de los pacientes con estomas intestinales de eliminación. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente mediante el programa SPSS® versión 18.0 para Windows® . Los resultados se presentan en forma de tablas y figura. Resultados: se encontró que el conocimiento del equipo de enfermería acerca de estomas intestinales se debilita, observando una frecuencia de menos de 50% de respuestas correctas acerca de los temas relacionados con la gestión de la eliminación de estomas intestinales, tanto en el preoperatorio como en el postoperatorio. Conclusión: parece que el nivel de conocimiento de los profesionales mostró se relativamente incipiente, apuntando a la necesidad de promover la formación de profesionales en la materia y la realización de nuevos estudios para evaluar el nivel de conocimientos de esta categoría.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Enfermagem Perioperatória , Estomia , Colostomia , Ileostomia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estomas Cirúrgicos , Eliminação Intestinal , Técnicos de Enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Segurança do Paciente
16.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 85(8): 1751-1760, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973970

RESUMO

AIMS: Navoximod (GDC-0919, NLG-919) is a small molecule inhibitor of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), developed to treat the acquired immune tolerance associated with cancer. The primary objectives of this study were to assess navoximod's absolute bioavailability (aBA), determine the mass balance and routes of elimination of [14 C]-navoximod, and characterize navoximod's metabolite profile. METHODS: A phase 1, open-label, two-part study was conducted in healthy volunteers. In Part 1 (aBA), subjects (n = 16) were randomized to receive oral (200 mg tablet) or intravenous (5 mg solution) navoximod in a crossover design with a 5-day washout. In Part 2 (mass balance), subjects (n = 8) were administered [14 C]-navoximod (200 mg/600 µCi) as an oral solution. RESULTS: The aBA of navoximod was estimated to be 55.5%, with a geometric mean (%CV) plasma clearance and volume of distribution of 62.0 L/h (21.0%) and 1120 L (28.4%), respectively. Mean recovery of total radioactivity was 87.8%, with 80.4% detected in urine and the remainder (7.4%) in faeces. Navoximod was extensively metabolized, with unchanged navoximod representing 5.45% of the dose recovered in the urine and faeces. Glucuronidation was identified as the primary route of metabolism, with the major glucuronide metabolite, M28, accounting for 57.5% of the total drug-derived exposure and 59.7% of the administered dose recovered in urine. CONCLUSIONS: Navoximod was well tolerated, quickly absorbed and showed moderate bioavailability, with minimal recovery of the dose as unchanged parent in the urine and faeces. Metabolism was identified as the primary route of clearance and navoximod glucuronide (M28) was the most abundant metabolite in circulation with all other metabolites accounting for <10% of drug-related exposure.


Assuntos
Imidazóis/farmacocinética , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Indóis/farmacocinética , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adulto , Disponibilidade Biológica , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Eliminação Intestinal , Masculino , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Eliminação Renal , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(11): 1409-1420, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Life-long removal of gluten from the diet is currently the only way to manage celiac disease (CeD). Until now, no objective test has proven useful to objectively detect ingested gluten in clinical practice. Recently, tests that determine consumption of gluten by assessing excretion of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) in stool and urine have been developed. Their utility, in comparison with conventional dietary and analytical follow-up strategies, has not been fully established. AIM: To assess the performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and point-of-care tests (PoCTs) for GIP excretion in CeD patients on gluten-free diet (GFD). METHODS: We conducted an observational, prospective, cross-sectional study in patients following a GFD for at least two years. Using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire, patients were classified at enrollment as asymptomatic or symptomatic. Gluten consumption was assessed twice by 3-d dietary recall and GIP excretion (by ELISA in stool and PoCTs (commercial kits for stool and urine) in two consecutive samples. These samples and dietary reports were obtained 10 day apart one from the other. Patients were encouraged to follow their usual GFD during the study period. RESULTS: Forty-four patients were enrolled, of which 19 (43.2%) were symptomatic despite being on a GFD. Overall, 83 sets of stool and/or urine samples were collected. Eleven out of 44 patients (25.0%) had at least one positive GIP test. The occurrence of at least one positive test was 32% in asymptomatic patients compared with 15.8% in symptomatic patients. GIP was concordant with dietary reports in 65.9% of cases (Cohen´s kappa: 0.317). PoCT detected dietary indiscretions. Both ELISA and PoCT in stool were concordant (concomitantly positive or negative) in 67 out of 74 (90.5%) samples. Excretion of GIP was detected in 7 (8.4%) stool and/or urine samples from patients considered to be strictly compliant with the GFD by dietary reports. CONCLUSION: GIP detects dietary transgressions in patients on long-term GFD, irrespective of the presence of symptoms. PoCT for GIP detection constitutes a simple home-based method for self-assessment of dietary indiscretions.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Glutens/análise , Cooperação do Paciente , Peptídeos/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Doença Celíaca/urina , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/química , Feminino , Glutens/química , Glutens/imunologia , Glutens/metabolismo , Humanos , Eliminação Intestinal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/imunologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Toxicol Sci ; 169(1): 167-179, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768125

RESUMO

2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP, CAS No. 118-79-6) is widely used as a brominated flame retardant and wood antifungal agent. TBP is frequently detected in environmental matrices, biota, and humans. In female SD rats, systemically available TBP (10 µmol/kg, IV) was rapidly excreted primarily via urine, with approximately 61% of the dose recovered after 4 h, and 89%-94% in 24 h; 5% was recovered in feces; and 1%-2% in blood/tissues. TBP administered to female SD rats (0.1-1000 µmol/kg) by gavage was well absorbed, with approximately 25% eliminated via urine after 4 h and approximately 88% after 24 h. Approximately 11% of a single oral dose was recovered in bile. Male SD rats and B6C3F1/J mice of both sexes had similar disposition profiles when administered a single oral dose of TBP (10 µmol/kg). Following administration, fecal recoveries varied only slightly by dose, sex, or species. TBP readily passed unchanged through both human (ex vivo only) and rat skin with between 55% and 85% of a 100 nmol/cm2 passing into or through skin. Concentrations of TBP in blood fit a two-compartment model after IV-dosing and a one-compartment model after oral dosing. Urine contained a mixture of TBP, TBP-glucuronide, and TBP-sulfate. Fecal extracts contained only parent TBP whereas bile contained only TBP-glucuronide. TBP did not appear to bioaccumulate or alter its own metabolism after repeated administration. TBP was readily absorbed at all doses and routes tested with an oral bioavailability of 23%-27%; 49% of TBP is expected to be dermally bioavailable in humans. From these data, we conclude that humans are likely to have significant systemic exposure when TBP is ingested or dermal exposure occurs.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/administração & dosagem , Retardadores de Chama/farmacocinética , Fungicidas Industriais/administração & dosagem , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacocinética , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Fenóis/farmacocinética , Administração Cutânea , Administração Oral , Animais , Bile/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biotransformação , Fezes/química , Feminino , Fungicidas Industriais/sangue , Fungicidas Industriais/urina , Eliminação Hepatobiliar , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Eliminação Intestinal , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Fenóis/sangue , Fenóis/urina , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Eliminação Renal , Fatores Sexuais , Especificidade da Espécie , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
Poult Sci ; 98(6): 2422-2431, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690627

RESUMO

Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis is a widespread zoonosis and poultry products are an important source of infection. This study was carried out to evaluate the protection of different vaccination schedules in layers using a live commercial attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine based on strain Sm24/Rif12/Ssq (AviPro® Salmonella Vac E, ELANCO) during rearing and egg production. Three hundred and fifty Salmonella-free chickens were distributed into 7 vaccinated groups and 1 unvaccinated group. Different vaccination schedules were performed combining either 1, 2, or 3 oral gavage doses. Chickens from Group A, B, and C were vaccinated once, either at the first day, at 7 or 16 wk old, respectively. Chickens from Group D were vaccinated twice-at the first day and 7 wk old. Chickens from Group E were vaccinated twice-at the first day and 16 wk old. Chickens from Group F were vaccinated twice-at 7 and 16 wk old. Chickens from Group G were vaccinated 3 times, following the manufacturer's recommendation: at the first day, 7 and 16 wk old. Chickens from Group H remained unvaccinated. Five challenge trials numbered 1 to 5 were carried out at 8, 12, 16, 29, and 55 wk old, respectively. After challenge, chickens were sampled by cloacal swabbing and, after euthanasia, livers, ovaries, spleens, and cecal contents were cultured to isolate S. Enteritidis. Additionally, eggs were collected after challenge and cultured to isolate S. Enteritidis on egg shells (Trials 4 and 5). Protection against experimental infection with a virulent nalidixic acid resistant S. Enteritidis strain K285/94, was evaluated by measuring reduction of excretion, colonization, invasion into organs, eggshell contamination, and egg production. The live S. Enteritidis vaccine protected the hens by reducing S. Enteritidis excretion, isolation from organs, and egg contamination. Higher protection throughout laying period was afforded after administration of three vaccine doses during rearing period.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella enteritidis/imunologia , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/veterinária , Feminino , Eliminação Intestinal , Óvulo/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Vacinas contra Salmonella/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
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