Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.535
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112140, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652254

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a global emergency and also has raised issues with waste management practices. This study emphasized the challenges of increased waste disposal during the COVID-19 crisis and its response practices. Data obtained from the scientific research papers, publications from the governments and multilateral organizations, and media reports were used to quantify the effect of the pandemic towards waste generation. A huge increase in the amount of used personal protective equipments (facemasks, gloves, and other protective stuffs) and wide distribution of infectious wastes from hospitals, health care facilities, and quarantined households was found. The amount of food and plastic waste also increased during the pandemic. These factors caused waste treatment facilities to be overwhelmed, forcing emergency treatment and disposals (e.g., co-disposal in a municipal solid waste incinerator, cement kilns, industrial furnaces, and deep burial) to ramp up processing capacity. This paper discussed the ways the operation of those facilities must be improved to cope with the challenge of handling medical waste, as well as working around the restrictions imposed due to COVID-19. The study also highlights the need for short, mid, and longer-term responses towards waste management during the pandemic. Furthermore, the practices discussed in this paper may provide an option for alternative approaches and development of sustainable strategies for mitigating similar pandemics in the future.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos , Pandemias , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 233, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatitis B virus infection among medical waste handlers who undergo collection, transportation, and disposal of medical wastes in the health institutions is higher due to frequent exposure to contaminated blood and other body fluids. There is limited evidence on the seroprevalence of hepatitis B among medical waste handlers in eastern Ethiopia. The study was aimed at studying the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus and associated risk factors among medical waste collectors at health facilities of eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected medical waste collectors from public health facilities in eastern Ethiopia from March to June 2018. A pre-tested and well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and hepatitis B infection risk factors. A2.5ml venous blood was also collected, centrifuged and the serum was analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen using the instant hepatitis B surface antigen kit. Descriptive summary measures were done. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to assess the risk of association. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted with 95% CI and all value at P-value < 0.05 was declared statistically significant. RESULTS: From a total of 260 (97.38%) medical waste collectors participated, HBV was detected in 53 (20.4%) of the participants [95%CI; 15.8, 25.6]. No significant differences were observed in the detection rates of HBV with respect to socio-demographic characteristics. In both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis, being unvaccinated (AOR = 6.35; 95%CI = [2.53-15.96], P = 0.001), history of blood transfusion (receiving) (AOR; 3.54; 95%CI; [1.02-12.24], P = 0.046), history of tattooing (AOR = 2.86; 95%CI = [1.12-7.27], p = 0.03), and history of multiple sexual partner (AOR = 10.28; 95%CI = [4.16-25.38], P = 0.001) remained statistically significantly associated with HBsAg positivity. CONCLUSION: This cross-sectional study identified that HBV infection is high among medical waste collectors in eastern Ethiopia. Immunization and on job health promotion and disease prevention measures should be considered in order to control the risk of HBV infection among medical waste collectors in eastern Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza/estatística & dados numéricos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção Hospitalar/sangue , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/etiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/efeitos adversos , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 26(1): 127-129, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559575

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-19 has affected million of people worldwide, constituting the biggest social, economic, and health crisis since World War 2. During this pandemic, the hospitals have become hot zones for the treatment of patients. Therefore, it is important to take the appropriate protective measures and ensure the physician's health and, especially, those who work in the intensive care units and in operating rooms. In this letter, we are trying to make a discussion regarding the measures that should be considered by the healthcare workers who are facing this invisible enemy during their effort to provide their services in the surgery rooms.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Filtros de Ar , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
4.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 6614565, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564314

RESUMO

Background: Mismanagement of healthcare waste (HCW) during the COVID-19 pandemic can facilitate the transmission of coronavirus. Regarding this problem, there is gap of evidence in Ethiopia, and this study aimed to assess the HCW generation rate and management in Tepi General Hospital, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional and case studies were conducted. The total amount of waste generated and its type among various case teams were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to assess the correlation between the total numbers of patients and the total amount of HCW generated. Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim, translated to English, and analyzed with Open Code version 4.02 software, and content analysis was followed. Results: The total mean weight (±SD) of waste generation rate in all service units of the hospital was 492.5 ± 11.5 kg/day. The higher proportion (61.9%) of the total HCW produced was general waste and the remaining (38.1%) was hazardous waste. There was a statistically significant (X 2 = 82.1, p < 0.001) difference in daily HCW generation rate among different case teams. Similarly, the hospital waste generation amount and total patient flow had a strong positive linear relationship (r = 0.7, p=0.032). COVID-19-related medical wastes were not properly handled, segregated, stored, and disposed. There was a scarcity of resources needed to manage HCW, and available resources were utilized poorly. Overall, healthcare wastes were managed as usual (pre-COVID-19). Conclusion: The mean HCW generation rate in Tepi General Hospital was high. Overall, wastes were mismanaged, and COVID-19-related HCWs have been managed as usual. Availing of important resources and training the concerned bodies should be considered during the crisis of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Resíduos/análise , /prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(4): 1, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537803

RESUMO

Nosocomial infections, also known as hospital-acquired infections, pose a serious challenge to healthcare professionals globally during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) pandemic. Nosocomial infection of COVID­19 directly impacts the quality of life of patients, as well as results in extra expenditure to hospitals. It has been shown that COVID­19 is more likely to transmit via close, unprotected contact with infected patients. Additionally, current preventative and containment measures tend to overlook asymptomatic individuals and superspreading events. Since the mode of transmission and real origin of COVID­19 in hospitals has not been fully elucidated yet, minimizing nosocomial infection in hospitals remains a difficult but urgent task for healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals globally should form an alliance against nosocomial COVID­19 infections. The fight against COVID­19 may provide valuable lessons for the future prevention and control of nosocomial infections. The present review will discuss some of the key strategies to prevent and control hospital­based nosocomial COVID­19 infections.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções Assintomáticas , China , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Desinfecção , Higiene das Mãos , Hospitais , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Qualidade de Vida
6.
Waste Manag ; 122: 124-131, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513532

RESUMO

Approximately 90% of medical waste generated in the operating room (OR) is considered to be non-infectious and non-regulated (Wyssusek, Keys & van Zundert, 2019). Frequently, this waste is inappropriately disposed of into infectious regulated medical waste containers. Due to differences in waste treatment, improper segregation can lead to the misuse or inappropriate allocation of resources, environmental pollution, and increased cost for institutions. A waste segregation initiative was instituted in a tertiary care medical center in the anesthesia work-space of 35 ORs. This initiative included education of medical waste management to increase anesthesia staff knowledge and compliance with waste segregation and optimization of existing waste disposal containers to decrease waste disposal costs. After implementation, there was an increase in overall provider knowledge (p < 0.001) particularly in the categories of medication vial disposal, medication disposal and identification of items for disposal in the sharps containers (p ≤ 0.05). Data suggests a 34.7% increase in providers reporting to always practice waste segregation (p ≤ 0.05). Additionally, there was a statistically significant decrease in overall weight of regulated medical waste items from 0.33 kg/case to 0.09 kg/case (p < 0.001). This decrease in regulated waste supports an improvement in waste segregation and inappropriate items being disposed of in the general trash container. The omission of inappropriate waste was further confirmed by a segregation audit that showed an overall increase in correctly segregated regulated waste of 65%. Collectively, this lead to a cost savings of $15.60 per OR per week, or $28,392 annually.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos
7.
Waste Manag ; 118: 416-425, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949811

RESUMO

Production and use of pharmaceuticals in the United States is high and continues to grow. This, combined with poor wastewater removal rates for drugs in excreted waste, and improper pharmaceutical disposal leads to the presence of pharmaceuticals in fresh- and marine waters and wildlife. In the United States, safe drug take-back boxes, or dropboxes, were established in pharmacies after federal legislation passed in 2014, allowing for year-round safe collection of leftover pharmaceuticals. The overarching objective of this work was to identify opportunities for improving access to proper pharmaceutical disposal. We assessed consumer behavior regarding drug disposal choices and knowledge of dropboxes at pharmacies, investigated pharmacist attitudes toward and recommendations about leftover drug disposal, and compared responses at locations with and without dropboxes. We also explored obstacles to dropbox adoption and usage. We found that customer awareness of dropboxes as well as knowledge about risks of improper disposal are low, however awareness was greater at pharmacies with dropboxes. Additionally, pharmacists at dropbox locations were more consistent in their messaging to customers, more likely to recommend proper disposal methods, and more supportive of drug take-back programs. Through a focus group, we learned that further consumer education would overwhelm the capacity of the existing dropboxes. Based on our findings, we recommend solutions to improper disposal focus on legislation mandating dropboxes at pharmacies and pressure on the pharmaceutical industry to fund proper disposal of unused pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Farmacêuticos , Atitude , Humanos , Estados Unidos
8.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200260, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to develop a protocol of recommendations for facing dissemination of COVID-19 in Brazilian Nursing Homes. METHOD: a study of experts' recommendations using a structured form applied through the Delphi Technique, obtaining 100% agreement among professionals after four rounds of analysis. The population comprised six nurses members of the Scientific Department of Gerontological Nursing of the Brazilian Association of Nursing (Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem). RESULTS: the protocol was structured in a nucleus of nursing interventions to face the spread of COVID-19 in Nursing Homes, consisting of 8 actions. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the protocol can help nurse managers to organize assistance to face the pandemic, which can be adaptable to each reality, making training nurses and health teams easier.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Avaliação em Enfermagem/métodos , Casas de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Técnica Delfos , Desinfecção/métodos , Desinfecção/normas , Família , Feminino , Enfermagem Geriátrica , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Práticas Mortuárias/métodos , Avaliação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Avaliação em Enfermagem/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
9.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913005

RESUMO

Face masks and respirators are the most widely used intervention measures for respiratory protection. In the wake of COVID-19, in response to shortages and lack of availability of surgical masks and respirators, the use of cloth masks has become a research focus. Various fabrics have been promoted with little evidence-based foundation and without guidelines on design principles for optimal performance. In these circumstances, it is essential to understand the properties, key performance factors, filter mechanisms and evidence on cloth masks materials. The general community might also need to decontaminate and reuse disposable, single-use devices as a last resort. We present an overview of the filter materials, filter mechanisms and effectiveness, key performance factors, and hydrophobicity of the common disposable masks, as well as cloth masks. We also reviewed decontamination methods for disposable respiratory devices. As an alternative to surgical masks and respirators, we recommend a cloth mask made of at least three layers (300-350 threads per inch) and adding a nylon stocking layer over the mask for a better fit. Water-resistant fabrics (polyesters/nylon), blends of fabrics and water-absorbing fabrics (cotton) should be in the outside layer, middle layer/layers and inside layer, respectively. The information outlined here will help people to navigate their choices if facing shortages of appropriate respiratory protection during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Descontaminação , Máscaras , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação/métodos , Descontaminação/normas , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Máscaras/normas , Máscaras/provisão & distribução , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806570

RESUMO

In response to the emergent public health event of COVID-19, the efficiency of transport of medical waste from hospitals to disposal stations is a worthwhile issue to study. In this paper, based on the actual situation of COVID-19 and environmental impact assessment guidelines, an immune algorithm is used to establish a location model of urban medical waste storage sites. In view of the selection of temporary storage stations and realistic transportation demand, an efficiency-of-transport model of medical waste between hospitals and temporary storage stations is established by using an ant colony-tabu hybrid algorithm. In order to specify such status, Wuhan city in Hubei Province, China-considered the first city to suffer from COVID-19-was chosen as an example of verification; the two-level model and the immune algorithm-ant colony optimization-tabu search (IA-ACO-TS) algorithm were used for simulation and testing, which achieved good verification. To a certain extent, the model and the algorithm are proposed to solve the problem of medical waste disposal, based on transit temporary storage stations, which we are convinced will have far-reaching significance for China and other countries to dispatch medical waste in response to such public health emergencies.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transportes/métodos , População Urbana , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Transportes/normas
13.
Ann Ig ; 32(5): 472-520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The health emergency caused by the spread of SARS-COV-2 virus has required the adoption of passive measures against contagion, such as social distancing. The use of filtering masks, of the different types available on the market, such as surgical and facial filtering masks (FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3), is also recommended. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper, within the Italian and European regulatory reference framework, is to suggest a rational application of existing methodologies that enable to know and assess the features and/or make a face mask intended to be used by the community. In addition to this, the study aims to provide a correct regulatory framework and useful information for a correct use and disposal of face masks. Another purpose is the assessment of the hygienic, sanitary and regulatory aspects related to the use and disposal of face masks. METHODS: The analysis of filtering masks is based on the review of scientific literature, the state of art of technology and the filtering means/materials available. Reference is made to filtering mechanisms and devices, the testing methods, the technical, manufacturing and performance features, and to the Italian and European regulatory reference framework. Reference is also made to the hygienic, sanitary and regulatory aspects related to the use and disposal of face masks. RESULTS: Surgical masks or, alternatively, filtering masks with a filtration efficiency between 90% and 95% for 3-µm particles, are the most practicable choice with minor contraindications. The reusable type of mask is conceptually superior compared to single-use masks, but cleaning procedures to be followed are quite complex and not always described in a clear way. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of rigorous and repeatable tests on mask filtration capacity, breathability, wearability, duration of use, regeneration, as well as safe disposal methods, are the main way to provide users with correct selection and use criteria. The results must be disclosed and disseminated quickly.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Filtração/instrumentação , Higiene/normas , Máscaras/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Têxteis/normas , Desenho de Equipamento , Europa (Continente) , França , Humanos , Higiene/legislação & jurisprudência , Itália , Máscaras/classificação , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/normas
14.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(33): e302, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830469

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory syndrome caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. It resulted in a worldwide pandemic, and spread through community transmission in the Republic of Korea (ROK). In the ROK, SARS-CoV-2 is categorized as a first-degree infectious disease of the legal communicable disease present. The Korean Society for Legal Medicine (KSLM) is the sole official academic association of forensic professionals in the ROK. As such, this society has played an important role in forensic medicine and science in the ROK. Therefore, KSLM suggests a standard operating procedure for the postmortem inspection in a focus on COVID-19. This article includes the background of this suggested standard operation procedure, basic principles for postmortem inspections of individuals suggested of having an infectious disease, and specific procedures according to the probability level of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Medicina Legal , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Publicações , República da Coreia
15.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(11): 1189-1203, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667845

RESUMO

Effectual management of biomedical waste is obligatory for healthy human beings and for a safe environment. Mismanagement of biomedical waste is a community health problem. Safe and persistent methods for the management of biomedical waste are of vital importance. This article reviews the classification of biomedical waste, sources, colour-coding system of biomedical waste and salient features of biomedical waste rules in 2016, and the future prospective of nanoparticles. The untreated disposal of biomedical waste is associated with a huge amount of risk, so the efficient treatment for biomedical waste is most imperative. The review also highlights the current methods for disposal of biomedical waste, biological treatments given to biomedical waste water in the effluent treatment plant, and impacts due to the current method. Management of biomedical waste is a great challenge in developed and developing countries. To manage the biomedical waste there is a need for cost-effective, ecofriendly and less contaminating approaches for a greener and safe environment. The awareness regarding waste management is of great interest not only for the community but also for associated employees.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Nanopartículas , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos , Saúde Pública
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235982, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare waste management is the subject of a neglected issue in many developing countries. Health care facilities are facing a major challenge in handling healthcare wastes and reducing their potential risks to human health and the environment. Insufficient understanding of the risk associated with healthcare waste by health workforce can contribute to poor waste management practices. The main aim of this study is to assess risk perception towards healthcare waste among hospital attendants and to identify associated factors. METHODOLOGY: We carried out a cross-sectional hospital-based study among 120 attendants of a private and public hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. We used two-stage random sampling for the selection of hospital and participants. We conducted a face-to-face interview with the participants using semi-structured questionnaires. Based on the mean score, we classified risk perception as good and poor. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was carried out to determine associates of risk perception towards healthcare waste. RESULTS: Approximately 51.0% of hospital attendants had poor risk perception of healthcare waste. Nearly half of the participants (49.2%) had inadequate knowledge and 43.0% had a negative attitude. Factors such as healthcare waste management training (p = 0.028), housekeeping department (p = 0.036) and attitude (p = 0.001) were associated with risk perception of healthcare waste. CONCLUSION: Hospital attendants had a poor understanding of risk perception of healthcare waste. Periodic training on healthcare waste management and edification on the risk associated with healthcare waste is essential to boost awareness among all healthcare workers. Communication on behavioral improvements for appropriate waste management must be prioritized to change the perception of health workers.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Hospitais/normas , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Air Med J ; 39(4): 251-256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690299

RESUMO

Recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) events have presented challenges to health care systems worldwide. Air medical movement of individuals with potential infectious disease poses unique challenges and threats to crews and receiving personnel. The US Department of Health and Human Services air medical evacuation teams of the National Disaster Medical System directly supported 39 flights, moving over 2,000 individuals. Infection control precautions focused on source and engineering controls, personal protective equipment, safe work practices to limit contamination, and containment of the area of potential contamination. Source control to limit transmission distance was used by requiring all passengers to wear masks (surgical masks for persons under investigation and N95 for known positives). Engineering controls used plastic sheeting to segregate and treat patients who developed symptoms while airborne. Crews used Tyvek (Dupont Richmond, VA) suits with booties and a hood, a double layer of gloves, and either a powered air-purifying respirator or an N95 mask with a face shield. For those outside the 6-ft range, an N95 mask and gloves were worn. Safe work practices were used, which included mandatory aircraft surface decontamination, airflow exchanges, and designated lavatories. Although most patients transported were stable, to the best of our knowledge, this represents the largest repatriation of potentially contagious patients in history without infection of any transporting US Department of Health and Human Services air medical evacuation crews.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Transporte de Pacientes/métodos , Betacoronavirus , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Medicina de Desastres , Desinfecção , Equipamentos e Provisões , Governo Federal , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Isolamento de Pacientes/métodos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Quarentena/métodos , Navios , Estados Unidos , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 884, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent analysis of drinking water in South Africa found the presence of ARVs, other pharmaceutical and personal care products. The environmental and human health risk that this presents is daunting. The increased use of ARVs with poor disposal practices could be the reason for these substances being present in drinking water. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the knowledge and practices of HIV infected patients, regarding medicine disposal. METHOD: A descriptive, cross sectional, quantitative study that utilised a structured, self-administered, questionnaire was undertaken at 3 different public ARV clinics in the eThekwini Metro of KwaZulu Natal, SA. The variables included questions on demographics, knowledge and practices of medicine disposal of ARV and other medications. Data was captured using excel spreadsheets and analysed using SPSS version 25. Chi square tests were used to compare factors between correct and incorrect knowledge and practice groups. RESULTS: Four hundred and eighty four participants agreed to participate in this study, of which the majority (71.1%) were females. Over 87% of the participants knew that improper disposal of medicines were harmful to the environment with only 28.3% knowing that there were laws governing the way medicines should be disposed. Majority of participants that had unused and expired ARVs at home disposed of these medicines. The most common route of medicine disposal for ARVs was by throwing these medicines into the bin (56.4%). Only 24.2% of participants were informed by healthcare professionals about the proper method of medicine disposal. Participants who had secondary and tertiary level of education (p = 0.043) and the ability to speak English (p = 0.001) had appropriate knowledge on medicine disposal. CONCLUSION: This study identified that poor medicine disposal practices and lack of adequate information about the proper methods of medicine disposal were evident among the participant population. There is a need for patient education and healthcare professional intervention to ensure patients are aware of standard proper medicine disposal practices.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Conscientização , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Armazenamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opinião Pública , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Med Leg J ; 88(2): 80-83, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501134

RESUMO

Covid-19 has reached almost all the nations in the world. More and more people are dying from it and in some countries, even the army has been called upon to help dispose of the dead as there is a shortage of coffins, and undertakers are overwhelmed. Therefore, it is essential to have measures in place to contain the spread of infection while handling dead bodies. In view of this, different guidelines and protocols have been proposed bearing in mind the limited information we have about the virus. This review article sets them out for better reference.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cadáver , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Medicina Legal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Autopsia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Cremação , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Práticas Mortuárias , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Organização Mundial da Saúde
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...