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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 2164-2173, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985224

RESUMO

Reactive extrusion of bio-derived active packaging offers a new approach to address converging concerns over environmental contamination and food waste. Herein, metal-chelating nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) ligands were grafted onto poly(lactic acid) (PLA) by reactive extrusion to produce metal-chelating PLA (PLA-g-NTA). Radical grafting was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy with the introduction of secondary alkyl stretches (2919 and 2860 cm-1) and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with an increase in the atomic percentage of nitrogen. Compared to films prepared from native, granular PLA (gPLA), PLA-g-NTA films had lower contact angles and hysteresis values (86.35° ± 2.49 and 31.89° ± 2.27 to 79.91° ± 1.58 and 21.79° ± 1.72, respectively), supporting the surface orientation of the NTA ligands. The PLA-g-NTA films exhibited a significant antioxidant character with a radical scavenging capacity of 0.675 ± 0.026 nmol Trolox(eq)/cm2 and an iron chelation capacity of 54.09 ± 9.36 nmol/cm2. PLA-g-NTA films delayed ascorbic acid degradation, retaining ∼45% ascorbic acid over the 9-day study compared to <20% for control PLA. This research makes significant advances in translating active packaging technologies to bio-derived materials using scalable, commercially translatable synthesis methods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Poliésteres/química , Quelantes/química , Ácido Nitrilotriacético/química , Polimerização , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110889, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629790

RESUMO

Tetramethyl bisphenol F (TMBPF) has been shown to impart unique physical properties critical for high performance of epoxy can coatings without the estrogenic activity concerns associated with other bisphenols. To further characterize the toxicological profile of TMBPF, additional endocrine-related endpoints including in vitro aromatase inhibition and steroidogenesis assays, and in vivo androgen agonism/antagonism were performed. Systemic toxicity was also assessed by a repeat dose 90-day dietary toxicity study followed by 28-day recovery period. TMBPF did not inhibit aromatase activity, and induced estradiol and testosterone at highest non-cytotoxic concentrations (10 µM) in the steroidogenesis assay. In the Hershberger assay, TMBPF showed no androgenic activity at any dose and equivocal anti-androgenic activity at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg-bw/d). In a 90-day dietary toxicity study with 28-day recovery period, observations including changes in clinical pathology, absolute and relative organ weights, and microscopic findings are discussed. In this current study, the no observed adverse effect level was considered to be 750 mg/kg-bw/d for female rats and 1000 mg/kg-bw/d for male rats with no biologically significant changes to endocrine endpoints at any dose level. Our findings provide further evidence that TMBPF is a low-toxicity substance with a toxicology profile distinct from some other bisphenols.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Embalagem de Alimentos , Metais/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Masculino , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622183

RESUMO

Packaging may represent a source of food contamination, as different organic compounds and degradation compounds may migrate from packaging to foodstuff. For fatty foods, rectified olive oil is the common simulant, which implies time-consuming and laborious liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedures to isolate the contaminant(s) from the oil. Here we propose a Multisyringe Flow Injection Analysis manifold to automate this sample treatment, using the monomer 4,4´-dihydroxybiphenyl as the contaminant. The LLE procedure, using water as extractant, was fully automated. After the on-line LLE, the resulting extract was pumped through a fluorescence detector, inside which a flow-cell filled with C18 silica gel solid support was placed. The analyte was pre-concentrated on the solid support (in which the analytical signal was directly recorded), so improving the sensitivity of the system. Under optimum conditions, the method detection limit is 0.05 mg kg-1, well within the specific migration limit of 6 mg kg-1. The method developed was compared with the standard CEN test method (off-line LLE and HPLC determination) observing savings in sample and reagents of 90% and a 7-fold increase in sample throughput.


Assuntos
Automação , Compostos de Bifenilo/análise , Análise de Injeção de Fluxo , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Embalagem de Alimentos
4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110975, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747619

RESUMO

This paper presents innovative packaging materials made of environmentally friendly biodegradable polymers (polylactide and polyhydroxybutyrate) with the addition of natural colorants commonly used in the food industry. Colorants fulfilled the role of indicator, changing colour under the influence of external factors, and gave the materials the characteristics of intelligent packaging, where colour changes indicated the life time of the materials. The paper gives the mechanical and thermal properties of the materials obtained, and describes changes in the colour of the samples under the influence of thermooxidation, UV and weathering, as well as the biodegradability of the materials. The packaging materials presented are in line with current trends in the packaging market and legal requirements. The samples, in addition to the basic functions of packaging materials, are pro-ecological and fully biodegradable new generation materials.


Assuntos
Plásticos Biodegradáveis/química , Compostos Cromogênicos/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , /química , Plásticos Biodegradáveis/metabolismo , Chaetomium/metabolismo , Clorofila/química , Curcumina/química , Luteína/química , Fungos Mitospóricos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Poliésteres/química , Poliésteres/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , beta Caroteno/química
5.
Meat Sci ; 159: 107942, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522105

RESUMO

Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) is a promising non-thermal technology for controlling food spoilage. In this study, ACP treatment at 100 kV for 1, 3 and 5 min was applied to chicken breast samples. Approximately 2 log CFU/g reduction in natural microflora of chicken was achieved within 5 min of treatment and 24 h of storage. The observed reduction was attributed to the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in cold plasma. For shelf-life study, control and ACP treated samples (100 kV for 5 min) were analysed for the population of mesophiles, psychrotrophs and Enterobacteriaceae as well as sample colour and pH over a storage period of 24 days. On day 24, the population of mesophiles, psychrotrophs and Enterobacteriaceae in treated chicken was respectively 1.5, 1.4 and 0.5 log lower than the control. These results suggest that in-package ACP is an effective technology to extend the shelf-life of poultry products.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Gases em Plasma , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Carne/análise , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115348, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590881

RESUMO

Ecofriendly chitosan-gelatin (Ch-ge) bio-composite films containing Quercetin-starch (Q) were synthesized using solution casting method. Physicochemical characteristics and mechanical properties of the resulting chitosan-gelatin containing Quercetin-starch films (Ch-ge-Q) were studied using UV, FTIR, XRD and SEM techniques. The films were also investigated for their swelling, water-vapor permeability (WVP), water solubility properties. The FTIR spectra confirmed the chemical interactions between the chitosan-gelatin and Q. Surface morphology of prepared film was analyzed by the SEM imaging while XRD spectra suggest the expanded crystallinity of the film with the addition of Q. The film also showed enhanced barrier property against UV rays. The reduction of water-vapor permeability and increase in tensile strength while a decrease in elongation at break has been observed in the Ch-ge-Q film compared to Ch-ge film. The antibacterial activity of Ch-ge-Q film against both gram positive (B. substilis) and gram negative (E. coli) bacteria suggested the Q loaded Ch-ge films as more feasible antibacterial candidate especially against the strain E. coli. The antioxidant activity of the Ch-ge-Q film was evaluated using the DPPH and ABTS as standards and corresponded to 81.45% of DPPH and 72.2% of ABTS scavenging activities. It was observed that the film containing Quercetin-starch presented superior antioxidant activity results in comparison to Ch-ge film promising its application in food packaging.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Quitosana/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Gelatina/química , Quercetina/química , Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxigênio/química , Permeabilidade , Picratos/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Água/química
7.
Food Chem ; 309: 125752, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670128

RESUMO

In this work, a novel class of eight low viscosity hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents (DESs) has been designed and prepared from two kinds of quaternary ammonium salts and six kinds of water-insoluble fatty alcohols/acids. Several physical properties of these DESs, such as melting point, density and viscosity, have been determined to investigate their adaptability as solvents. Then, such DESs are used as extraction solvents in a vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction and preconcentration of phthalate esters (PEs) from water samples, and the content of PEs from food-contacted plastics is then determined by using gas chromatography. It is found that the analytic method developed in this work exhibits wide linear range of 5-1000 µg L-1, and the limit of detections for target analytes is as low as 1 µg L-1. Finally, the proposed method has been successfully used for the determination of PEs from food-contacted plastics.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plásticos/química , Ésteres/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Limite de Detecção , Ácidos Ftálicos/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química
8.
Food Chem ; 309: 125668, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690510

RESUMO

Normand cull-cows received a diet enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), known to enhance nutritional quality, but to decrease beef lipid stability. Half of the cows received a supplementation of vitamin E and plant extracts rich in polyphenols during the finishing period. Half of each feeding group was slaughtered under limited, the others under added stress conditions. Longissimus thoracis (LT) and Semitendinosus (ST) were evaluated after storage under air, or 70% O2/30% CO2 or vacuum conditions. Irrespectively of diet, pre-slaughter stress i) increased post-mortem malondialdehyde (MDA) formation except in vacuum-stored meat, ii) decreased vitamin A levels in the LT, iii) decreased vitamin E levels in meat stored in 70% O2/30% CO2 and total anti-oxidant status in vacuum stored meat. Effects were global; dietary supplementation with vitamin E and plant extracts was associated with lower MDA levels and MetMb percentage and higher levels of vitamin A and E.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Malondialdeído/análise , Vácuo , Vitamina E/análise
9.
Food Chem ; 309: 125792, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711806

RESUMO

Seven commercial samples, consisted of plastic bags, tetrabrik and box, were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) to find the compounds responsible for off-odors in different PP, PE, multilayer cardboard and paper materials used for food contact. Migration assays were carried out with Tenax as food simulant to analyze the food safety as well as to evaluate the odor intensity after migration assay. Forty six compounds with characteristic odors were directly found in the materials studied. The strongest odors identified were acetic, propanoic and butyric with vinegar and rancid odors and octanal, nonanal and decanal with fat/soup odors, all of them found in PP and PE samples. Trimethylbenzenes with solvent and oily odors as well as terpenes with weakly woody odors were found in cardboard and paper materials. After migration, all compounds were below the European Legislation limits and maximum migration values recommended by Cramer. However propanoic, acetic and butyric acid as well as aldehydes compounds, phenol and 1-octanol were detected by sniffers, after migration assay, with high modified frequency (between 50 and 78%), what could change the organoleptic properties of packaged food.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria/métodos , Polietileno/química , Polipropilenos/química , Aldeídos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Papel , Fenóis/análise
10.
Food Chem ; 309: 125624, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670133

RESUMO

The severe reduction of mechanical strength of collagen once it is extracted or dissociated from animal tissues and no additional crosslinking approaches are conducted, impede its application in biodegradable and edible food packaging. Here, for the first time, high pressure homogenization (HPH) was used to prepare diverse sized fibers and the related fibers-composed films' performance were investigated. These fibers have a diversity of effects on film performance. The films prepared with smaller sized fibers had a more uniform and denser structure. The mechanical and the water barrier properties of the films improved significantly as the fiber size decreased. No obvious change in FTIR and thermal properties suggests that the improved film performance is mainly attributed to the physical entanglement and non-covalent bonds. Given the forementioned benefits of the films, control of fiber size can be a potential industrial approach for producing collagenous materials in edible food packaging.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Colágeno/química , Animais , Embalagem de Alimentos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Nanoestruturas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria , Água , Difração de Raios X
11.
Food Chem ; 308: 125682, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655479

RESUMO

In this work, a multifunctional food packaging composite coating with transparent, biodegradable, antifogging and antibacterial properties was designed and fabricated by quaternary ammonium salt modified chitosan (HACC) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) via a facile and environment-friendly solution casting method. A simple quaternization modification enabled the coating simultaneously to achieve excellent antifogging and antibacterial functions. The excellent antifogging property of the HACC/PVA composite coating was attributed to the strong water absorbency of quaternary ammonium chitosan and PVA. A nearly 98% transmittance ratio of coated glasses was achieved during antifogging test. In addition, the inhibition rate of the HACC/PVA composite coating kill against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Botrytis cinerea were up to ~99%. The antibacterial effect was demonstrated by each group of strawberries after storage for 1, 3, 5 days. The multifunctional coating has broad prospects in the application of fruit and vegetable packaging.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos , Quitosana/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 312: 108375, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669767

RESUMO

Recently, oxo-biodegradable polymers have attracted much attention due to taking less time to break down after disposal in comparison to ordinary polymers. Polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin (PVA/G) nanocomposite films, containing ZnO, TiO2 or ZnO/TiO2 nanoparticles supported on 4A zeolite (4A z), are novel active packaging that can control the release of antimicrobial compounds. The present study assessed the efficacy of PVA/G nanocomposite films with 1.5% (w/w) ZnO/4A z (treatment 1), 1.5% (w/w) TiO2/4A z (treatment 2), or 1% (w/w) ZnO, TiO2/4A z (treatment 3) in controlling the microbial load and maintaining the sensory qualities of white shrimp during storage at 4 ±â€¯1 °C. Firstly, the optimum concentration of each material for addition to the film was determined by micro-dilution and disc diffusion. Secondly, the specimens were checked for total viable count (TVC), as well as the counts of each of Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Shewanella putrefaciens, inoculated Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. According to the results, the PVA/G nanocomposite films containing treatments 1-3 significantly decreased the number of bacteria in the treatment group in comparison to the control group (P < .05). The results of the antimicrobial activity of the three treatments by using the disc diffusion method revealed that the inhibition zone varied from 8.11 ±â€¯0.02 to 12.63 ±â€¯0.04 mm. Also it should be noted that, the finding of micro-dilution test varied from 1 ±â€¯0.01 to 3 ±â€¯0.01. The ZnO, TiO2/4A z nanocomposite had a significantly greater antimicrobial impact against Gram-negative bacteria compared to Gram-positive bacteria (P < .05). Finally, the microbiological and sensory investigation of the efficacy of the PVA/G nanocomposite films as active packaging materials revealed a considerable improvement in shrimp shelf life (12 days) in comparison to the control (6 days). Therefore, these nanocomposite films can be used as novel active packaging in the maintenance of the microbial load and sensory qualities of shrimp.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Titânio/farmacologia , Zeolitas/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Gelatina/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanocompostos , Nanopartículas , Álcool de Polivinil/farmacologia , Refrigeração , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 70(1): 13-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627244

RESUMO

This study investigated the potential causative agents for vacuum-packaged pork that had shown gross package extension during a routine storage life study in a Canadian pork plant using both conventional and culture-independent methods. The spoilage-associated bacteria in purge samples from two packages were enumerated using selective media and profiled using 16S rDNA amplicon analysis. The presence of Clostridium estertheticum was detected using species-specific real-time PCR. An enrichment procedure was used to isolate C. estertheticum from one of the purge samples. The average population density in the two purge samples of total aerobes, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), coliforms and Brochothrix thermosphacta was 9·4, 9·1, 6·0 and 4·6 log CFU per ml respectively, as determined by plating. The estimated numbers of C. estertheticum were >7 log cells per ml. Clostridium estertheticum was recovered although the enrichment condition used for isolation favoured the growth of LAB more than that of Clostridium spp. Based on 16S rDNA amplicon analysis, the microbiota in the two purge samples had 64·7 and 20·7% of Clostridium spp., and 32·5 and 70·1% of LAB respectively. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Blown pack spoilage of vacuum-packaged meat may lead to severe economic losses and is often associated with beef, venison and lamb. This study is the first to report vacuum-packaged chilled pork can also be subject to blown pack spoilage, and data support the conclusion that the causative agent is likely Clostridium estertheticum. The lysozyme-digestion step greatly improved the isolation efficiency for C. estertheticum, a spore-forming anaerobic organism that has been proven to be difficult to recover. This method can be used for isolating spore-forming organisms from food samples.


Assuntos
Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Canadá , Bovinos , Clostridium/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Suínos , Vácuo
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 228: 115370, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635728

RESUMO

Nanofiber-based materials have recently gained increasing attention in food packaging, drug delivery, and biomedical applications. In this study, a multi-nanofibers composite film was developed based on bacterial cellulose nanofiber (BCNF)/chitin nanofiber (CNF) hybridization. The nanofibers were responsible for the formation of well-dispersed curcumin (Cur) micro/nanoparticles in the nanocomposite films. The release of Cur from the films were affected by CNF and the sizes of Cur particles formed in situ. The Cur particles reduced tensile strength and increased water vapor permeability of BCNF film. However, CNF improved the mechanical strength and barrier property of the Cur/BCNF/CNF composite film. Moreover, the multi-nanofibers composite film showed excellent dynamic antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity, as well as was capable to monitor pH change and trace amount of boric acid. Results of this study suggested that the Cur/BCNF/CNF composite film can be used as a smart and active food packaging material.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Quitina/química , Nanofibras/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Decapodiformes/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Microesferas , Nanocompostos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Tração
15.
Talanta ; 206: 120179, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514881

RESUMO

In this work, the magnetic amino-functionalized microporous organic network composites (Fe3O4@MON-NH2) were rational designed and facile synthesized for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), followed by their analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography. The incorporation of amino groups (hydrogen bonding sites) into hydrophobic MON-NH2 networks led to their good enrichment for four typical EDCs bisphenol A (BPA), 4-alpha-cumylphenol (4-α-CP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) relying on the pre-designed hydrogen bonding, π-π and hydrophobic interactions. The combination of MON-NH2 shell and magnetic Fe3O4 core provided a fast extraction of BPA, 4-α-CP, 4-t-OP and 4-NP from matrix solution. Under the optimal conditions, the developed method offered good linearity (R2 > 0.990) in the range of 0.05-1000 µg L-1, low limits of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.015-0.030 µg L-1 and large enrichment factors of 172-197 for the studied EDCs. The maximum adsorption capacities of BPA, 4-α-CP, 4-t-OP and 4-NP were 124.1, 105.6, 116.6 and 117.9 mg g-1, respectively. The Fe3O4@MON-NH2 gave larger selectivity for other polar phenols than non-polar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, revealing the dominant role of hydrogen bonding interaction during the extraction and the potential of Fe3O4@MON-NH2 for other polar phenols. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of EDCs in water, orange juice and beverage bottle samples with the recoveries of 80.3-109.5%. These results revealed the potential of functional MONs as efficient adsorbents in sample pretreatment.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citrus sinensis/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Lagos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Fenóis/análise , Rios/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
16.
Food Chem ; 309: 125702, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685370

RESUMO

Our previous study indicated that nanocomposite packaging material (Nano-PM) containing nano-Ag, nano-TiO2, nano-SiO2 and nanoattapulgite alleviated postharvest senescence of Flammulina velutipes by regulating respiration and energy metabolism. In this study, extracellular ATP (eATP) and programmed cell death (PCD) were employed as critical factors to further investigate the senescence mechanism of postharvest F. velutipes. Results demonstrated that Nano-PM delayed apyrase activity decrease and stimulated critical oxidative phosphorylation-related gene expression to inhibit eATP content increase, which is a crucial signaling molecule related to delaying senescence. The regulation of eATP resulted in alleviating PCD including chromosomal concentration, DNA fragmentation, Ca2+ influx, high caspase-1 activity and cytochrome c content and leading to high cell viability. Overall, Nano-PM alleviated PCD and postharvest senescence of F. velutipes by regulating extracellular ATP.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Apoptose , Flammulina/metabolismo , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Nanocompostos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Flammulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanocompostos/toxicidade , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Dióxido de Silício/química , Prata/química , Titânio/química
17.
Food Chem ; 310: 125915, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841936

RESUMO

Improvements in the effectiveness of packaging materials can help to prevent foodborne pathogens and reduce environmental waste. Traditionally, food is packaged in plastic that is rarely recyclable, negatively impacting the environment. Biodegradable packaging materials play an important role in maintaining the health of ecosystems. However, there are limitations in the utilization of bio-based materials, including poor barrier and mechanical properties which frequently cause a shorter shelf life compared to conventional food packaging materials. The incorporation of different nanomaterial in bio-based polymers such as (Chitosan, potato starch, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), corn starch and Arabic gum) can improve the various properties packaging materials by enhancing the antimicrobial activity, therefore preventing foodborne pathogens, correspondingly bringing notable enhancement in the bio-based materials properties as food packaging materials. This review deliberates the potential of using bionanocomposite films to solve the issues of both environmental waste and to reduce the spoilage of food products.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , Quitosana , Nanoestruturas/química , Polímeros
18.
Food Chem ; 311: 125939, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855774

RESUMO

The effects of nanocomposite-based packaging material (Nano-PM) on the taste components and mitochondrial energy metabolism of postharvest white Hypsizygus marmoreus (WHM), as well as the underlying influence mechanism were investigated. The results showed that the major taste components, including succinic acid and mannitol, remained at higher level in Nano-PM. The flavor 5'-nucleotides (5'-GMP and 5'-IMP) of WHM in Nano-PM were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with that in the normal packaging material (Normal-PM). Principal component analysis indicated that there was a distinction of flavor compounds (6 organic acids, 3 soluble sugars and 5 5'-nucleotides) of WHM between Nano-PM and Normal PM treatments during storage. Moreover, Nano-PM delayed the mitochondrial microstructure breakdown and the reduction of ATPase activity, and it maintained a higher ATP content and higher level of energy charge. Our results demonstrated that Nano-PM could affect the taste components of postharvest WHM partially by regulating the energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Aromatizantes/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Nanocompostos/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Verduras/química
19.
Food Chem ; 311: 125918, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869647

RESUMO

Multilayer materials used in food packaging are commonly manufactured with a polyurethane adhesive layer in its structure that may contain cyclic esters oligomers as potential migrants. However, little is known about their toxicity. In this work, two cyclic esters of polyurethane are evaluated in migration from 20 multilayer packaging samples. They were composed by adipic acid (AA), diethylene glycol (DEG) and isophthalic acid (IPA) and their structure was AA-DEG and AA-DEG-IPA-DEG. The concentration of these compounds in migration exceeded the maximum level established by Regulation EU/10/2011 (10 ng g-1). Bioaccessibility of both compounds was evaluated by studying gastric and intestinal digestion. The studies showed that the concentration of the compounds decreased during digestion and that their hydrolysed molecules increased. Furthermore, endocrine activity in vitro assays were performed. A weak androgen receptor antagonism was identified, whereas no arylhydrocarbon receptor activity or binding to the thyroid hormone transport protein was found.


Assuntos
Adesivos/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Poliésteres/química , Poliuretanos/química , Adipatos/química , Adipatos/toxicidade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/química , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Etilenoglicóis/química , Etilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Poliuretanos/toxicidade
20.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103331, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703851

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the viability of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in dry-aged pork loins (m. longissimus) after 14, 21 and 28 days under controlled temperature (0 °C ±â€¯1 °C). The pigs (n = 9) were orally inoculated with 3,000 T. gondii oocysts. The right loin of each pig was aged for a predetermined period, and the left loin was kept unprocessed as a control. Two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, the loins of three pigs were aged for 14 days and then bioassayed in both cats and mice. In Experiment 2, the loins of six pigs were bioassayed only in mice, and the ageing periods were 14, 21, and 28 days. Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts remained viable in loins aged up to 14 days, as confirmed by bioassays in cats and mice. Viable T. gondii was not recovered by bioassays in mice from loins that were aged for 21 or 28 days. These results demonstrate that T. gondii remained viable in vacuum-packed dry-aged pork loins for 14 days at controlled temperature but not for 21 days or longer.


Assuntos
Carne/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Bioensaio , Gatos , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Camundongos , Oocistos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos , Vácuo
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