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1.
J Food Sci ; 85(11): 3909-3919, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047823

RESUMO

The research work investigates the effect of different pretreatment conditions (osmotic dehydration [OD], ultrasound [US], and ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration [UOD]) on the drying kinetics modeling, thermodynamics, weight reduction, degradation kinetics of vitamin C, and color of apple slices under pulsed vacuum dryer (PVD). The findings showed that UOD pretreatment significantly improved drying time and increased weight reduction comparative to OD, US, and the control sample. Drying kinetics modeling revealed that the Hii model better described the drying kinetic behavior of the apple slices than the other nine mathematical models based on higher coefficient of determination (R2 ), root mean square error (RMSE), and reduced chi-square (χ2 ). Analysis of vitamin C content revealed a 46.05%, 31.28%, and 25.95% retention for UOD, US, and OD, respectively, after drying. Second-order kinetics could accurately predict the degradation kinetics of vitamin C compared to first-order kinetics. Vitamin C degradation kinetics showed lower k-value, higher D-value (time required for 90% degradation), and half-life indicating a higher retention of vitamin C content for UOD pretreatment compared to OD and US during drying. L*, b*, and chroma values of UOD were significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to US, OD, and the control sample. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The findings of this study revealed that ultrasonic-aided osmotic dehydration is a unique and novel pretreatment technique prior to drying, which significantly shortens drying time as a result of faster moisture/mass transfer, improves processing efficiency thereby reducing processing cost, improves quality parameters, and preserve phytochemicals. This makes the business operations of food processors competitive and as well provide value for customers.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Malus/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Cor , Desidratação , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Humanos , Cinética , Osmose , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Termodinâmica , Vácuo
2.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3134-3140, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870536

RESUMO

In this research, Erzincan Tulum cheese was packaged in its original packaging material, the skin bag, small intestine, and appendix to observe the changes in its physical, chemical, and textural properties during storage day. Lactic acid% values increased in all Tulum cheeses throughout storage stage. At the end of the storage period, the highest value was determined in the sample filled in the small intestine (20.10%). All fatty acid values were increased, and the highest increase was identified in oleic acid (C 18:1) (skin bag 2.18%), linoleic acid (18:2) (appendix 0.41%), and palmitic acid (C 16:0) (small intestine 0.34%), respectively. All organic acids increased in stored sample. The highest increase among organic acids was determined to be 4.47% in lactic acid. As a result of the Texture Profile Analyses (TPA), the hardness, and adhesiveness of Tulum cheeses increased during storage periods, whereas the springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness values decreased. Gumminess value declined in the sample filled into the appendix (with a value of 36.01), whereas it increased in the other two samples. The highest increase in hardness values was 2,520.27 N at given storage time was in the samples filled into appendix while the highest adhesive values of -49.82 were determined in the sample filled into small intestine. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Tulum cheese is usually produced by filling sheep or goat skin bag. Goat or sheep skin bag are not always available, and the amount of cheese produced in them is excessive. Therefore, cheeses were also filled to small intestine and appendix. At the end of the study, there were no negative effects on cheeses filled with intestine and appendix. The use of small intestine and appendix has helped to develop a product that will be appreciated by the consumers with no adverse effects in the physicochemical and textural properties of cheese.


Assuntos
Ácidos/química , Queijo/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Animais , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Cabras , Dureza , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ovinos , Paladar
3.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3498-3508, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940370

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, and 5 kGy) on physico-mechanical and structural characteristics of films based on Farsi gum-carboxymethyl cellulose supplemented with Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO; 0%, 1%, and 2%) and lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNF; 0%, 1%, and 2%), and their application on fresh minced beef meat's shelf-life during refrigerated temperature (4 ± 1 °C) for 16 days. Gamma irradiation under the 60 Co source at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses did not have a significant effect on thickness, tensile strength, swelling index, oxygen permeability, and water vapor transmission rate of prepared films (P > 0.05). The best microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic bacterial count, Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae) and chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total volatile base nitrogen content, and peroxide value) properties were recorded for samples packaged with ZEO 2% + LCNF 2%, followed by ZEO 2% + LCNF 1%, ZEO 1% + LCNF 2%, and ZEO 1% + LCNF 1%. These results indicate acceptable extensions of hurdle technology for prolonged refrigeration of minced beef meat. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The application of active packaging films has received considerable interest in extending the shelf-life of perishable foods during prolonged chilled storage. The effects of active Farsi gum-carboxymethyl cellulose films supplemented with Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil 2% + lignocellulose nanofibers 2% resulted in delaying lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage growth of refrigerated minced beef meat and consequently extending the shelf-life during storage for at least 16 days.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Lamiaceae/química , Lignina/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Gomas Vegetais/química , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Raios gama , Carne/análise , Carne/microbiologia , Nanofibras/análise , Gomas Vegetais/efeitos da radiação , Refrigeração
4.
J Food Sci ; 85(11): 3899-3908, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990337

RESUMO

In this study cut, pineapple slices of 1 cm thick were packaged and stored at different temperatures and equilibrium modified atmosphere packages (EMAPs) to determine changes of color and firmness over time to represent physicochemical shelf life. From the experimental data, a variance analysis was performed to determine the effect of temperature and O2 level on the evolution of color (CIELAB coordinates) and firmness. It was observed that the evolution in L* , a* , and b* coordinates is independent on O2 concentration in the EMAP system. After that, suitable models were adjusted to represent the change of the quality properties as a function of temperature by using first-order models to represent color and a power model for firmness. Likewise, a modified normal distribution function was adjusted to represent the coefficient of firmness loss depending on the O2 level besides the temperature effect. The firmness model was used to obtain a suitable equation to predict shelf life of the pineapple slices for different EMAP systems. Finally, a validation experiment was performed at 8 °C obtaining a high capacity of prediction (R2 adj > 0.90) compared with the experimental data. The adjusted model can be used to configure a satisfactory EMAP system for the best preservation of minimally processed pineapple from the predicted evolution of color, firmness, and shelf life depending on temperature and O2 concentration. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this work, we built a mathematical model to simulate the shelf life of pineapple cut into slices based on changes in color and firmness and as a function of temperature and oxygen level. These properties are truly relevant because they are very clear evidence of the fruit deterioration, and for that reason, we chose them for the model. The model we developed can be applied in retail and supermarket systems to determine precisely how long the product on the shelf can last before being disposed of, reducing material losses.


Assuntos
Ananas/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Atmosfera , Cor , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Modelos Teóricos , Oxigênio/análise , Temperatura
5.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2832-2842, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856302

RESUMO

Films were produced using the blown extrusion method from blends made with cassava and pinhão thermoplastic starch, compostable polyester (poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate, PBAT) and natural extracts (rosemary and green tea). The effect of the incorporation of the extracts and the type of starch added in the film properties were investigated following the mixture design (23 ) approach. Regression models and response surface curves were generated to predict the film properties. The effect of the cold storage (6 °C and 17% of humidity relative, for 60 days) on the film properties was also investigated in order to simulate future applications. All the properties were mainly influenced by the extract type. The incorporation of the extracts decreased the lightness parameter and the films produced with green tea extract were more opaque than those made with rosemary. Starch/rosemary blends were more flexible, while the extract type did not have a significant effect on tensile strength (TS). Film elongation (ELO) ranged from 520% to 719% and might be comparable to some synthetic polymers. The water vapor permeability was improved in approximately 14% with addition of the extracts. The storage conditions, on the one hand, increased the TS, elastic modulus, and opacity of films and, on the other hand, decreased the elongation parameter. The thermal stability of films was not modified by adding extracts or varying the starch type. The results demonstrated that pinhão/cassava/PBAT blends and the natural extracts are a good alternative matrix to produce packagings with adequate mechanical and barrier properties. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Extruded films produced from cassava or pinhão starch, poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and natural extracts show technological potential to be used as active packaging for food products. Pinhão starch is a great alternative substitute to cassava starch and the incorporation of the commercial compostable polymer (PBAT) is necessary in order to confer suitable mechanical properties to extrusion process. The extrusion blown method, a process widely used by plastic industries, allows the scale-up of bio-based packagings for industrial scale.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Manihot/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Amido/química , Módulo de Elasticidade , Umidade , Permeabilidade , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Poliésteres/química , Polímeros/química , Vapor , Resistência à Tração
6.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2857-2865, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812228

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to develop Manihot esculenta and Carrageenan bio-based composite active film functionalized with anise, caraway, and nutmeg essential oils (EOs) and to assess the shelf life of chicken nuggets wrapped with the developed film at refrigeration storage. Overall, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of the three EOs ranged from 0.4 to 0.8% v/v of which nutmeg EO was found most effective. Incorporation of EOs in the film resulted in significant (P ˂ 0.05) decrease in tensile strength and water activity while elongation at break was significantly (P ˂ 0.05) increased. No significant (P ˃ 0.05) changes in thickness and Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) were observed. Based on physicomechanical and sensory evaluation, films incorporated with 0.5, 1, and 1% concentration of anise, nutmeg, and caraway EO were selected. Chicken nuggets overwrapped with aforementioned films were stored aerobically at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C) to evaluate antimicrobial, antioxidant, and sensory characteristics. The result indicated that pH, peroxide, free fatty acid (FFA), and thiobarbituric acide (TBA) value of treatments were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lower than controls however significantly (P < 0.05) higher DPPH activity was observed in all treatments. The total plate count, psychrophilic count and, yeast and mold count were also significantly (P ˂ 0.01) lower in treatment groups and were within the permissible limits. The treated samples were well acceptable during whole storage period of 15 days. The application of composite, active edible bio-based film was found proficient in confining product quality attributes throughout storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The majority of films used for packaging of meat and meat products are derived from synthetic "plastic" materials. The demerits associated with plastics have eventually led to explore natural alternatives such as edible films. The composite-active bio-based films have a huge potential to be molded for specific film properties based on requirements of product-specific packaging conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Filmes Comestíveis , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Produtos da Carne/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Polímeros/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carragenina/química , Galinhas , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Manihot/química , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Polímeros/síntese química , Refrigeração , Paladar
7.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2843-2851, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790195

RESUMO

The U.S. Army and NASA need ready-to-eat meals with extended shelf-life for military operations and future manned space missions. For traditional heat sterilization methods, aluminum foil laminated pouches are used to achieve a shelf-life of 3 to 5 years at room temperature. However, those packages are not suited for advanced thermal processing technologies based on microwave energy. This research investigated the effect of polymeric packaging materials on storage stability of garlic flavor, vitamin C, and color of garlic mashed potatoes processed with microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) technology. Three types of high-barrier metal oxide-coated polymer pouches were used for MATS process, designed to achieve lethality approximately F0 = 6 min. Aluminum foil-based pouches were used for retort process as control. Results demonstrated that both oxygen and water vapor barrier properties (oxygen transmission rate [OTR] and water vapor transmission rate [WVTR]) of the polymer pouches were affected by MATS processing. OTR increased by three to nine times, while WVTR increased by 5 to 20 times after processing. The MATS process resulted in 13% to 16% vitamin C loss, while retort process resulted in 18% loss in garlic mashed potato. The kinetics of vitamin C indicated that metal oxide-coated high-barrier packages (after processing OTR <0.1 cc/m2 .day; WVTR <1.0 g/m2 .day) could replace aluminum foil-based pouches for MATS processed shelf-stable ready-to-eat garlic mashed potatoes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Garlic mashed potatoes in polymer packages processed in a microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) system had better retention of vitamin C compared to samples packaged in aluminum laminated pouches and processed in retort. Polymer packages combined with MATS processing could potentially provide safe, better quality, and nutritious shelf-stable food products for military and space missions.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Fast Foods/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Alho/química , Pasteurização/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Cor , Aromatizantes/análise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Odorantes/análise , Pasteurização/instrumentação , Polímeros/química , Vapor/análise , Paladar
8.
Food Chem ; 331: 127108, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593036

RESUMO

In this work, novel edible coating films based on beeswax-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsions had been investigated. The Pickering emulsions were stabilized with cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs)/carboxymethyl chitosan (CCS). The emulsions with a droplet diameter of around 10 µm had uniform particle size distribution, and the creaming stability was improved with the increasing the contents of CNFs in the complexes, rheological analysis demonstrated that the Pickering emulsions had an elastic gel-like network. Furthermore, free-standing films were obtained when the emulsions were dried at ambient condition, the tensile strength of the coating films could be 5.0 MPa at a strain of 2.2%, and the water vapor permeability (WVP) value was lower than 2 × 10-7 g∙h-1∙m-1∙Pa-1. Moreover, the coating films could inhibit the growth of typical spoilage organisms such as S. aureus or E. coli, it indicated that the coatings films would have promising applications in antiseptic and fresh keeping for berry fruits.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Celulose/química , Emulsões/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Ceras/química , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Quitosana/química , Escherichia coli , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Nanoestruturas/química , Permeabilidade , Staphylococcus aureus , Vapor , Resistência à Tração , Água
9.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 2105-2113, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506566

RESUMO

As a kind of polymer material additive, phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are widely used in food industry. However, PAEs are environmental endocrine disruptors with reproductive toxicity and teratogenic carcinogenicity, which are difficult to be degraded in the natural environment. In this paper, gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) methods for PAEs in polyethylene wrap film were optimized. For diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) that were mainly detected, the method had a good linearity in 1 to 500 ng/g. Then, we confirmed that the migration of DIBP and DBP from polyethylene wrap film increased with time and temperature. It is found that the migration law in different food simulations well followed the migration dynamics first-level model. The rate constant K1 and initial release rate V0 are inversely proportional to the polarity of the simulated liquid. We hope that this study can serve as a valuable reference for further research on the migration of food packing materials. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this paper, we present a simple example of applying migration model to evaluate the migration behaviors of PAEs in food packaging materials along with their hazardous properties. It can serve as a valuable reference for further research on the migration of food packing materials.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Polietileno/química , Dibutilftalato/análogos & derivados , Dibutilftalato/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Polímeros/química
10.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 2114-2123, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519374

RESUMO

Chitosan (CHI) and whey protein are usually used to prepare edible films for food preservation. However, the composite film composed of the two components does not yield satisfactory properties for chestnut preservation. In this study, nano-cellulose and cinnamaldehyde (CMA) were added to CHI and whey protein, creating a new composite film with strong water retention, bacteriostatic, and mechanical properties. The water vapor permeability (WVP) of the film decreased by 21.61% with the addition of 0.5% (w/v) nano-cellulose, and 23.02% with the addition of 0.3% (w/v) CMA. Furthermore, water solubility (WS) decreased 22.05%, and the density of the film was significantly improved with the addition of 0.3% (w/v) CMA. The optimized formula of the film was CHI 2.5% (w/v), whey protein 3.0% (w/v), nano-cellulose 0.5% (w/v), CMA 0.3% (w/v), and pH 3.8, as determined by orthogonal testing L9(34 ), with fuzzy comprehensive assessment, of WVP, WS, tensile strength, and elongation at break. The film clearly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, and Chinese chestnut fungus, destroying the mycelial structure of the fungus. In addition, coating effectively reduced the weight loss, mildew rate, and calcification index during 16 days of storage of chestnuts at 25 °C.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Fagaceae/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Frutas/microbiologia , Nanocompostos/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Celulose/química , Filmes Comestíveis , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagaceae/microbiologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Permeabilidade , Solubilidade , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vapor/análise , Resistência à Tração
11.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 2153-2163, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572986

RESUMO

The application of bacterial cellulose (BC) as a wrapping material for vacuum-packaged beef was studied and compared against unwrapped beef for up to 3 weeks. The impact of BC wrap on the weight loss, purge accumulation, and drip loss were assessed along with low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial evaluations. The BC wrap significantly (P < 0.05) reduced purge accumulation in vacuum packages which was confirmed by an increased swelling ratio and scanning electron microscopy images. Colorimetric measurements showed significantly (P < 0.05) increased redness and yellowness values in wrapped samples compared to unwrapped samples. BC wrap did not affect pH, tenderness, and odor of meat, but significantly (P < 0.05) increased lipid oxidation, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta counts. This study shows that BC wrap has potential as a purge absorbent in vacuum packaged meat. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Bacteria cellulose has good water holding capacity that can be utilized to absorb purge exudate from beef. It helps to improve the appearance and consequently consumer acceptance of vacuum packed beef.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Adsorção , Animais , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bovinos , Cor , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Humanos , Lactobacillales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carne/microbiologia , Paladar , Vácuo
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1799-1804, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458576

RESUMO

Demand for antimicrobial packaging films is growing due to public attention to food safety. The structures and properties of gellan gum-guar gum blend films incorporated with nisin were investigated in this paper. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, rheological analyses showed intermolecular interactions among gellan gum, guar gum, and nisin. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis also indicated higher compatibility of the blend film components and better thermal stability than the gellan gum film. Tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EAB) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the blend films were enhanced with the addition of guar gum. The TS of the blend film reached 2.89 × 103  MPa, the EAB increased to 67.99%, and the WVP increased to 1.80 × 10-5  g/mm·s·Pa. Additionally, the film with nisin had antibacterial activity for Bacillus subtilis. The results demonstrated that a homogenous and smooth antimicrobial film with gellan gum, guar gum, and nisin could be a good option of antimicrobial packaging film for food preservation. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This work investigated blend package films of gellan gum and guar gum incorporated with nisin. The results showed compatibility and thermal stability of the film were improved with adding a certain amount of guar gum, and also antibacterial activity for Bacillus subtilis of the blend film with nisin. Therefore, it can be used to the development of antimicrobial packaging films.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Galactanos/química , Mananas/química , Nisina/química , Gomas Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plásticos Biodegradáveis/química , Plásticos Biodegradáveis/farmacologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nisina/farmacologia , Permeabilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Vapor/análise , Resistência à Tração
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(11): 4263-4271, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyme essential oil (TEO) is an excellent natural substitute for synthetic compounds to maintain the quality and safety of food products. It acts as an antioxidant agent. We aimed to nanoencapsulate TEO at concentrations of 1%, 3%, and 5% (v/w, dry basis) in electrospun nanofibers made of starch (50% w/v) and formic acid (75% v/v). The rheological parameters of the fiber-forming solutions were measured, and various physical and chemical properties of the nanofibers were analyzed. RESULTS: The starch/TEO nanofibers presented homogeneous morphology. The starch nanofibers showed high encapsulation efficiency (EE, 99.1% to 99.8%), which, along with the Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrum and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis, indicate strong protection of the phenolic compounds of TEO. Nanofibers with 5% TEO retained up to 50% of the phenolic compounds after exposure to thermal treatment. The antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals of the starch/TEO nanofibers varied from 11.1% to 14.2% and the inhibition values (29.8%, P ≤ 0.05) against hydroxyl radicals were the same for free TEO and the nanofibers. CONCLUSION: Owing to these properties, electrospun starch/TEO nanofibers can be applied in food products or food packaging.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Nanofibras/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Temperatura Alta , Fenóis/química , Thymus (Planta)/química
15.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1470-1478, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282075

RESUMO

The characteristics of rice starch film blended with sucrose, maltose, and trehalose at concentrations of 0%, 10%, 20%, or 30% (w/w of the starch weight) were investigated. Relative crystallinity (RC) of the rice starch film as determined by X-ray increased with increasing sucrose concentration and the RC tended to decrease with an increasing concentration of maltose and trehalose. RC was inhibited by adding sugar in the order of trehalose, maltose, and sucrose after 28 days storage. The rice starch film with 30% added sugar showed a homogeneous matrix and a lower frequency chemical shift of the proton OH group as determined on the day of preparation; however, the film with 30% added maltose cracked after 28 days storage. Adding sugar as a plasticizer affected the properties of the rice starch film by concentration and type of sugar because of the hydroxyl groups of the sugar. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Disaccharides, such as sucrose, maltose, and trehalose, could be used as a plasticizer in a rice starch film system. The sugar conformation might be one factor for selecting the sugar to use for starch film system. Trehalose might improve film properties by inhibiting recrystallization after storage.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Maltose/química , Oryza/química , Amido/química , Sacarose/química , Trealose/química
16.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 947-955, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237089

RESUMO

Edible packaging films have been widely studied because of its safety, green, and effective characteristics. In this paper, chitosan (CH) edible films containing hexahydro-ß-acids (HBA) were prepared, and its physical and mechanical properties, bioactivity, and their impact on the shelf life of pork were investigated. The infrared spectra indicated that the molecular interaction between CH and HBA was observed. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the surface morphology of the film, and light transmittance analysis displayed that the addition of HBA enhanced the film's UV blocking performance. Compared to the CH film, the tensile strength of CH-HBA film increased to 29.19 ± 0.45 MPa, and the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reached 1.40 ± 0.01 mg rutin/cm2 of the film. The antibacterial activity of the CH-HBA film on Escherichia coli (44825) and Staphylococcus aureus (26001) showed that the CH-HBA film is a feasible antibacterial package. Furthermore, compared to pork packaged in CH and polyethylene films, fresh pork packaged with CH-HBA films displayed prolongation of shelf life due to reduction in microbial proliferation, thiobarbituric values, pH, and total volatile base nitrogen contents during storage at 4 °C for 16 days. The freshness of pork was prolonged by 7-8 days when the dosage of HBA was increased to 0.3% from 0.1% (w/v). These results revealed that the CH-HBA film can effectively extend the shelf life of pork. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study effectively prolonged the shelf life of pork. A chitosan-edible film combined with hexahydro-ß-acids has a potential application value in replacing traditional packaged fresh meat.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Carne Vermelha/análise , Ácidos/análise , Ácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Quitosana/análise , Filmes Comestíveis , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos , Resistência à Tração
17.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1203-1212, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118300

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is often responsible for postprocessing contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) products including cooked ham. As an emerging technology, atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) has the potential to inactivate L. monocytogenes in packaged RTE meats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of treatment time, modified atmosphere gas compositions (MAP), ham formulation, and post-treatment storage (1 and 7 days at 4 °C) on the reduction of a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes and quality changes in ham subjected to in-package ACP treatment. Initial average cells population on ham surfaces were 8 log CFU/cm2 . The ACP treatment time and gas composition significantly (P < 0.05) influenced the inactivation of L. monocytogenes, irrespective of ham formulations. When MAP1 (20% O2 + 40% CO2 + 40% N2 ) was used, there was a significantly higher log reduction (>2 log reduction) in L. monocytogenes on ham in comparison to MAP2 (50% CO2 + 50% N2 ) and MAP3 (100% CO2 ), irrespective of ham formulation. Addition of preservatives (that is, 0.1% sodium diacetate and 1.4% sodium lactate) or bacteriocins (that is, 0.05% of a partially purified culture ferment from Carnobacterium maltaromaticum UAL 307) did not significantly reduce cell counts of L. monocytogenes after ACP treatment. Regardless of type of ham, storage of 24 hr after ACP treatment significantly reduced cells counts of L. monocytogenes to approximately 4 log CFU/cm2 . Following 7 days of storage after ACP treatment, L. monocytogenes counts were below the detection limit (>6 log reduction) when samples were stored in MAP1. However, there were significant changes in lipid oxidation and color after post-treatment storage. In conclusion, the antimicrobial efficacy of ACP is strongly influenced by gas composition inside the package and post-treatment storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Surface contamination of RTE ham with L. monocytogenes may occur during processing steps such as slicing and packaging. In-package ACP is an emerging nonthermal technology, which can be used as a postpackaging decontamination step in industrial settings. This study demonstrated the influence of in-package gas composition, treatment time, post-treatment storage, and ham formulation on L. monocytogenes inactivation efficacy of ACP. Results of present study will be helpful to optimize in-package ACP treatment and storage conditions to reduce L. monocytogenes, while maintaining the quality of ham.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Animais , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos da Carne/análise , Lactato de Sódio/farmacologia , Suínos
18.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 892-902, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144764

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of chia mucilage (CM) and protein concentrate (CPC) contents on the physicochemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical characteristics of developed films was evaluated. Films were prepared dissolving CM:CPC mixtures (1% w/v) in seven ratios (0:1, 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, 4:1, 1:0). Microstructure of treatments with higher CM revealed the formation of polysaccharide granules. A semicrystalline behavior was manifested in 1:0, which decreased as CPC content in the formulations increased. Contact angle values obtained for 1:1 and 2:1 were the highest (61.24° and 62.44°), evidencing less affinity to water than other films. TGA analysis suggest that films showed thermal stability at less than 225 °C. Melting temperatures above 85 °C were found for all films in the evaluated range (50 °C to 200 °C) of DSC analysis. Higher CM concentrations in films increased the force required to break them (13.5 MPa) and their elongation capacity (5.20%). As the CM ratio in formulations was increased, the color difference was lower (ΔE = 27.45), water vapor permeability was higher (10.9 × 10-11  g/m·s·Pa), but transparency was statistically the same for all treatments (6.62 to 7.26). After analyzing all films properties, 2:1 formulation corresponding to 25:75% w/v mixtures of CM:CPC would be the best option for use in food packaging.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Mucilagem Vegetal/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Salvia/química , Plásticos Biodegradáveis/química , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Temperatura Alta , Permeabilidade , Sementes/química , Vapor/análise
19.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1186-1192, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175602

RESUMO

The understanding of the migration of mercury from packaging materials to food stuffs is the prerequisite for the development of food safety regulations. In this article, the migration of mercury from food paper-plastic packaging containers to four food stimulants under different migrated temperatures is studied. The results show that the mobility and the maximum migration volume of mercury increase at certain temperatures when the migration time is extended. It is also noted that the time to reach equilibrium is reduced as the temperature increases. Meanwhile, different solvents appear various different while the rates of migration are 3% acetic acid >10% ethanol >20% ethanol >50% ethanol. But they show the same trend at the different temperatures. Our data suggest that different solvents, temperatures, and food stimulants affect the migration rates, and ameliorate those conditions will reduce migration and promote food quality.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Mercúrio/análise , Plásticos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Temperatura
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(8): 3341-3350, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yerba mate extract was encapsulated in electrospun zein fibers. Solutions were prepared with 30% (w/v) zein, and yerba mate extract was added at concentrations of 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w). The rheology and electrical conductivity of the polymer solutions were evaluated. The extract and the fibers were characterized through an analysis of total and individual phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. Morphology, size distribution, and thermal stability were also evaluated. The release kinetics of zein fibers loaded with different concentrations of yerba mate were evaluated in a hydrophilic food-simulant medium (10% ethanol). RESULTS: Yerba mate extract had a total phenolic compound content of 1287.76 ± 11.55 mg of gallic acid 100 g-1 yerba mate extract. The major individual phenolic compounds obtained were chlorogenic acid and rutin, quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography and mess spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Zein fibers loaded with 5% extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity with 83.0% inhibition. The fibers with different concentrations of yerba mate displayed homogeneous morphology. Yerba mate extract encapsulated in zein fibers had greater thermal stability than the free extract. Zein fibers comprising 5% yerba mate extract, when in contact with a hydrophilic food simulant medium, showed a release of approximately 49% of extract within 50 h. CONCLUSION: Zein fibers containing yerba mate extract may be used as antioxidant releasers for food packaging. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polímeros/química , Zeína/química , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/química , Polímeros/síntese química
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