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1.
Am J Med ; 135(8): 1016-1020, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current pulmonary embolism treatment options rely heavily on anatomical clot location. However, anatomical location does not necessarily determine adverse outcomes; rather, clinical severity is secondary to the degree of perfusion impairment. Dual-energy computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (DE-CTPA) can map perfusion at the time of pulmonary embolism diagnosis. Single-photon emission computed tomography ventilation-perfusion scans allow for perfusion tracking similar to DE-CTPA. METHODS: We present 3 patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism treated with mechanical thrombectomy using the Inari FlowTriever System (Inari Medical, Irvine, Calif). Lung perfusion scoring was applied to pre-procedure and post-procedure imaging. We graded perfusion of each lobe in 3 planes. If the entire lobe was perfused, a score of 3 was assigned. If lung perfusion is normal, total perfusion score is 15. All patients had pre-procedure and follow-up transthoracic echocardiograms. RESULTS: All 3 patients were diagnosed with pulmonary embolism via DE-CTPA that showed right ventricle strain and had deep venous thrombosis. Following mechanical thrombectomy, patients immediately experienced improvement in perfusion score; scores continued to improve at follow-up. All patients also had improvement in right ventricle size or function on follow-up echocardiogram. DISCUSSION: Intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism often has large initial clot burden that predicts residual pulmonary vascular obstruction. Residual pulmonary vascular obstruction is associated with increased risk of death, recurrent thrombus, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Clot removal via thrombectomy may decrease the prevalence of residual pulmonary vascular obstruction by improving lung perfusion. We found that mechanical thrombectomy increased lung perfusion immediately and at follow-up assessments.


Assuntos
Circulação Pulmonar , Embolia Pulmonar , Trombectomia , Humanos , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Reperfusão , Trombectomia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
2.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(3): 427-433, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism constitutes substantial health care costs amounting to approximately 60 million euros per year in the Netherlands. Compared with initial hospitalization, home treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with a cost reduction. An accurate estimation of cost savings per patient treated at home is currently lacking. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare health care utilization and costs during the first 3 months after a PE diagnosis in patients who are treated at home versus those who are initially hospitalized. METHODS: Patient-level data of the YEARS cohort study, including 383 normotensive patients diagnosed with PE, were used to estimate the proportion of patients treated at home, mean hospitalization duration in those who were hospitalized, and rates of PE-related readmissions and complications. To correct for baseline differences within the two groups, regression analyses was performed. The primary outcome was the average total health care costs during a 3-month follow-up period for patients initially treated at home or in hospital. RESULTS: Mean hospitalization duration for the initial treatment was 0.69 days for those treated initially at home (n = 181) and 4.3 days for those initially treated in hospital (n = 202). Total average costs per hospitalized patient were €3,209 and €1,512 per patient treated at home. The adjusted mean difference was €1,483 (95% confidence interval: €1,181-1,784). CONCLUSION: Home treatment of hemodynamically stable patients with acute PE was associated with an estimated net cost reduction of €1,483 per patient. This difference underlines the advantage of triage-based home treatment of these patients.


Assuntos
Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Hospitalização , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolia Pulmonar , Triagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Redução de Custos/métodos , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/classificação , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemodinâmica , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/economia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Triagem/métodos , Triagem/normas
3.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 41(1): 70-79, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive ventilation (V̇E) and abnormal gas exchange during exercise are features of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). In selected CTEPH patients, balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) improves symptoms and exercise capacity. How BPA affects exercise hyperventilation and gas exchange is poorly understood. METHODS: In this longitudinal observational study, symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise tests and carbon monoxide lung diffusion (DLCO) were performed before and after BPA (interval, mean (SD): 3.1 (2.4) months) in 36 CTEPH patients without significant cardiac and/or pulmonary comorbidities. RESULTS: Peak work rate improved by 20% after BPA whilst V̇E at peak did not change despite improved ventilatory efficiency (lower V̇E with respect to CO2 output [V̇CO2]). At the highest identical work rate pre- and post-BPA (75 (30) watts), V̇E and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (P(Ai-a)O2) decreased by 17% and 19% after BPA, respectively. The physiological dead space fraction of tidal volume (VD/VT), calculated from measurements of arterial and mixed expired CO2, decreased by 20%. In the meantime, DLCO did not change. The best correlates of P(Ai-a)O2 measured at peak exercise were physiological VD/VT before BPA and DLCO after BPA. CONCLUSIONS: Ventilatory efficiency, physiological VD/VT, and pulmonary gas exchange improved after BPA. The fact that DLCO did not change suggests that the pulmonary capillary blood volume and probably the true alveolar dead space were unaffected by BPA. The correlation between DLCO measured before BPA and P(Ai-a)O2 measured after BPA suggests that DLCO may provide an easily accessible marker to predict the response to BPA in terms of pulmonary gas exchange.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão , Teste de Esforço , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/cirurgia , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Hiperventilação/complicações , Hiperventilação/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Am J Cardiol ; 163: 109-116, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774286

RESUMO

There remains a lack of prognosis models for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). This study aims to develop a nomogram predicting 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival in patients with CTEPH and verify the prognostic model. Patients with CTEPH diagnosed in Fuwai Hospital were enrolled consecutively between May 2013 and May 2019. Among them, 70% were randomly split into a training set and the other 30% as a validation set for external validation. Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the potential survival-related factors which were candidate variables for the establishment of nomogram and the final model was internally validated by the bootstrap method. A total of 350 patients were included in the final analysis and the median follow-up period of the whole cohort was 51.2 months. Multivariate analysis of Cox proportional hazards regression showed body mass index, mean right atrial pressure, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (per 500 ng/ml increase in concentration), presence of anemia, and main treatment choice were the independent risk factors of mortality. The nomogram demonstrated good discrimination with the corrected C-index of 0.82 in the training set, and the C-index of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.91) in the external validation set. The calibration plots also showed a good agreement between predicted and actual survival in both training and validation sets. In conclusion, we developed an easy-to-use nomogram with good apparent performance using 5 readily available variables, which may help physicians to identify CTEPH patients at high risk for poor prognosis and implement medical interventions.


Assuntos
Pressão Atrial/fisiologia , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/complicações , Angioplastia com Balão , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença Crônica , Endarterectomia , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/uso terapêutico , Ativadores de Enzimas/uso terapêutico , Epoprostenol/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/sangue , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Nomogramas , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 407, 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a type of pulmonary hypertension caused by persistent thromboembolism of the pulmonary arteries. In clinical practice, CTEPH patients often show obstructive ventilatory impairment, even in the absence of a smoking history. Recent reports imply a tendency for CTEPH patients to have a lower FEV1.0; however, the mechanism underlying obstructive impairment remains unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed CTEPH patients who underwent a pulmonary function test and respiratory impedance test to evaluate their exertional dyspnea during admission for right heart catheterization from January 2000 to December 2019. We excluded patients with a smoking history to rule out the effect of smoking on obstructive impairment. RESULTS: A total of 135 CTEPH patients were analyzed. The median FEV1.0/FVC was 76.0%, %FEV 1.0 had a negative correlation with the mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance and the CT Angiogram (CTA) obstruction score. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that the CTA obstruction score was an independent factor of a lower %FEV1.0. In the 54 patients who underwent pulmonary endarterectomy, %FEV1.0 was improved in some cases and was not in some. Mean PAP largely decreased after PEA in the better %FEV1.0 improved cases, suggesting that vascular involvement in CTEPH could be associated with spirometry obstructive impairment. CONCLUSION: %FEV1.0 had a significant correlation with the CTA obstruction score. Obstructive impairment might have an etiological relationship with vascular involvement. Further investigations could shed new light on the etiology of CTEPH.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Resistência Vascular , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Doença Crônica , Endarterectomia , Feminino , Fluxo Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espirometria
6.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211057901, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905979

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Proinflammatory and hypercoagulable states with marked elevation seen in D-Dimer levels have been accurately described in patients infected by the SARS- Cov2 even without pulmonary embolism (PE). OBJECTIVES: To compare D-dimers values in patients infected by the novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) with and without PE and to establish an optimal D-dimer cut-off to predict the occurrence of PE, which guides pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTPA) indication. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled all COVID-19-patients admitted between October first and November 22th, 2020, at the University Hospital Center of Mohammed VI, Oujda (Morocco), suspected to have PE and underwent a CTPA. Demographic characteristics and blood test results were compared between PE-positive and PE-negative. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was constructed to establish an optimal D-Dimer cut-off to predict the occurrence of PE. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 84 confirmed COVID-19-patients. The mean age was 64.93 years (SD 14.19). PE was diagnosed on CTPA in 31 (36.9%) patients. Clinical symptoms and in-hospital outcomes were similar in both groups except that more men had PE (p = .025). The median value of D-dimers in the group of patients with PE was significantly higher (14 680[IQR 33620-3450]ng/mL compared to the group of patients without PE 2980[IQR 6870-1600]ng/mL [P < .001]. A D-dimer at 2600 ng/mL was the optimal cut-off for predicting PE with a sensitivity of 90.3%, and AUC was .773[CI 95%, .667 -.876). CONCLUSION: A D-dimer cut-off value of 2600 ng/mL is a significant predictor of PE in COVID-19-patients with a sensitivity of 90.3%.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6655958, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34925647

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Risk stratification is mandatory for optimal management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Previous studies indicated that renal dysfunction predicts outcome and can improve risk assessment in APE. AIM: The aim of the study was a comparison of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) formulas, MDRD, and Cockcroft-Gault (CG), in the prognostic assessment of patients with APE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 2274 (1147 M/1127 F, median 71 years) hospitalised patients with APE prospectively included in a multicenter, observational, cohort study were analysed. A serum creatinine measurement as a routine laboratory parameter at the cooperating centers and eGFR calculation were performed on admission. Patients were followed for 180 days. The primary outcome was death from any cause within 30 days. RESULTS: The eGFR levels assessed by both, MDRD (eGFRMDRD) and CG formula (eGFRCG), were highest in patients with low-risk APE and lowest in high-risk APE. The eGFR (using both methods) was significantly lower in nonsurvivors compared to survivors. Using a threshold of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, eGFRMDRD revealed the primary outcome with sensitivity 67%, specificity 52%, PPV 8%, and NPV 97%, while eGFRCG had a sensitivity 62%, specificity 62%, PPV 8.6%, and NPV 96%. The area under the ROC curve for eGFRCG tended to be higher than that for eGFRMDRD: 0.658 (95% CI: 0.608-0.709) vs. 0.631 (95% CI: 0.578-0.683), p = 0.12. A subanalysis of ROC curves in a population above 65 yrs showed a higher AUC for eGFRCG than based on MDRD. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a worse long-term outcome in patients with impaired renal function. CONCLUSION: eGFRMDRD and eGFRCG assessed on admission significant short- and long-term mortality predictors in patients with APE. The eGFRCG seems to be a slightly better 30-day mortality predictor than eGFRMDRD in the elderly.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 328, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive estimation of the actual systolic pulmonary artery pressure measured via right-sided heart catheterization (sPAPRHC) is vital for the management of pulmonary hypertension, including chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Evaluation related to the interventricular septum (IVS) is generally performed with only visual assessment and has been rarely assessed quantitatively in the field of echocardiography. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the utility of echocardiographic IVS curvature to estimate sPAPRHC in patients with CTEPH. METHODS: Medical records of 72 patients with CTEPH were studied retrospectively. We estimated sPAPRHC using echocardiographic IVS curvature (esPAPcurv) and left ventricular eccentricity index (esPAPLVEI), and compared their ability to predict sPAPRHC with estimated sPAPRHC using tricuspid regurgitant pressure gradient (esPAPTRPG). RESULTS: IVS curvature and LVEI were significantly correlated with sPAPRHC (r = - 0.52 and r = 0.49, respectively). Moreover, the IVS curvature was effective in estimating the sPAPRHC of patients with trivial tricuspid regurgitation (r = - 0.56) and in determining patients with sPAPRHC ≥ 70 mmHg with higher sensitivity (77.0%) compared to those with esPAPTRPG and esPAPLVEI. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the echocardiographic IVS curvature could be a useful additional tool for estimating sPAPRHC in CTEPH patients for whom accurate estimation of sPAPRHC using tricuspid regurgitant pressure gradient is challenging.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 324, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and pulmonary function testing (PFT) are noninvasive methods to evaluate the respiratory and circulatory systems. This research aims to evaluate and monitor chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) noninvasively and effectively by these two methods. Moreover, the research assesses the predictive value of CPET and PFT parameters for severe CTEPH. METHODS: We used data from 86 patients with CTEPH (55 for test set, and 31 for validation set) at the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University. The clinical, PFT and CPET data of CTEPH patients of different severity classified according to pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) (mm Hg) were collected and compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to appraise the predictive value of each PFT and CPET parameter for severe CTEPH. The performance of CPET parameters for predicting severe CTEPH was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calibration curves. RESULTS: Data showed that minute ventilation at anaerobic threshold (VE @ AT) (L/min) and oxygen uptake at peak (VO2 @ peak) (mL/kg/min) were independent predictors for severe CTEPH classified according to PAP (mm Hg). Additionally, the efficacy of VE @ AT (L/min) and VO2 @ peak (mL/kg/min) in identifying severe CTEPH was found to be moderate with the area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.769 and 0.740, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of VE @ AT (L/min) and VO2 @ peak (mL/kg/min) had a moderate utility value in identifying severe CTEPH with the AUC of 0.843. CONCLUSION: Our research suggests that CPET and PFT can noninvasively and effectively evaluate, monitor and predict the severity of CTEPH.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(5): 484-492, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668181

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increasing evidence has declared a hypercoagulable state in the coronavirus 2019 infection (COVID-19), while the etiology has remained a question. For the first time, the current study has aimed to compare the contributors of thromboembolism among those whose primary manifestations of COVID-19 were thrombosis vs the patients with a thrombotic event during the period of hospitalization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This case-control study has been conducted on 267 COVID-19 patients, including 59, 48, and 160 ones with an on-admission, in-hospital, and without a thrombotic event, respectively. The events were defined as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), ischemic cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), or acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The demographic, physical examination, clinical and laboratory assessments of the groups were compared. RESULTS: The DVT (OR: 5.18; 95% CI: 1.01-26.7), AMI (OR: 11.1; 95% CI: 2.36-52.3), and arterial thrombosis (OR: 5.93; 95% CI: 0.63-55.8) were significantly associated with an on-admission thrombosis compared to those who presented in-hospital events. Lower levels of oxygen saturation were the only significant predictor index inversely associated with on-admission thrombosis compared to those with an event during the hospital admission period. CONCLUSION: PTE development was the most common in-hospital thrombotic event, whereas other thromboembolism types were remarkably more often among cases with on-admission events. Oxygen saturation was the only predictor of premature thrombosis that was inversely associated with outpatient events.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tromboembolia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia
11.
Am J Cardiol ; 160: 106-111, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607645

RESUMO

The occurrence of venous thromboembolisms in patients with COVID-19 has been established. We sought to evaluate the clinical impact of thrombosis in patients with COVID-19 over the span of the pandemic to date. We analyzed patients with COVID-19 with a diagnosis of thrombosis who presented to the MedStar Health system (11 hospitals in Washington, District of Columbia, and Maryland) during the pandemic (March 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021). We compared the clinical course and outcomes based on the presence or absence of thrombosis and then, specifically, the presence of cardiac thrombosis. The cohort included 11,537 patients who were admitted for COVID-19. Of these patients, 1,248 had noncardiac thrombotic events and 1,009 had cardiac thrombosis (myocardial infarction) during their hospital admission. Of the noncardiac thrombotic events, 562 (45.0%) were pulmonary embolisms, 480 (38.5%) were deep venous thromboembolisms, and 347 (27.8%) were strokes. In the thrombosis arm, the mean age of the cohort was 64.5 ± 15.3 years, 53.3% were men, and the majority were African-American (64.9%). Patients with thrombosis tended to be older with more co-morbidities. The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher (16.0%) in patients with COVID-19 with concomitant non-cardiac thrombosis than in those without thrombosis (7.9%, p <0.001) but lower than in patients with COVID-19 with cardiac thrombosis (24.7%, p <0.001). In conclusion, patients with COVID-19 with thrombosis, especially cardiac thrombosis, are at higher risk for in-hospital mortality. However, this prognosis is not as grim as for patients with COVID-19 and cardiac thrombosis. Efforts should be focused on early recognition, evaluation, and intensifying antithrombotic management for these patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Trombose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Trombose Venosa/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , Trombose Coronária/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Trombose Venosa/complicações
12.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(9): e012347, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In acute pulmonary embolism, chest computed tomography angiography derived metrics, such as the right ventricle (RV): left ventricle ratio are routinely used for risk stratification. Paucity of intraparenchymal blood vessels has previously been described, but their association with clinical biomarkers and outcomes has not been studied. We sought to determine if small vascular volumes measured on computed tomography scans were associated with an abnormal RV on echocardiography and mortality. We hypothesized that decreased small venous volume would be associated with greater RV dysfunction and increased mortality. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of patients with intermediate risk pulmonary embolism admitted to Brigham and Women's Hospital between 2009 and 2017 was assembled, and clinical and radiographic data were obtained. We performed 3-dimensional reconstructions of vasculature to assess intraparenchymal vascular volumes. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariable regression and cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, sex, lung volume, and small arterial volume. RESULTS: Seven hundred twenty-two subjects were identified of whom 573 had documented echocardiography. A 50% reduction in small venous volume was associated with an increased risk of RV dilation (relative risk: 1.38 [95% CI, 1.18-1.63], P<0.001), RV dysfunction (relative risk: 1.62 [95% CI, 1.36-1.95], P<0.001), and RV strain (relative risk: 1.67 [95% CI, 1.37-2.04], P<0.001); increased cardiac biomarkers, and higher 30-day and 90-day mortality (hazard ratio: 2.50 [95% CI, 1.33-4.67], P=0.004 and hazard ratio: 1.84 [95% CI, 1.11-3.04], P=0.019, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Loss of small venous volume quantified from computed tomography angiography is associated with increased risk of abnormal RV on echocardiography, abnormal cardiac biomarkers, and higher risk of 30- and 90-day mortality. Small venous volume may be a useful marker for assessing disease severity in acute pulmonary embolism.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18797, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552142

RESUMO

Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) resected material offers a unique opportunity to develop an in vitro endothelial cell model of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We aimed to comprehensively analyze the endothelial function, molecular signature, and mitochondrial profile of CTEPH-derived endothelial cells to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction behind CTEPH, and to identify potential novel targets for the prevention and treatment of the disease. Isolated cells from specimens obtained at PEA (CTEPH-EC), were characterized based on morphology, phenotype, and functional analyses (in vitro and in vivo tubule formation, proliferation, apoptosis, and migration). Mitochondrial content, morphology, and dynamics, as well as high-resolution respirometry and oxidative stress, were also studied. CTEPH-EC displayed a hyperproliferative phenotype with an increase expression of adhesion molecules and a decreased apoptosis, eNOS activity, migration capacity and reduced angiogenic capacity in vitro and in vivo compared to healthy endothelial cells. CTEPH-EC presented altered mitochondrial dynamics, increased mitochondrial respiration and an unbalanced production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants. Our study is the foremost comprehensive investigation of CTEPH-EC. Modulation of redox, mitochondrial homeostasis and adhesion molecule overexpression arise as novel targets and biomarkers in CTEPH.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Apoptose , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Artéria Pulmonar/citologia , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia
15.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 465, 2021 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortoiliac occlusion disease, also called Leriche syndrome, is characterized by atherothrombotic obliteration of the aortic bifurcation and bilateral common iliac arteries; typically, it has a chronic presentation. Pulmonary embolism is more related to venous thromboembolism rather than arterial thromboembolic events. Therefore, cases of simultaneous acute Leriche syndrome and pulmonary embolism are rare. Existing intracardiac right-to-left shunt were detected in most previous cases. Herein, we present the first likely documented case wherein acute Leriche syndrome and pulmonary embolism occurred simultaneously without a patent foramen ovale. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old man with hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease presented with a 4-h history of bilateral lower limb numbness. He was a heavy smoker with a history of stroke. Computed tomography angiography revealed pulmonary embolism and aortoiliac artery occlusion. Although a massive thrombus straddled the bilateral pulmonary arteries, orthopnea was his only presentation, without right ventricle failure. Cyanosis of the affected limbs was noted, and muscle strength in both limbs had regressed to grade 1. Owing to acute limb ischemia, he underwent an emergency operation to salvage the limbs. On postoperative day 5, the general condition of both the legs improved; the muscle strength improved to grade 4. He was then transferred to the general ward and enoxaparin was continued. Computed tomography angiography was repeated to evaluate the pulmonary embolism on postoperative day 8; the thrombus remained lodged in the bilateral main pulmonary arteries. Owing to persistent orthopnea and chest tightness with intermittent tachycardia, he underwent a staged operation for the pulmonary embolism on postoperative day 13. During the surgery, intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography showed no patent foramen ovale or an existing right-to-left shunt. Postoperatively, he was closely monitored in the intensive care unit for 3 days and then transferred to the general ward for 10 days. A final computed tomography angiography performed on postoperative day 18 revealed thrombus resolution. He was then discharged on postoperative day 30 without any in-hospital complications. CONCLUSION: We present a case that might be the first documented report of acute Leriche syndrome co-occurring with pulmonary embolism without an existing patent foramen ovale.


Assuntos
Isquemia/etiologia , Síndrome de Leriche/complicações , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Isquemia/cirurgia , Síndrome de Leriche/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Leriche/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Leriche/cirurgia , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
16.
Emerg Med J ; 38(7): 361-363, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449417

RESUMO

A short cut review was carried out to establish the diagnostic characteristics of alveolar dead space fraction (AVDSf) in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). This is calculated from the arterial and end-tidal CO2 Three papers were selected to answer the clinical question. The author, study type, relevant outcomes, results and weaknesses are tabulated. It is concluded that there is good evidence to support the use of AVDSf within a clinical prediction model to exclude a PE in patients when there is a low pretest probability. However, the specificity is not sufficient to support it as a 'rule in' test.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Capnografia/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Capnografia/instrumentação , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia
17.
Respir Med ; 187: 106578, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) response teams (PERT) have been developed to improve in-hospital mortality. Identifying intermediate risk PE patients that will progress despite anticoagulation is difficult, especially because outcomes with modern anticoagulation are quite good. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of anticoagulation failure (new deep vein thrombosis or PE, right ventricular failure resulting in shock, cardiac arrest, or PE-attributable death) in intermediate risk PE patients managed by PERT. The secondary objective was to determine whether there was a significant decrease in heart rate 24 h after initiation of anticoagulation in intermediate risk PE. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of patients treated for acute intermediate risk PE at the University of Rochester Medical Center who also had outpatient followup between November 2016-June 2019. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients presented as intermediate-risk PE and had outpatient followup. Seventy-four patients were initially treated with anticoagulation. None of these patients failed anticoagulation. Of the eighteen intermediate risk patients that underwent advanced intervention, none failed anticoagulation first. There was significant decrease in resting heart rate 24 h after starting therapeutic anticoagulation, 107 beats/min vs 89 beats/min, p = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: We did not observe anticoagulation failure in the management of acute, intermediate risk PE. Reductions in heart rate may reflect improvements in right ventricular function; we hypothesize that those whose heart rate does not fall may be optimal candidates for advanced intervention.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Frequência Cardíaca , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Descanso/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Medição de Risco , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Direita
18.
Respir Med ; 186: 106525, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is impaired in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). The EmPHasis-10 and CAMPHOR questionnaires are developed to evaluate HRQoL specifically in patients with PH. Data on the longitudinal use of both questionnaires are still limited. We evaluated the longitudinal value of both questionnaires and established minimal clinically important differences (MCID). METHODS: Sixty-one treatment naïve pulmonary arterial hypertension or chronic thromboembolic patients were prospectively included. Patients were treated according to the current ESC/ERS guidelines. We compared EmPHasis-10 and CAMPHOR scores between baseline, 6 and 12 months of follow-up and evaluated the correlation between these scores and a 5-scale symptom severity score, 5-scale overall health score, NYHA-classification, 6 min walk test distance (6MWD), NT-proBNP and echocardiographic parameters. RESULTS: After one year of treatment a significant reduction in EmPHasis-10 score and CAMPHOR QoL and symptoms domain score was observed. Moderate to good correlations were observed between the questionnaires and the overall-health and symptom severity score and 6MWD. No relevant correlations were seen between the questionnaires and NT-pro-BNP and echocardiographic parameters. EmPHasis-10 scores showed strong correlations with all CAMPHOR domains. The MCID for the EmPHasis-10 questionnaire was -8. The MCIDs for the CAMPHOR domains were: activity -3, symptoms -4, QoL -3. CONCLUSION: The EmPHasis-10 and CAMPHOR questionnaires are valid tools for the longitudinal measurement of HRQoL in patients with PH. The much shorter EmPHasis-10 correlates well with the CAMPHOR domain scores and with the clinical endpoints and it may be easier to use in daily practice.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Embolia Pulmonar , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Teste de Caminhada
19.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 40(10): 1223-1234, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is delivered as a series of treatments for patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) however, there is little published data on the procedural determinants of outcome. METHODS: Pre- and post-BPA clinical and hemodynamic data, as well as serial hemodynamic and procedural data at each BPA session were evaluated to determine patient and procedure-related factors that influence hemodynamic response. RESULTS: Per procedure data from 210 procedures in 84 patients and per patient data from 182 procedures in 63 patients with completed treatment and 3-month follow-up were analyzed. A median of 3 (range 1-6) BPA procedures treating a median of 2 segments per procedure (range 1-3) were performed per patient with a median interval between procedures of 42 (range 5-491) days. Clinical outcome correlated with hemodynamic change (pulmonary vascular resistance [ΔPVR] vs Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review [CAMPHOR] symptom score: p < 0.001, Pearson's r = 0.48, n = 49). Responders to BPA had more severe disease at baseline and 37.5 % of non-responders were post-PEA. There was a dose-response relationship between per procedure and total number of segments treated and hemodynamic improvement (ΔPVR: 1 segment: -0.9%, 2: -14.5%, 3 or more: -16.1%, p < 0.001). Treating totally occluded vessels had a greater hemodynamic effect (mean pulmonary artery pressure [ΔmPAP]: sessions with occlusion: -8.0%, without occlusion treated: -3.2%, p < 0.05) without an increased complication rate. CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of clinical benefit is related to the hemodynamic effect of BPA which in turn is related to the number of segments treated and lesion severity. Patients who were post-PEA were less likely to respond to BPA.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Cateteres Cardíacos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/cirurgia , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 171(2): 198-201, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173102

RESUMO

Changes in pulmonary microcirculation were studied in isolated perfused rabbit lungs during modelling pulmonary thromboembolism under conditions of acetylcholine infusion against the background of treatment with M1 acetylcholine receptor blocker pirenzepine or blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with atropine. In the first case, the increase in pulmonary artery pressure was less pronounced than in case of atropine treatment. In response to pulmonary embolism after acetylcholine infusion against the background of pirenzepine pretreatment, the capillary hydrostatic pressure and postcapillary resistance did not change, while after atropine treatment, these parameters increased. In case of pulmonary embolism after acetylcholine infusion combined with selective blockade of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, the capillary filtration coefficient increased to a greater extent, than in the control and after blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Circulação Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Embolia Pulmonar , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Atropina/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitroglicerina/farmacologia , Circulação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Coelhos , Receptores Muscarínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia
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