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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0258843, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) exhibit a wide spectrum of clinical and laboratory features when presenting to hospital and pathophysiologic mechanisms differentiating low-risk and high-risk PE are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prognostic value of clinical, laboratory and radiological information that is available within routine tests undertaken for patients with acute PE. METHODS: Electronic patient records (EPR) of patients who underwent Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiogram (CTPA) scan for the investigation of acute PE during 6-month period (01.01.2016-30.06.2016) were examined. Data was gathered from EPR for patients that met inclusion criteria and all CTPA scans were re-evaluated. Biochemical thresholds of low-grade and high-grade inflammation, serum CRP >10mg/L and >150mg/L and serum albumin concentrations <35g/L and <25 g/L, were combined in the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and peri-operative Glasgow Prognostic Score (poGPS) respectively. Neutrophil Lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was also calculated. Pulmonary Embolus Severity Index score was calculated. RESULTS: Of the total CTPA reports (n = 2129) examined, 245 patients were eligible for inclusion. Of these, 20 (8%) patients had died at 28-days and 43 (18%) at 6-months. Of the 197 non-cancer related presentations, 28-day and 6-month mortality were 3% and 8% respectively. Of the 48 cancer related presentations, 28-day and 6-month mortality were 29% and 58% respectively. On univariate analysis, age ≥65 years (p<0.01), PESI score ≥100(p = <0.001), NLR ≥3(p<0.001) and Coronary Artery Calcification (CAC) score ≥ 6 (p<0.001) were associated with higher 28-day and 6-month mortality. PESI score ≥100 (OR 5.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 24.2, P <0.05), poGPS ≥1 (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2-5.0, P = 0.01) and NLR ≥3 (OR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.0-3.4, P <0.05) remained independently associated with 28-day mortality. On multivariate binary logistic regression analysis of factors associated with 6-month mortality, PESI score ≥100 (OR 6.2, 95% CI: 2.3-17.0, p<0.001) and coronary artery calcification score ≥6 (OR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1-4.8, p = 0.030) remained independently associated with death at 6-months. When patients who had an underlying cancer diagnosis were excluded from the analysis only GPS≥1 remained independently associated with 6-month mortality (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.2-22.0, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: PESI score >100, poGPS≥1, NLR ≥3 and CAC score ≥6 were associated with 28-day and 6-month mortality. PESI score ≥100, poGPS≥1 and NLR ≥3 remained independently associated with 28-day mortality. PESI score ≥100 and CAC score ≥6 remained independently associated with 6-month mortality. When patients with underlying cancer were excluded from the analysis, GPS≥1 remained independently associated with 6-month mortality. The role of the systemic inflammatory response (SIR) in determining treatment and prognosis requires further study. Routine reporting of CAC scores in CTPA scans for acute PE may have a role in aiding clinical decision-making regarding treatment and prognosis.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neutrófilos/patologia , Prognóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
2.
Am J Cardiol ; 161: 102-107, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794606

RESUMO

Multidisciplinary Pulmonary Embolism Response Teams (PERTs) may improve the care of patients with a high risk of pulmonary embolism (PE). The impact of a PERT on long-term mortality has never been evaluated. An observational analysis was conducted of 137 patients before PERT implementation (between 2014 and 2015) and 231 patients after PERT implementation (between 2016 and 2019), presenting to the emergency department of an academic medical center with submassive and massive PE. The primary outcome was 6-month mortality, evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. PERT was associated with a sustained reduction in mortality through 6 months (6-month mortality rates of 14% post-PERT vs 24% pre-PERT, unadjusted hazard ratio of 0.57, Relative Risk Reduction of 43%, p = 0.025). There was a reduced length of stay following PERT implementation (9.1 vs 6.5 days, p = 0.007). Time from triage to a diagnosis of PE was independently predictive of mortality, and the risk of mortality was reduced by 5% for each hour earlier that the diagnosis was made. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate an association between PERT implementation and a sustained reduction in 6-month mortality for patients with high-risk PE.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/normas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Am J Cardiol ; 157: 125-127, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373080

RESUMO

In this investigation we explore whether assessment of the risk of mortality can be refined by stratifying high-risk patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) according to whether they had cardiac arrest. We stratified high-risk patients according to whether they had shock but no cardiac arrest, or cardiac arrest diagnosed in the emergency department (ED). This was a retrospective cohort study based on administrative data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), 2016. Included patients were 274,227 who were admitted to the same hospital as the ED or died in the ED. This was 77% of 354,616 patients with pulmonary embolism seen in the ED in 2016. Patients were identified based on International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) Codes. High-risk with no cardiac arrest were 4,317 of 274,227 (1.6%) and high-risk with cardiac arrest were 1,027 of 274,227 (0.4%). Mortality of high-risk patients who did not have cardiac arrest was 1,753 of 4,317 (41%). Mortality of high-risk patients who had cardiac arrest was 754 of 1027 (74%). Mortality increased with age in high-risk patients who did not have cardiac arrest, but mortality was not age-related in high-risk patients with cardiac arrest. In conclusion, high-risk patients with PE are a heterogeneous group and stratification according to whether they had cardiac arrest refines risk assessment.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16025, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362946

RESUMO

To determine, in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, the associations of pulmonary embolism (PE) with mortality and risk factors for PE as well as the therapeutic benefit of anticoagulant prophylaxis. Embase, PubMed, Cochrane controlled trials register, and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to October 10, 2020. We included all published trials on PE in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 with eligibility of the trials assessed following the PRISMA guidelines. Sixteen clinical trials with 5826 patients were eligible. There were significant associations of PE with the male gender [odd ratio (OR) = 1.59, 95% CI 1.28-1.97], mechanical ventilation (OR = 3.71, 95% CI 2.57-5.36), intensive care unit admission (OR = 2.99, 95% CI 2.11-4.23), circulating D-dimer [mean difference (MD) = 5.04 µg/mL, 95% CI 3.67-6.42) and CRP (MD = 1.97 mg/dL, 95% CI 0.58- 3.35) concentrations without significant correlation between PE and mortality (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 0.82-2.08) as well as other parameters or comorbidities. After omitting one trial with strict patient selection criteria for anticoagulant prophylaxis, significant prophylactic benefit was noted (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.1-0.91). Our findings identified the risk factors associated with PE in COVID-19 patients and supported the therapeutic benefit of anticoagulant prophylaxis against PE in this patient population.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais
5.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 395-405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262284

RESUMO

Purpose: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is common among the severely injured and may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE), which can be life threatening. Thromboprophylaxis may reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE); it does not guarantee complete protection. This study's primary aim was to determine the incidence and nature of lower-limb DVT in polytrauma patients taking prophylaxis. The secondary objective was to assess the incidence of DVT-related complications, including the development of PE and death. Patients and Methods: This prospective observational study included patients age 18 years or older who presented with polytrauma directly from the scene and were admitted into the trauma unit between March 1, 2020 and August 31, 2020. All patients underwent lower-limb ultrasound during their hospital course to diagnose DVT. Results: A total of 169 patients underwent extremity Doppler ultrasound to detect DVT. Of these, 69 patients (40.8%) were considered at the highest-risk for VTE development. For VTE prophylaxis, 115 patients (68%) received pharmacologic agents, and 54 patients (32%) had intermittent pneumatic compression on admission. Three patients (1.8%) developed DVT despite prophylaxis. Four patients (2.4%) developed PE during the index presentation and were diagnosed between days 3 and 13 after injury. Early DVT was not detected in any patients with diagnosed PE. Overall, nine patients (5.33%) died, but no in-hospital deaths were related to DVT and/or PE. Conclusion: The incidence of DVT in polytrauma patients remains low in our small series, perhaps because of the mandatory VTE risk assessment for all hospitalized patients and the early initiation of prophylaxis. Using a trauma center registry to measure DVT and PE incidence regularly is recommended to improve trauma care quality.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Traumatismo Múltiplo/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14909, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290322

RESUMO

Previous studies on the adverse events of acute pulmonary embolism (APE) were mostly limited to single marker, and short follow-up duration, from hospitalization to up to 30 days. We aimed to predict the long-term prognosis of patients with APE by joint assessment of D-dimer, N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-ProBNP), and troponin I (cTnI). Newly diagnosed patients of APE from January 2011 to December 2015 were recruited from three hospitals. Medical information of the patients was collected retrospectively by reviewing medical records. Adverse events (APE recurrence and all-cause mortality) of all enrolled patients were followed up via telephone. D-dimer > 0.50 mg/L, NT-ProBNP > 500 pg/mL, and cTnI > 0.40 ng/mL were defined as the abnormal. Kaplan-Meier curve was used to compare the cumulative survival rate between patients with different numbers of abnormal markers. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to further test the association between numbers of abnormal markers and long-term prognosis of patients with APE after adjusting for potential confounding. During follow-up, APE recurrence and all-cause mortality happened in 78 (30.1%) patients. The proportion of APE recurrence and death in one abnormal marker, two abnormal markers, and three abnormal markers groups were 7.69%, 28.21%, and 64.10% respectively. Patients with three abnormal markers had the lowest survival rate than those with one or two abnormal markers (Log-rank test, P < 0.001). After adjustment, patients with two or three abnormal markers had a significantly higher risk of the total adverse event compared to those with one abnormal marker. The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 6.27 (3.24, 12.12) and 10.7 (4.1, 28.0), respectively. Separate analyses for APE recurrence and all-cause death found similar results. A joint test of abnormal D-dimer, NT-ProBNP, and cTnI in APE patients could better predict the long-term risk of APE recurrence and all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Troponina I/sangue , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recidiva , Risco
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(13): e021117, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210156

RESUMO

Background In the United States, hospitalizations for pulmonary embolism (PE) are increasing among older adults insured by Medicare. Although efforts to reduce health disparities have intensified, it remains unclear whether clinical outcomes differ between socioeconomically disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with PE. Methods and Results In this study, there were 53 386 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries age ≥65 years hospitalized for PE between October 2015 and January 2017. Of these, 5494 (10.3%) were socioeconomically disadvantaged and 47 892 (89.7%) were nondisadvantaged. Socioeconomically disadvantaged adults were of similar age as nondisadvantaged adults (77.1 versus 77.0), more likely to be female (68.5% versus 54.2%), and less likely to receive advanced therapies (11.0% versus 12.1%). After adjustment for demographics, 90-day all-cause mortality rates were similar between disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged adults. In contrast, 1-year mortality rates were higher among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.10-1.22), although these differences were partially attenuated after additional adjustments for comorbidities and PE severity (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16). Risk-adjusted 30-day and 90-day all-cause readmission rates were substantially higher among socioeconomically disadvantaged patients (30-day HR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.06-1.22]; 90-day HR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.12-1.25]). In addition, 90-day readmissions attributed to PE, deep vein thrombosis, and/or bleeding were higher among socioeconomically disadvantaged patients (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32). Conclusions Socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults hospitalized with PE have higher 1-year mortality rates compared with their nondisadvantaged counterparts. Nearly 1 in 3 socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults was readmitted within 90 days of a hospitalization for PE. Targeted strategies are needed to improve transitional and ambulatory care for this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Readmissão do Paciente , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Classe Social , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Prognóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
9.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1123): 20210264, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Early in the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a high frequency of pulmonary embolism was identified. This audit aims to assess the frequency and severity of pulmonary embolism in 2020 compared to 2019. METHODS: In this retrospective audit, we compared computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) frequency and pulmonary embolism severity in April and May 2020, compared to 2019. Pulmonary embolism severity was assessed with the Modified Miller score and the presence of right heart strain was assessed. Demographic information and 30-day mortality was identified from electronic health records. RESULTS: In April 2020, there was a 17% reduction in the number of CTPA performed and an increase in the proportion identifying pulmonary embolism (26%, n = 68/265 vs 15%, n = 47/320, p < 0.001), compared to April 2019. Patients with pulmonary embolism in 2020 had more comorbidities (p = 0.026), but similar age and sex compared to 2019. There was no difference in pulmonary embolism severity in 2020 compared to 2019, but there was an increased frequency of right heart strain in May 2020 (29 vs 12%, p = 0.029). Amongst 18 patients with COVID-19 and pulmonary embolism, there was a larger proportion of males and an increased 30 day mortality (28% vs 6%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a reduction in the number of CTPA scans performed and an increase in the frequency of CTPA scans positive for pulmonary embolism. Patients with both COVID-19 and pulmonary embolism had an increased risk of 30-day mortality compared to those without COVID-19. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of CTPA performed decreased and the proportion of positive CTPA increased. Patients with both pulmonary embolism and COVID-19 had worse outcomes compared to those with pulmonary embolism alone.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 139: 106883, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091065

RESUMO

The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has deeply challenged the world population, but also our medical knowledge. Special attention has been paid early to an activation of coagulation, then to an elevated rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. These data suggested that anticoagulant drugs should be evaluated in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The publication of unexpected high rates of VTE in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, despite receiving thromboprophylaxis, open the way to dedicated trials, evaluating modified regimens of thromboprophylaxis. Moreover, the further improvement in our comprehension of the disease, particularly the pulmonary endothelial dysfunction increased the hope that anticoagulant drugs may also protect patients from pulmonary thrombosis. In this comprehensive review, we cover the different situations where thromboprophylaxis standard may be modified (medically-ill inpatients, ICU inpatients, outpatients), and describe some of the current randomized controls trials evaluating new regimens of thromboprophylaxis in patients with COVID-19, including the preliminary available results. We also discuss the potential of anticoagulant drugs to target the thromboinflammation described in patients with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/mortalidade
11.
Radiol Med ; 126(8): 1030-1036, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the first-line test in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) diagnostic algorithm, but its correlation with short-term outcome remains not clear at all. The aim is to determine whether CTPA findings can predict 30-day mortality of patients with APE in Emergency Department. METHODS: This retrospective monocentric study involved 780 patients with APE diagnosed at the Emergency Department of our institution (period 2010-2019). These CTPA findings were evaluated: embolic obstruction burden score (Qanadli score), common pulmonary artery trunk diameter, right-to-left ventricular ratio, azygos vein and coronary sinus diameters. Comorbidities and fatal/nonfatal adverse outcomes within 30 days were recorded. Troponin I values were correlated with angiographic parameters with multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The all-cause and APE-related 30-day mortality rates were 5.9% and 3.6%, respectively. Patients who died within 30 days were older with higher prevalence rates of malignancy. Qanadli score and all CTPA parameters correlate with Troponin I level and the presence of RVD at echocardiography (p values < 0.0001). Instead, RV/LV ratio and coronary sinus diameter correlate with 30-day mortality (p values < 0.05). At the multivariate logistic regression analysis, only coronary sinus and RVD remained significant with an HR = 2.5 (95% CI 1.1-5.6) and HR = 1.9 (95% CI 0.95-3.7), respectively. CONCLUSION: CTPA quantification of right ventricular strain is an accurate predictor of 30-day mortality. In particular, it seems that a dilated coronary sinus (>9 mm) has an additional prognostic value in association with echocardiographic signs of right-heart disfunction and high Troponin I levels.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25571, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior reports have suggested that the red blood cell distribution width (RDW) parameter could be measured as a prognostic indicator in pulmonary embolism (PE) patients, thereby helping to guide their care. However, no systematic analyses on this topic have been completed to date, and the exact relationship between RDW and PE remains to be fully clarified. We will therefore conduct a systematic literature review with the goal of defining the correlation between RDW and mortality in acute PE cases. METHODS: The EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane Library databases will be searched for all relevant studies published from inception through March 2021 using the following search strategy: ("red blood cell distribution width") AND ("pulmonary embolism"). Two authors will independently identify eligible studies and extract data. The Q and I2 statistics will be used to judge heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS: This study will establish the relative efficacy of RDW as a metric for predicting PE patient mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study will offer a reliable, evidence-based foundation for the clinical utilization of RDW as a tool for gauging mortality risk in acute PE patients. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: As this is a protocol for a systematic review of previously published data, no ethical approval is required. Electronic dissemination of study results will be done through a peer-review publication or represented at a related conference.


Assuntos
Índices de Eritrócitos , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Doença Aguda/mortalidade , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Admissão do Paciente , Prognóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
13.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 362-371, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication of COVID-19, so that the importance of adequate in-hospital thromboprophylaxis in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is well established. However, the incidence of VTE after discharge and whether postdischarge thromboprophylaxis is beneficial and safe are unclear. In this prospective observational single-center study, we report the incidence of VTE 6 weeks after hospitalization and the use of postdischarge thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 were invited to a multidisciplinary follow-up clinic 6 weeks after discharge. D-dimer and C-reactive protein were measured, and all patients were screened for deep vein thrombosis with venous duplex-ultrasound. Additionally, selected high-risk patients received computed tomography pulmonary angiogram or ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan to screen for incidental pulmonary embolism. RESULTS: Of 485 consecutive patients hospitalized from March through June 2020, 146 patients were analyzed, of which 39% had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Postdischarge thromboprophylaxis was prescribed in 28% of patients, but was used more frequently after ICU stay (61%) and in patients with higher maximal D-dimer and C-reactive protein levels during hospitalization. Six weeks after discharge, elevated D-dimer values were present in 32% of ward and 42% of ICU patients. Only one asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (0.7%) and one symptomatic pulmonary embolism (0.7%) were diagnosed with systematic screening. No bleedings were reported. CONCLUSION: In patients who had been hospitalized with COVID-19, systematic screening for VTE 6 weeks after discharge revealed a low incidence of VTE. A strategy of selectively providing postdischarge thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients seems safe and potentially effective.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , COVID-19 , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Alta do Paciente , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Tromboembolia Venosa , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/mortalidade , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle
14.
Orthop Surg ; 13(3): 958-965, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for, and outcomes of, preoperative asymptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients ≥60 years old following delayed operation for hip fracture. METHODS: From March 2017 to December 2018, 90 patients aged ≥60 years with hip fracture who suffered a delay in surgery were recruited to this prospective study following admission to our hospital. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) was used to detect preoperative asymptomatic PE and calculated its incidence. Time from injury to admission, baseline characteristics, medical comorbidities, and blood biomarker levels were evaluated as potential risk factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors. Mortality and major bleeding events were recorded and compared between individuals with PE and without. Data were analyzed by t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of preoperative asymptomatic PE was 18.9% (17/90 patients). In the univariate analysis, the risk factors for preoperative asymptomatic PE were male sex, hypertension, cerebrovascular accident, smoking, plasma D-dimer level, potassium level, urea level, creatinine level, and cysteine level. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of preoperative asymptomatic PE was higher in patients with hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 10.048; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.118-90.333), cerebrovascular accident (OR = 20.135; 95% CI, 1.875-216.164), smoking (OR = 48.741; 95% CI, 4.155-571.788), high plasma D-dimer levels (OR = 1.200; 95% CI, 1.062-157.300), and high plasma potassium levels (OR = 12.928; 95% CI, 1.062-157.300). All patients were followed up for 21.0 months (range, 2 to 36 months). Mortality within the first year postoperatively was higher in patients with PE (29.41% vs 9.59%, P = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: In view of the high incidence of preoperative asymptomatic PE and the inferior prognosis in individuals with PE, routine CTPA examination for preoperative asymptomatic PE could be useful for patients aged ≥60 years with hip fracture for whom surgery is delayed.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Tempo para o Tratamento
15.
Vasc Med ; 26(4): 415-425, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818197

RESUMO

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism events (VTE). This study performed a systematic review in PubMed/EMBASE of studies reporting the prevalence of VTE in patients with COVID-19 who were totally screened/assessed for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or for pulmonary embolism (PE). Among 47 candidate studies (n = 6459; 33 in Europe), 17 studies (n = 3973; weighted age 63.0 years, males 60%, intensive care unit (ICU) 16%) reported the prevalence of PE with a pooled estimate of 32% (95% CI: 25, 40%), and 32 studies (n = 2552; weighted age 62.6 years, males 57%, ICU 49%) reported the prevalence of DVT with a pooled estimate of 27% (95% CI: 21, 34%). A total of 36 studies reported the use of at least prophylactic antithrombotic treatment in the majority of their patients. Meta-regression analysis showed that the prevalence of VTE was higher across studies with a higher percentage of ICU patients and higher study population mean D-dimer values, and lower in studies with mixed dosing of anticoagulation in ⩾ 50% of the population compared to studies with standard prophylactic dosing of anticoagulation in < 50% of the population. The pooled odds ratio for death in patients with COVID-19 and VTE versus those without VTE (17 studies, n = 2882) was 2.1 (95% CI: 1.2, 3.6). Hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 are at high VTE risk despite prophylactic anticoagulation. Further research should investigate the individualized VTE risk of patients with COVID-19 and the optimal preventive antithrombotic therapy. PROSPERO Registration No.: CRD42020185543.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Vasc Med ; 26(4): 426-433, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818200

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may predispose patients to venous thromboembolism (VTE). Limited data are available on the utilization of the Pulmonary Embolism Response Team (PERT) in the setting of the COVID-19 global pandemic. We performed a single-center study to evaluate treatment, mortality, and bleeding outcomes in patients who received PERT consultations in March and April 2020, compared to historical controls from the same period in 2019. Clinical data were abstracted from the electronic medical record. The primary study endpoints were inpatient mortality and GUSTO moderate-to-severe bleeding. The frequency of PERT utilization was nearly threefold higher during March and April 2020 (n = 74) compared to the same period in 2019 (n = 26). During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was significantly less PERT-guided invasive treatment (5.5% vs 23.1%, p = 0.02) with a numerical but not statistically significant trend toward an increase in the use of systemic fibrinolytic therapy (13.5% vs 3.9%, p = 0.3). There were nonsignificant trends toward higher in-hospital mortality or moderate-to-severe bleeding in patients receiving PERT consultations during the COVID-19 period compared to historical controls (mortality 14.9% vs 3.9%, p = 0.18 and moderate-to-severe bleeding 35.1% vs 19.2%, p = 0.13). In conclusion, PERT utilization was nearly threefold higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than during the historical control period. Among patients evaluated by PERT, in-hospital mortality or moderate-to-severe bleeding were not significantly different, despite being numerically higher, while invasive therapy was utilized less frequently during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/tendências , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade
17.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211008988, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813911

RESUMO

Coagulation abnormalities have been reported in COVID-19 patients, which may lead to an increased risk of Pulmonary Embolism (PE). We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients diagnosed with PE during their hospital stay. We analyzed patients with PE and COVID-19 in a tertiary center in Mexico City from April to October of 2020. A total of 26 (100%) patients were diagnosed with Pulmonary Embolism and COVID-19. We observed that 14 (54%) patients were receiving either prophylactic or full anticoagulation therapy, before PE diagnosis. We found a significant difference in mortality between the group with less than 7 days (83%) and the group with more than 7 days (15%) in Intensive Care Unit (P = .004); as well as a mean of 8 days for the mortality group compared with 20 days of hospitalization in the survivor group (P = .003). In conclusion, there is an urgent need to review antithrombotic therapy in these patients in order to improve clinical outcomes and decrease hospital overload.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807848

RESUMO

The relationship between inflammation and venous thrombosis is not well understood. An inflammatory response may be both the cause and consequence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). In fact, several risk factors of VTE modulate thrombosis through inflammatory markers. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is burdened by a remarkable mortality rate, up to 34% in severely ill patients presenting with hemodynamic instability. Initial mortality risk stratification is based on hemodynamic instability. Patients with a situation of hemodynamic stability require immediate further risk assessment based on clinical, imaging, and circulating biomarkers, as well as the presence of comorbidities. Some inflammatory biomarkers have shown potential usefulness in the risk stratification of patients with VTE, especially acute PE. C-reactive protein on admission is associated with 30-day mortality and bleeding in VTE patients. P-selectin is associated with right ventricle dysfunction in PE patients and might be associated with VTE recurrences and the extension of thrombosis. Tissue factor microparticles are associated with VTE recurrence in cancer-associated thrombosis. Other inflammatory biomarkers present scarce evidence (inflammatory cytokines, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fibrinogen, leukocyte count). In this manuscript, we will review the prognostic role of different inflammatory biomarkers available both for clinical practice and research in VTE patients.


Assuntos
Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Selectina-P/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/mortalidade
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913549

RESUMO

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/patologia , Plaquetas/virologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/complicações , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/mortalidade , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/virologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/virologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211010241, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926251

RESUMO

Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is one of the prominent causes of death in patients with cardiovascular disease. Currently, reliable biomarkers to predict the prognosis of patients with APE are limited. The present study aimed to investigate the association of blood urea nitrogen to serum albumin (B/A) ratio and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in critically ill patients with APE. A retrospective cohort study was performed using data extracted from a freely accessible critical care database (MIMIC-III). Adult (≥18 years) patients of first ICU admission with a primary diagnosis of APE in the database were enrolled in the study. The primary endpoint was the ICU mortality rate while the 28-day mortality after ICU admission was the secondary endpoint. The data of survivors and non-survivors were compared. A total of 1048 patients with APE were enrolled in this study, of which 131 patients died in ICU and 169 patients died within 28 days after ICU admission. The B/A ratio in the non-survivors group was significantly higher compared to the survivors group (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis revealed that the B/A ratio was an independent predictor of ICU mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.10, 95% CI 1.07-1.14, P < 0.001) and all-cause mortality within 28 days after ICU admission (hazard ratio [HR] 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, P < 0.001) in APE patients. The B/A ratio showed a greater area under the curve (AUC) of ICU mortality prediction (0.80; P < 0.001) than simplified acute physiology score II (SAPSII) (0.79), systemic inflammatory response syndrome score (SIRS) (0.62), acute physiology score III (APSIII) (0.76) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score (0.71). The B/A ratio could be a simple and useful prognostic tool to predict mortality in critically ill patients with APE.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
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